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The Missing Skeletons and 
the Great Smithsonian Cover-Up 

Richard |. Dewhurst 

Bear & Company 

Rochester, Vermont • Toronto, Canada 


“This is the most comprehensive and level approach to the subject 
of giant humanoids in Earth’s past to have ever been published. 
The most appealing aspect is that Dewhurst has collected a vast 
array of primary sources and presents them here. Reading one 
newspaper discovery after another of giant skeletons and artifacts is 
perhaps the most compelling reason to question the standard lines 
we are given about humanity’s origins. When coupled with his 
persuasive theories explaining why the Smithsonian would actively 
cover up such discoveries, you have one valuable and entertaining 
read! Highly recommended.” 

Robert R. Hieronimus, Ph.D., author of Founding Fathers, 
Secret Societies and host of 21st Century Radio 

“Giants in ancient America? You bet! It’s all here in Richard 
Dewhurst’s fabulous book. Extensively illustrated and chronicled 
with firsthand accounts from early 19th- and 20th-century news 
clippings, this book will shatter the mainstream academic teachings 
that continue to ignore and cover up the role giants played in early 
American history.” 

Xaviant Haze, author of Aliens in Ancient Egypt and coauthor of 

The Suppressed History of America 

“At last, a comprehensive sourcebook that demystifies the giants of 
ancient America. Lavishly illustrated, this goliath and gutsy book 
delivers an unprecedented wealth of information on the great 
mound builders. Dewhurst digs deeper than the rest. Don’t miss it.” 

Susan B. Martinez, Ph.D., author of Lost History of the Little 
People and The Mysterious Origins of Hybrid Man 


Giant gratitude to my wife, Maxine, and son, Charles, for their 
continued love and support, without which this book would have been 
impossible. Giant bro’ love to Doug Grant, Ben Edmonds, Tom 
McGowan, Jay Kriss, Derek Crockett, Bruce Marshall, and Ehud 
Sperling, president of Inner Traditions, for their friendship and 
inspiration along life’s often perilous and bizarre journey. Giant respect 
to all the wonderful people at Inner Traditions who made this book 
possible: Jon Graham, for his great eye and greater mind; Mindy 
Branstetter, for her admirable patience and meticulous editing; Jeanie 
Levitan, for her wise guidance; Nancy Yeilding, for shaping the 
manuscript into its final form; and Cyndi Marcotte, for keeping it all 
together. And finally, giant thanks to the Quarry Hill community for 
providing me with shelter from the storm. 

The eyes of that species of extinct Giants, whose bones fill the 
mounds of America, have gazed on Niagara, as ours do now. 

Abraham Lincoln, 1848 


Cover Imag e 

Title Page 



Preface: On Being Tall and My Fascination with Giants 

Introduction: Uncovering the Real History of America 

Part I 


Chapter 1: How Big Were They? 
















Chapter 2: North America 

Land of the Giants 




















Chapter 3: How Old? 

Clues from Mastodons and Carbon Dating 







Chapter 4: Copper-Crowned Kings and Pearl-Bedecked 









Part II 


Chapter 5: Pyramids and Pictorial Mounds 






















Chapter 6: Cities in Circles and Lines 










Chapter 7: A Copper Kingdom and Mica Mines 








Chapter 8: Treasures of Giant Burial Grounds 









Part III 


Chapter 9: Holy Stones, a Calendar Stele, and Foreign 













Chapter 10: Extremely Ancient Red-Haired Mummies 











Chapter 11; Megalithic Catalina 

The Blond-Haired Children of the Nine-Feet-Tall Kings 


Chapter 12: Insights into Origins 












About the Author 

About Inner Traditions • Bear & Company 

Books of Related Interest 

Copyright & Permissions 



On Being Tall and My Fascination 

with Giants 

I discovered that I was going to be tall one fateful year between the 
seventh and eighth grades when I grew eight inches. My unnatural 
growth spurt so alarmed my mother that she set up an appointment with 
our family physician to see if there was “something wrong with me.” 
Needless to say, I found all this extremely upsetting. The thought that 
there was something wrong with me had never occurred to me before, 
and the prospect of suddenly looming over my once “peer-friendly” 
classmates was also deeply unsettling. 

Before my growth spurt, my best friend was Phil Whitcomb, who 
was shorter than me, but no one ever commented on it. After my 
growth spurt, we were immediately dubbed Mutt and Jeff. Phil hated 
being called Mutt in my presence, and it eventually led to a cooling of 
our lifelong friendship. From this I learned that being tall has its 
consequences, and being called a freak was one of them. 

Another component of being tall was an immediate interest in giant 
stories. Thus the kernel for this book was born. Over the years, I took 
an immediate interest in various reports of giants, and when they were 
referenced in a newspaper account, I always gave them more credence. 
The only problem was that every time I tried to chase such articles 
down to their full-length, original newspaper nubs, I mostly came up 
with a shortened blurb or nothing at all. 

In order to finally get to the bottom of the mystery of the giants, I 
subscribed to several online newspaper archive services that covered 
over four hundred years of newspaper accounts from the United States. 
I then tried to search out the cross-referenced articles I had compiled 
over the years. When I was able to specifically search with date and 
publication, I got results, but on average I only found about 25 percent 
of the articles I was searching for. Lacking dates and publications, how 
was I going to crack this thing? 


Then one day, out of sheer frustration, I put on my old Miami Herald 
editor’s hat and began thinking about how a typical sensationalistic 
newspaper headline would read. My reasoning was that if dates 
couldn’t crack it, then word search could. My first headline search was 
for “Giant Skeletons Unearthed.” No dates, no publications, just pure 
sensationalism and the hope that the word search would come up with 
something. Almost immediately the search engine spit back more than 
thirty hits, and I was off to the races. More headlines were fed in: 
“Amazing Giants,” “Giant Skulls Found,” “Secret Cave Reveals 
Startling Discovery,” “Smithsonian Discovers Giant Skeletons,” and so 
on. Within a month I had archived several hundred articles on various 
giant finds across the entire country. What I found changed my 
thinking about myth and history forever. 

I sincerely hope that reading this book will change your thinking as 
much as it did mine. 



Uncovering the Real History of 


Writing this book has been the most exciting voyage of discovery I 
have ever taken. What started as a somewhat idle inquiry into clouded 
reports of giants—in and of itself not that groundbreaking—ended with 
my having to rethink everything I ever learned in school. After all, 
we’ve all heard of giants before. What we have not heard is that these 
people were as real as you and me. 

But the most important thing about this book for me was not 
discovering that giants were real, although in these pages we will most 
definitely see the historical evidence of that fact. What really surprised 
me was discovering something very much more shocking: the truth 
about the early history of America and the people who lived here. 

Long before the so-called “discovery of America,” this land was 
populated by very ancient peoples, some of whom were of enormous 
size, as attested to by the numerous reports of giant finds, a sampling of 
which is presented in the first two chapters. Those reports make it clear 
that in the nineteenth century such finds were common knowledge 
around the country. When carbon dating became available in the 
twentieth century, earlier estimates of the age of the remains were 
increased by many magnitudes: with ranges from five thousand to 
fourteen thousand years! I examine the reports of these extraordinary 
results in chapter 3, in addition to finds linking some of those early, 
magnificent humans with mastodons (which became extinct some 
twenty thousand years ago). Not surprisingly, many finds indicate that 
the giants were royal beings, as the reports of copper crowns and pearl 
robes in chapter 4 make clear. 

While certain monuments and parks in various parts of the country 
offer silent testimony to the creative efforts of these early peoples, few 
of us are aware of the true scope of the mounds and cities that once 


revealed advanced ancient civilizations. In chapter 5 we take a closer 
look at studies and reports about pyramids and pictorial mounds, while 
in chapter 6 we learn of discoveries of once-thriving cities most of us 
have never heard of. 

When we learn of the importance of the copper mines in upper 
Michigan at Isle Royale and the mica mines of North Carolina, reported 
on in chapter 7, we must necessarily take a deep breath and think. What 
are the mines telling us? They are telling us that as early as 10,000 
BCE, Americans were mining mica for ornaments as well as mining 
and refining copper into weapons, jewelry, and exquisite grave goods. 
Along with the “buried treasures” spoken of in chapter 8 and later 
chapters, reports and studies of the mines make it clear that this land 
was home to very ancient, fully developed, sophisticated cultures 
capable of fine weaving, mummification, beautiful artworks, and even 
duck decoys so expertly crafted you’d think a New England decoy 
maker had made them in his workshop today. 

Discrepancies between the amount of copper estimated to have been 
mined and findings of copper in the country hint at worldwide trade in 
those very ancient times. In fact, a long history of pre-Columbian 
European and Asian contact is evidenced all over the continent, as seen 
in artifacts like the Roman coins and engraved tablets examined in 
reports in chapter 9 or the existence of red-haired, blue-eyed Mandans 
of North Dakota or the nine-thousand-year-old Caucasian mummies of 
Spirit Cave in Nevada, reported on in chapter 10. Some still argue that 
there was no European contact; even when confronted with the 
evidence of the Florida bog mummies—hundreds of red-haired corpses 
so perfectly preserved that their hair and brain tissue can be seen and 
tested—they still refuse to give up the old historical canards. The 
reports given in chapter 10 give rise to questions about whether these 
were the red-haired ancestors of the later Europeans and not the other 
way around. Added to this are the startling reports of finds of seven- 
thousand-year-old skeletons of a race of blond-haired giants along with 
the remains of a megalithic “Stonehenge-era” temple on Catalina Island 
in California given in chapter 11. The suggestions about possible far- 
flung genetic and cultural connections shared in chapter 12 provide 
fascinating material for musing on, offering insights regarding very 
ancient travel and cultures, north and south, east and west. Only true 


historical inquiry, unclouded by prejudice, will eventually tell us the 

But what we have instead is a perfect storm of wrong-headed 
thinking in order to protect current scientific theory. And central to the 
promotion of wrong-headed thinking has been the Smithsonian 
Institution, an institution originally intended to “increase the diffusion 
of knowledge among men.” Although scant official papers exist to 
attest to its purpose beyond that statement, its true mission to unearth 
the real history of America is evidenced by its first commissioned and 
published book. Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, written 
in 1848 by Ephraim G. Squier and Edwin H. Davis. This lavishly 
illustrated work is an invaluable and open-minded study of the huge 
number of earthworks found along the Mississippi River. 

But something happened after that promising beginning. What my 
research has revealed is that the Smithsonian has been at the center of a 
vast cover-up of America’s true history since the 1880s. The 
Smithsonian was originally founded in 1829 with a $500,000 grant 
from the British mineralogist James Smithson, who never visited the 
United States, died without heirs, and was buried in Genoa, Italy. A 
sign of the Smithsonian’s utter disregard for history is that Smithson’s 
body was reburied at the Smithsonian Castle in the twentieth century in 
a sarcophagus that lists his age at death as seventy-five, when it is 
common knowledge that he was closer to sixty-five when he died. 



Fig. 1.1. This Library of Congress image was used as the frontispiece for the 
150th-anniversary reissue of Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley by 

Squier and Davis. 

After the Civil War the Smithsonian began to adopt a policy of 
excluding any evidence of direct foreign influence in the Americas 
prior to Columbus. Some have argued that it was an attempt by the 
fractured post-Civil War government to downplay any regional and 
ethnic conflicts in the still fragile national rebuilding after the war. 
Others have pointed to the expansionist policies incorporated in the 
doctrine of manifest destiny and the desire to obscure the origins of the 
tribes being displaced and annihilated by westward expansion. Still 
others have alleged that it was a direct religious policy adapted to 
counter the growing problem with the Mormon religion and its 
assertions that the lost tribes of Israel were to be found in America. 

All of these policies can be directly traced to Major John Wesley 
Powell and his tenure at the Smithsonian from 1879 to 1902. Powell 
was a geologist and explorer who led expeditions and conducted 
surveys of the American West. In 1869 he set out by boat to explore the 
Colorado River from the Green River, Wyoming Territory to the foot 
of the Grand Canyon. 


When Congress created the Bureau of Ethnology in 1879 Powell was 
named its first director, a post he held until his death in 1902. Placed 
under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, the bureau, whose 
name was changed to the Bureau of American Ethnology, was to be the 
repository of the archives, records, and material relating to the Indians 
of North America. Because of his experience as a Western explorer, 
Powell was considered an expert on the geography of the American 
West, and he was asked to write a report on the history of the ancient 
tribes and their probable origins, which was to become the official 
policy of the Smithsonian for the next hundred-plus years. 

The title of Powell’s first report to the secretary of the Smithsonian 
in 1879, “On Limitations to the Use of Some Anthropologic Data,” is 
revealing and shows the ulterior policy at work within the nascent 
institution. The following is taken from that report. 

Investigations in this department are of great interest, and have 
attracted to the field a host of workers; but a general review of the 
mass of published matter exhibits the fact that the uses to which 
the material has been put have not always been wise. 

In the monuments of antiquity found throughout North America, 
in camp and village sites, graves, mounds, ruins, and scattered 
works of art, the origin and development of art in savage and 
barbaric life may be satisfactorily studied. Incidentally, too, hints 
of customs may be discovered, but outside of this, the discoveries 
made have often been illegitimately used, especially for the 
purpose of connecting the tribes of North America with peoples of 
so-called races of antiquity in other portions of the world. A brief 
review of some conclusions that must be accepted in the present 
status of the science will exhibit the futility of these attempts. 1 - 
In the study of these antiquities, there has been much 
unnecessary speculation in respect to the relation existing between 
the people to whose existence they attest, and the tribes of Indians 
inhabiting the country during the historic period. It may be said 
that in the Pueblos discovered in the southwestern portion of the 
United States and farther south through Mexico and perhaps into 
Central America tribes are known having a culture quite as far 
advanced as any exhibited in the discovered ruins. In this respect. 


then, there is no need to search for extra-limital origin through lost 
tribes for any art there exhibited. With regard to the mounds so 
widely scattered between the two oceans, it may also be said that 
mound-building tribes were known in the early history of 
discovery of this continent, and that the vestiges of art discovered 
do not excel in any respect the arts of the Indian tribes known to 
history. There is, therefore, no reason for us to search for an extra- 
limital origin through lost tribes for the arts discovered in the 
mounds of North America. 


•ffH !«<*»*% 

Fig. 1.2. This map of Serpent Mound is one of many in Ancient Monuments of the 
Mississippi Valley that were surveyed and sketched by Squier and Davis. 


Fig. 1.3. The Kincaid Site, a Mississippian settlement in southern Illinois (courtesy 

of Herb Roe) 

Foremost among the wrong-headed theories Powell championed is 
evolution. We are shown charts of man becoming bipedal and each 
“new” man being bigger and smarter than the last. This is in direct 
contradiction to the charts we use for every other animal we study. We 
have only to look at a bird and be told that it was once a dinosaur to 
know how false this paradigm of man’s growth is. Look at the 
evolution of most animals, and the record says they got smaller over 
time, not bigger. However, with all the modern edifices of education 
built on the theory of evolution and the growing stature of humanity, 
we can’t very well have the Smithsonian running around telling people 
that we have degenerated from an ancient race of giants who once ruled 
America, now can we? 

The second theory current at the time was called uniform gradual 
history, a benign theory that says Earth goes along for huge spans of 
time with no catastrophes. The opposite of this theory is the more 
modern school of thought called catastrophism, based on the provable 
fact that disasters happen frequently and often. The record here in 
America speaks clearly on the subject. It relates not only to the 
disappearance of the Western inland civilizations dating back before 
5000 BCE, which were wiped out by volcanoes, but also to the sudden 
cessation of the copper trade around 1500 BCE. Why is this 


significant? Because Cretan culture was wiped out in a series of 
catastrophes brought on by the massive explosion of the Santorini 
volcano on one of the Cretan Empire’s islands. I do not think it a 
coincidence that in 1500 BCE the volcano wiped out the Cretan Empire 
(the Exodus in Egypt factors into this as well), and shut down the 
copper trade in America for almost two thousand years. 

The third major contributing factor to the extant historical myopia is 
the land bridge theory, which states that all the Indian tribes reached 
America from Asia across the Alaskan land bridge. The man who came 
up with this absurd and unprovable theory is none other than Dr. Ales 
Hrdlicka, the first curator (in 1903) of physical anthropology of the 
U.S. National Museum, now the Smithsonian Institution National 
Museum of Natural History. No boats for him. They walked—even 
though we know they would have had to walk around or through the 
extensive glaciers still blocking Canada. Were they not capable of 
slowly sailing from one island to another, as we know the Polynesians 
and Australians did for forty thousand years? The theory is absurd, but 
the Smithsonian told us to believe it, and we did. When academics get 
caught in such a perfect storm of wrong theories, they have a very hard 
time wriggling out of it. Reputations and careers are at stake. Books 
have been written and published and promotions garnered on the 
weight of their verity, so the fix was in from the beginning, so to speak. 

Fig. 1.4. The Nodena Site, possibly in the Province of Pacaha, encountered by 
Hernando de Soto (courtesy of Herbert Roe) 


Then there is the thorny question of racism and manifest destiny 
(which, decoded, reads like this: America is inhabited by inferior races 
of people whom “civilized man” has a God-given right to exterminate 
so that he can exploit the country he now considers his domain). One 
has only to read Powell’s 1879 theories about the aborigines and their 
inherent lack of intelligence to get an unpleasant whiff of what we are 
dealing with here. Powell finishes his “proof ” of no European or 
Asiatic influences by boldly asserting, without a shred of supporting 
evidence, that all pictographic writing found anywhere in the Americas 
is evidence of nothing more than the most rudimentary picture making, 
despite having no working knowledge of any of the ancient writing 
systems to which he alludes. He continues in his report to explain: 

Many of these pictographs are simply pictures, rude etchings, or 
paintings delineating natural objects, especially animals, and 
illustrate simply the beginning of pictorial art; others we know 
were intended to commemorate events or to represent other ideas 
entertained by their authors; but to a large extent these were simply 
mnemonic—not conveying ideas of themselves, but designed more 
thoroughly to retain in memory certain events or thoughts by 
persons who were already cognizant of the same through current 
hearsay or tradition. If once the memory of the thought to be 
preserved has passed from the minds of men, the record is 
powerless to restore its own subject-matter to the understanding. 

The great body of picture-writings is thus described; yet to some 
slight extent pictographs are found with characters more or less 
conventional, and the number of such is quite large in Mexico and 
Central America. Yet even these conventional characters are used 
with others less conventional in such a manner that perfect records 
were never made. Hence it will be seen that it is illegitimate to use 
any pictographic matter of a date anterior to the discovery of the 
continent by Columbus for historic purposes. 

When you step back for a moment from the pseudo-scientific 
double-talk, what he is saying is this: these are essentially dumb 
savages with the minds of children. Other pictures and trinkets that we 
have found that hint at intelligence, language, or higher knowledge are 
simply the scribbling of children trying to leave a garbled record of 


their childish view of history and religion. 

It is bad enough that these biased and unsupported claims were the 
policy of the Smithsonian in the nineteenth century, but to make 
matters worse, Charles Doolittle Walcott, secretary (chief executive 
officer) of the Smithsonian from 1907 to 1927, made the “Powell 
Doctrine” the official dogma of the museum for the entire twentieth 
century as well. In fact, the Powell Doctrine is still the official policy of 
the Smithsonian as of this writing, despite the fact that some scholars 
associated with the museum are finally starting to speak out in support 
of evidence of early European settlement of the Americas. 

Fig. 1.5. Major Paleo-lndian sites in North America 

The great crime and tragedy of this policy is hard to compute. One 
glaring result has been the suppression of hundreds of “out-of-context” 
finds, all submitted to the museum in naive ignorance of the museum’s 
official policy of suppression of alternative perspectives. To compound 
the problem, all major universities in the United States also adopted 
this policy in conjunction with the official position of the Smithsonian, 
thus making it impossible to study alternative American history and 
receive any grants or funding for pursuits of this nature. A giant 
problem for the giants and a giant problem for history. 

It is the express intent of this book to bring to light the many 
discoveries about the ancient history of this land that have all but 


disappeared from public awareness over the last hundred years. 



Findings on Ancient American Giants 




What makes us call a person a giant? Here are some ways to place the 
term in context: 

• Typically, the height of Americans today ranges between five feet, 
four inches, and five feet, ten inches (National Health Statistics 
Report No. 10, October 22, 2008). 

• Only twenty players in National Basketball Association history 
have exceeded a listed height of seven feet, three inches, with only 
a few reaching as tall as seven feet, seven inches. Some, but not 
all, of the tallest players have the condition known as gigantism or 
giantism, a condition usually caused by a tumor on the pituitary 
gland of the brain. These terms are typically applied to those 
whose height is not just in the upper 1 percent of the population 
but also several standard deviations above the mean for people of 
the same sex, age, and ethnic ancestry. 

• The tallest person in recorded history was Robert Pershing 
Wadlow (February 22, 1918-July 15, 1940). He was sometimes 
called the Alton Giant or the Giant of Illinois because that’s where 
he was born and raised. His height was eight feet, eleven inches, 
and he weighed 490 pounds at his time of death. 


Fig. 1.1. Robert Wadlow (right) pictured here with his father, Harold Wadlow (left), 
who was five feet, eleven inches tall ( ’). 

With these facts in mind, let’s review a sampling of the many reports 
of finds of very-tall human remains on this continent. 


Extremely ancient human remains have been found throughout New 
York State and New England that date back to at least 9000 BCE. A 
report from the Syracuse Herald American in 1983 said that 
anthropologists from the Buffalo Museum of Science dug up 1,400 
artifacts from a site called Phoenix Hilltop. The following county 
historical report published in 1824 reported that in 1811 “rude medals, 
a pipe and other articles” were uncovered at an Indian mound on Mount 
Morris in New York State, in association with the remains of a giant 
“of enormous size.” 


A History of Livingston County, New York, 1824 

When Jesse Stanley came to Mount Morris in 1811 an Indian 
Mound nearly 100 feet in diameter and from 8 to 10 feet high 
covered the site of the late General Mills’ residence. The mound 
had long been crowned by a great tree, which had recently fallen 
under the axe. Deacon Stanley was told that when freshly cut, it 
disclosed 130 concentric circles or yearly growths. 

About the year 1820, the mound was removed, and in its removal 
arrowheads, a brass kettle, and knives were thrown out. A number 
of skeletons were also disinterred. Among the bones was a human 
skeleton of enormous size, the jawbone of which was so large that 
Adam Holslander placed it, mask-like, over his own chin and jaw. 
He was the largest man in the settlement, and his face was in 
proportion to the rest of his body. 

Metal in the form of rude medals, a pipe and other articles were 
picked out of the earth thrown from the excavation. 

A History of Western New York, 1804 

Human bones of gigantic proportion were discovered in such a 
state of preservation as to be accurately described and measured. 
The cavities of the skulls were large enough in their dimensions to 
receive the entire head of a man of modern times, and could be put 
on one’s head with as much ease as a hat or cap. The jawbones 
were sufficiently large to admit to being placed so as to match or 
fit outside of a modern man’s face. The other bones so far 
discovered appear to be of equal proportions with the skulls and 
jawbones, several of which have been preserved in the cabinets of 
antiquarians, where they still may be seen. 



Relics of a prehistoric age have been brought to light in Noble County. 
The find is in York Township where workmen excavating for a public 
highway found the skeleton of an inhabitant of early days. 

The bones indicate that the person was fully nine feet tall. 

The bones are unusually large and the position of the skeleton when 


found indicated that the person had been buried in a sitting position. 
The belief is advanced that the remains are those of a mound builder. 

History of the Town of Rockingham, Vermont, 1907 

When the earth was removed from the top of the ledges east of the 
falls a remarkable human skeleton, unmistakably that of an Indian, 
was found. Those who saw it tell the writer the jaw bone was of 
such size that a large man could easily slip it over his face and the 
teeth, which were all double, were perfect. . . . This skeleton was 
kept for many years deposited in the attic of a small building on 
the north side of the Square. This building was then occupied by 
Dr. John H. Wells’ office and drug store and stood where the 
Italian fruit store now does. When the building was rebuilt a 
decade ago or more the bones disappeared. 






There has just been received at the Maryland Academy of Sciences, the 
skeleton of an Indian seven feet tall. It was discovered near Antietam. 
There are now skeletons of three powerful Indians at the Academy who 
at one time in their wildness roamed over the state of Maryland armed 
with such instruments as nature gave them or that their limited skill 
taught them to make. 

Two of these skeletons belonged to individuals evidently of gigantic 
size. The vertebrae and bones of the legs are nearly as thick as those of 
a horse and the length of the long bones exceptional. 

The skulls are of fine proportions, ample and with walls of moderate 
thickness and of great strength and stiffened beyond with a powerful 
occipital ridge. The curves of the forehead are moderate and not 
retreating, suggesting intelligence and connected with jaws of moderate 

The locality from which these skeletons came is in Frederick County, 


near Antietam Creek. It was formerly supposed to have been the 
battleground of two tribes of Indians: the Catawbas and the Delawares. 

Before the coming of the white man, this site was occupied as a 
village by Indians of great stature, some of them six-and-a-half to seven 
feet in height. 


_ MORNING HERALD, MAY 14, 1956 _ 

The skeleton of a giant Indian, maybe seven or more feet in height, who 
died and was buried about the time Christ was born, has been unearthed 
from prehistoric burial grounds along the Potomac River near Point of 
Rocks recently. 

Nicholas Yinger, who has been excavating at this and other sites of 
early Indian villages along the Potomac River in recent years, 
discovered the skeleton of the giant Indian, along with the other 
artifacts buried with the body, on Saturday, April 28, just a few weeks 
ago. Mr. Yinger said that apart from the huge size of the Algonquian 
Indian, the next most interesting thing about the remains is that the bow 
and quiver of five arrows were buried with the body. Two elk-antlers 
and three-and-one-half-inch arrow points in the center of the tibias are 
part of the quiver of arrows. Near the point of the antler-arrows is a 
perfect boiled-bone fishhook revealing his fishing line was also placed 
with the body. Three large white-flint triangular arrow heads were 
found at the side of the left tibia. 

“This aborigine must have been a hunter with great strength as is 
indicated by the broad-shank flint points used in a powerful bow,” 
explained Yinger. 



_ CHARLEROI MAIL, MAY 7, 1953 _ 

Along the Susquehanna River in Indiana County, Pennsylvania a major 
Indian burial site was uncovered. All together, forty-nine skeletons 
were exhumed, the tallest being eight feet tall. These skeletons were 


reportedly taken to the Harrisburg Museum for reassembly and then 
shipped to the Smithsonian for further study. However, the Smithsonian 
denies any knowledge of them. 

On the site of the William H. Rhea farm (circa 1871-1880) in 
Conemaugh Township just west of the mouth of Black Legs Creek, 
skeletons of men, probably Indians, were found. Noted local historian 
Clarence Stephenson says, “One of the skeletons is of a giant nearly 
eight feet tall. The giant’s skeleton measured 89 inches from the top of 
the skull to the phalanges of the feet. It was covered with small stones, 
lay on the back, and measured 26 inches across the chest.” 

The following report from 1916 is of the discovery of skeletons 
found in the area of Sayre, Pennsylvania. 



On July 13, Professor Skinner of the American Indian Museum, 
excavating the mound at Tioga Point, near Sayre, Pennsylvania, 
uncovered the bones of 68 men, which he estimates had been buried at 
least seven or eight hundred years. The average height indicated by the 
skeletons was seven feet, but many were taller. Evidence of the gigantic 
size of these men was seen in huge axes found beside the bones. 




A rare archaeological discovery has been made near Reinersville in 
Morgan County, Ohio. A small knoll, which had always been supposed 
to be the result of an uprooted tree, was opened recently and discovered 
to be the work of mound builders. 

Just below the surrounding surface, a layer of boulders and pebbles 
was found. Directly underneath this was found the skeleton of a giant 8 
feet, 7 inches in height. Surrounding the skeleton were bone and stone 


implements, stone hatchets, and other characteristics of the mound 

The discovery is considered by the scientists as one of the most 
important ever made in Ohio. The skeleton is now in the possession of 
a Reinersville collector. 


The following newspaper account from an 1870 edition of the Ohio 
Democrat postulates that the giant, whose skeleton was found with a 
nine-foot-long sword, must have stood eighteen feet tall “in his 
stockings.” It then alleges that the skeleton was shipped to New York. 
Since this account is highly speculative to say the least, let’s just say 
this was one big skeleton and leave it at that. 



On Tuesday morning last, while Mr. William Thompson, assisted by 
Mr. Robert R. Smith, was engaged in making an excavation near the 
house of the former, about half a mile north of West Hickory, 
preparatory to erecting a derrick, they exhumed an enormous helmet of 
iron, which was corroded with rust. 

Further digging brought to light a sword, which measured nine feet 
in length. Curiosity incited them to enlarge the hole, and after some 
little time they discovered the bones of two enormous feet. Following 
up the “lead” they had so unexpectedly struck, in a few hours’ time 
they had unearthed the well-preserved remains of an enormous giant, 
belonging to a species of the human family, which probably inhabited 
this and other parts of the world, at the time of which the Bible speaks 
when it says: “And there were giants in those days.” 

The helmet is said to be of the shape of those among the ruins of 
Nineveh. The bones of the skeleton are a remarkable white. The teeth 
are all in their places and all of extraordinary size. These relics have 
been taken to Tionesta where they are visited by large numbers of 
people daily. 


When his “giantship” was in the flesh he must have stood eighteen 
feet tall in his stockings. These remarkable relics will be shipped to 
New York early next week. The joints of the skeleton are now being 
glued together. These remains were found about twelve feet under the 
surface of a mound, which had been thrown up probably centuries ago, 
and which was not more than three feet above the level of the ground 
around it. 


_ NEW YORK TIMES, MAY 5, 1885 _ 

Centerburg, Ohio: Licking County has been for years a favorite field 
for students of Indian history. Last week a small mound near Homer 
was opened by some school boys. Today further search was made and 
several feet below the surface of the earth, in a large vault with stone 
floor and bark covering, were found four huge skeletons, three being 
over seven feet in length, and the other a full eight feet. 

The skeletons lay with their feet to the east on a bed of charcoal in 
which were numerous burned bones. About the neck of the largest 
skeleton were a lot of stone beads. The grave contained about 30 stone 
vessels and implements, the most striking being a curiously-wrought 
pipe. It is said to be the only engraved stone pipe ever found. A stone 
kettle, holding about a gallon in which was a residue of saline matter, 
bears evidence of much skill. Their bows, a number of arrows, stone 
hatchets, and a stone knife are among the implements that were found 
at the site. 



A giant skeleton of a man has been unearthed at the Woolverton farm, a 
short distance from Tippecanoe City, Ohio. It measures eight feet from 
the top of the head to the ankles, the feet being missing, says this 
newspaper reporter. 

The skull is large enough to fit as a helmet over the average man’s 


head. This skeleton was one of seven, buried in a circle, the feet of all 
being towards the center. Rude implements were near. The skeletons 
are thought to be those of mound builders. 


This is one of several accounts that I ran across in my research of a 
giant skeleton being buried with a panther. The ritual context of these 
animal burials has never been properly studied or understood. In this 
account, the contents of eleven mounds were said to have been shipped 
to the Smithsonian for study. 



Soon after the 1st of March relics were collected to be placed on loan to 
the Smithsonian Institution at Washington D.C. During the last two 
months eleven mounds have been opened and their contents taken to 
the museum and placed on exhibition. These mounds vary in height 
from eight to thirty feet, are generally conical in shape, and contain all 
the way from 300 to 10,000 square yards of dirt. They were built by the 
aborigines of this country hundreds of years ago to serve as burial 
places for the distinguished dead. They are generally placed near some 
stream in a valley and not infrequently on high points of land, which 
command a good view of the country, but the larger ones are in the 
valleys. These mounds are usually composed of clay, sometimes of 
sand, and often have layers of charcoal or burnt clay in them. These 
layers are often as brightly colored as if they had been painted.. . . 

About five feet above this layer, or nine feet from the summit of the 
mound, was a skeleton of a very large individual who had buried by the 
side of it the bones of a panther. Whether the person had killed the 
panther and it was buried with him as an honor, or whether the panther 
had killed the individual, one cannot say. 


This much, however, can be said—That in 43 mounds opened no find 
of this nature has been made. It is therefore quite interesting and 


important. The skull of this panther was very large, teeth very long and 
sharp. It would take a mound builder of a great deal of nerve to attack a 
beast of this size if he had nothing but a stone hatchet and bow and 
arrows to defend himself with. 



Just below this skeleton and lying on the layer of buried bones was a 
medium-sized personage who had buried around his neck in the manner 
of a necklace, between his upper and lower jaw, 147 bone and shell 
beads. The shell beads were made from the thick part of Conch and 
Pyrula shells. These shells must have been carried from the Atlantic 
Ocean, as they are ocean shells, and not found inland, or the tribe to 
which the man belonged may have traded with tribes near the ocean 
and thereby got the beads. 


This is only one of many accounts of ancient burial fields containing 
multiple giant burials. In this case the burial site was said to have been 
three to four acres in size and to have contained several thousand 
burials, including a magnificent eight-foot-tall queen bedecked in 
elaborate copper jewelry. 

Ashtabula County Historical Record, 1878 

In 1798 the first permanent settlers from the east arrived in the 
Western Reserve of Ohio. They began to clear the forests along the 
southern shore of Lake Erie, and in the process found numerous 
ancient earthen structures and almost everywhere the finely made 
spear points and other artifacts of a long forgotten and once 
populous native society, a people obviously quite different from 
the Massasauga Indians then living in that country. A generation 
before the first immigrant explorers of western Pennsylvania and 
southern Ohio had made similar discoveries: the extensive 
earthworks of Circleville and Marietta, Ohio, were already well 
publicized by the time that settler Aaron Wright and his 
companions began to stake out their new homes along Conneaut 
Creek, in what would become Ashtabula County, Ohio. 


The Discoveries of Aaron Wright in 1800 

Perhaps it was because he was a single young man with plenty of 
energy, or perhaps it was because his choice for a homestead 
included a large “mound builder” burial ground. Whatever the 
reasons may have been, Aaron Wright has gone down in the 
history books as the discoverer of the “Conneaut Giants,” the 
unusually large-boned ancient inhabitants of Ashtabula County, 
Ohio. In an 1844 account, Harvey Nettleton reported that this 
“ancient burying grounds of about four acres” was situated in what 
soon became the village of New Salem (later renamed Conneaut), 
“extending northward from the bank of the creek ... to Main 
Street, in an oblong square” tract that “appeared to have been 
accurately surveyed into lots, running from the north to the south.” 
Nettleton also said that the ancient graves “were distinguished by 
slight depressions in the surface of the earth disposed in straight 
rows, with the intervening spaces, or alleys, cover[ing] the whole 
area . . . estimated to contain from two to three thousand graves. 
These depressions, on a thorough examination made by Esq. Aaron 
Wright, as early as 1800, were found invariably to contain human 
bones, blackened with time, which on exposure to the air soon 
crumbled to dust.” 

The prehistoric cemetery on Aaron Wright’s land was 
remarkable enough, just in its size and the configuration of the 
graves; but it was what was in those graves and in the adjacent 
burial mounds that captured Nettleton’s attention. 

The mounds that were situated in the eastern part of what is now 
the village of Conneaut and the extensive burying ground near the 
Presbyterian Church appear to have had no connection with the 
burying places of the Indians. They doubtless refer to a more 
remote period and are the relics of an extinct race, of whom the 
Indians had no knowledge. These mounds were of comparatively 
small size, and of the same general character of those that are 
widely scattered over the country. What is most remarkable 
concerning them is that among the quantity of human bones they 
contain, there are found specimens belonging to men of large 
stature, and who must have been nearly allied to a race of giants. 
Skulls were taken from these mounds, the cavities of which were 


of sufficient capacity to admit the head of an ordinary man, and 
jaw-bones that might be fitted on over the face with equal facility. 
The bones of the arms and lower limbs were of the same 
proportions, exhibiting ocular proof of the degeneracy of the 
human race since the period in which these men occupied the soil 
which we now inhabit. Circleville, Ohio, antiquarian Caleb 
Atwater was the known first person to comment upon the 
earthworks at Conneaut (then New Salem) in a published text. In 
his 1820 report, “Description of the Antiquities Discovered in the 
State of Ohio” Atwater describes the “work at Salem ... on a hill 
near Coneaught river . . . having two parallel circular walls and a 
ditch between them.” Atwater says practically nothing about the 
burial mounds in the vicinity of this pre-Columbian fort “on a hill,” 
but he does provide the following information of his report: “My 
informant says, within this work are sometimes found skeletons of 
a people of small stature, which, if true, sufficiently identifies it to 
have belonged to that race of men who erected our tumuli.” Thus, 
it was Caleb Atwater’s opinion that the builders of the ancient 
mounds were a “people of small stature,” and that reports of larger 
skeletons uncovered among their ruins were the exception, not the 
rule. To the above summary of Atwater’s investigations it might 
also be added that many of the earthworks he described he never 
saw himself, relying upon information supplied by untrained 
observers living in the vicinity of these ancient remains. 

What Nehemiah King Found in 1829 

Nettleton’s account was widely circulated when it was summarized 
in Henry Howe’s Historical Collections of Ohio, 1847. Howe 
writes of Thomas Montgomery and Aaron Wright coming to Ohio 
in the spring of 1798, and of the subsequent discovery of the 
“extensive burying ground” and of “the human bones found in the 
mounds” nearby. Howe repeats the report that among these 
uncovered bones, “were some belonging to men of gigantic 
structure.” He also tells how, in 1829, a tree was cut down next to 
the ancient “Fort Hill in Conneaut” and that the local land owner, 
“The Hon. Nehemiah King, with a magnifying glass, counted 350 
annualer rings” beyond some cut marks near the tree’s center. 
Howe concludes: “Deducting 350 from 1829 leaves 1479, which 


must have been the year when these cuts were made. This was 
thirteen years before the discovery of America by Columbus. It 
perhaps was done by the race of the mounds, with an axe of 
copper, as that people had the art of hardening that metal so as to 
cut like steel.” 

The same year that Henry Howe’s history of Ohio appeared 
another interesting book was published by the Smithsonian 
Institution, entitled. Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. 
On that seminal report by E. G. Squier and E. H. Davis appears the 
first known published description of “Fort Hill,” that strange pre- 
Columbian landmark situated on the property of Aaron Wright’s 
neighbor, Nehemiah King. 

Ancient Work near Conneaut, Ashtabula County, Ohio 

This work is at present very slight, but distinctly traceable. The 
sketch is a mere coup d’oeil, without measurements. The elevation 
on the bluff upon which it stands is about seventy feet; and the 
banks of the aluminous state are, upon the north, very precipitous. . 
. . Upon the south side ... the wall, which skirts the brow of the 
hill, is accompanied by an outer ditch, while upon the north there is 
a simple embankment. The ascent (marked C-C in the cut), is 
gradual and easy. Within the enclosure the earth is very black and 
rich; outside of the wall it is stiff clay. The adjacent bottoms are 
very fertile, and the creek is everywhere fordable. There can be no 
doubt that this was a fortified position. Near the village of 
Conneaut are a number of mounds, and other traces of an ancient 
population, among which is an aboriginal cemetery regularly laid 
out, and of great extent. 




S' 4 at H'AtJ/2r.r*y $•*■*’*'*yor' . 

Fig. 1.2. An 1847 sketch of Fort Hill by Chas. Whittlesey, surveyor 



It is very evident that at an early day in the history of this country, this 
section of Ohio was an important camping ground for the American 
Indian. And, indeed, discoveries are frequently made, which lead 


people interested in the matter of prehistoric America to believe that a 
race of mankind, superior in size, strength, and intelligence to the 
common red man of the forest, flourished not only along the coasts East 
and South, but right here in southern Ohio. There are in this county 
several burying grounds, and two of them are located five miles west of 
this city, near Jasper, one on the farm of Mr. William Bush and one on 
Mr. Matthew Mark’s farm. In a conversation with a gentleman who has 
seen [skeletons] unearthed at the Mark bank, we were told that many 
dozens of human skeletons have been exhumed since the bank was first 

Some of these skeletons have been measured, and the largest have 
been found to be nine feet long and over. 

At one time ten skeletons were exhumed. They had been buried in a 
circle, standing in an erect position, and were in a comparatively well- 
preserved condition. One remarkable fact about all the skeletons 
unearthed at these places is the perfect state of preservation in which 
their teeth are found to be. Not a decayed tooth has been discovered, 
and this would seem to indicate that these people naturally had 
excellent teeth or some extraordinary manner of preserving them. 


The find of a giant race averaging six and a half to seven feet tall 
electrified the nation, as attested to by the following Sunday photo 
feature, which appeared in prominent newspapers across the country on 
August 2, 1936. This article appeared complete with comparative 
photos of giant skulls and photos of an entire skeleton laid out on its 
back at the site. Beneath one of the photos of the main archaeologist 
pointing to a giant skull was this caption: “Dr. Preston Holder (above 
photo), who is directing archaeological study and excavation on Sea 
Island, Georgia, points out the unusual characteristics of one of his 
amazing finds. The skeletons of these hitherto unknown American 
aborigines showed they all ranged in height from six-and-one half to 
seven feet in height.” 







Perhaps the discovery of the first dinosaur bones on the North 
American continent created no more sensation in scientific circles than 
the recent revelations of prehistoric man lately developed off the coast 
of Georgia. Excavating in the sand dunes of the sun-sprayed Golden 
Isles, Georgia, archaeologists have gouged out the strange record of an 
amazing prehistoric race of giants. 

With pick ax and spade, these searchers into the past have burrowed 
their way beneath the surface of the palm-clad dunes of Georgia’s 
semi-tropical coastal islands, to delve into the mysteries of a previously 
unsuspected race of mankind. The question uppermost in their mind 
today is: What manner of men were these, the members of whose tribe 
all averaged between six and one half and seven feet tall? 

Preston Holder, archaeologist, is directing the excavation work, 
which has been sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution. Slowly, 
painstakingly. Holder is endeavoring to piece together the slender 
threads that will lead him into the past. He has expressed the opinion 
that the Smithsonian enterprise will throw important light upon a thus 
far unrecorded tribe, and perhaps establish a new link in the history of 
mankind in North America. 

The Golden Isles extend in a chain from Savannah as far south as 
Fernandina. They are today inhabited mostly by wealthy Americans 
whose luxurious summer homes dot the landscape. The Golden Isles 
are romantic in the extreme. The known history of these islands fairly 
reeks with pirate lore, tales of mystery and violence, and lost treasures. 


But today only one of all the islands still remains open to the public. It 
is called Saint Simons and Sea Island. And had it not been for the 
never-ceasing strides of modern civilization, it might well be that the 


new proof of America’s prehistoric giants might never have been 
found. For it was the ground-breaking for Georgia’s new Glynn County 
airport—which will be constructed on Sea Island—that revealed the 
first evidences of the find that has since brought archaeologists fairly 
tumbling over one another. 

Workers on the proposed new airport hadn’t set off more than two or 
three charges of dynamite when they were amazed to find a number of 
shattered skulls and skeletons scattered about. One of the nation’s 
leading archaeologists, Dr. F. M. Setzler, of the United States National 
Museum, was dispatched to the scene. One look, and Dr. Setzler was 
convinced that the earth beneath the sand dunes would bear importantly 
upon the history and habits of southern coast aborigines. 



So the systematic work began. Some of the first skulls to be disinterred 
by Preston Holder have already been examined at the Smithsonian 
Institution by Dr. Ales Hrdlicka (to appear at another site as well), 
foremost authority on North American types. 

One mound located at the airport site was composed by at least three 
layers of shell, each six inches to a foot thick. Very little midden, or 
garbage, was found in the shell. The mound was fifty feet in diameter, 
with a six foot rise. Burials were found to have been made immediately 
beneath the layers of shell. 

It was in this mound that archaeologists made the important 
discovery of a complete skeleton of a young man, believed to have 
been in his teens at the time of his death. From tip to tip it exactly 
measured six and one half feet. Every detail of the burial of this 
skeleton indicated that he had been an important member of the tribe— 
probably a chieftain—or at least the son of a chieftain. 

His bones were arranged with exceeding care. And between his right 
arm and his side were found three small bone awls, three large deer 
bone awls, and three split and worked bones in the process of being 
made into implements or weapons. Over his left shoulder were four 
mussel-shell pendants and a chipped-stone spear point, while fastened 
about his left knee was a string of sea snail shell beads, numbering 


about 80 beads in all. 


Of the first four interments made in this mound, all were of the full- 
flexed type or curled up with knees close to the chins. Two of these 
were children, buried close together in “spoon fashion.” They were 
heavily covered with hematite paint, a red pigment used by these 
Indians. One of the skeletons still wore an apron woven of 225 olivella 
shell beads. Other burials yielded by the mound were all prone or fully 
extended. Skulls were missing from these. 


At the village under the airport site. Holder and his workers recovered 
approximately 4,000 shards, or pieces of tribal pottery and cooking 
utensils. While a great deal of the pottery was plain ware and quite 
crude, there were a few pieces that were somewhat decorative. Colors 
ranged from black, through gray and red, to buff. The decorated ware 
showed at least five types of stamped design, including the “check” 
stamp, the “delta” stamp, and a “herringbone” stamp. In addition there 
was discovered three distinct types of cord-marked ware, three types of 
thong-marked ware, and examples of rare incised and punctuaic sherds 
(connection to Stonehenge cord-marked pottery). 

Aside from pottery, numerous examples of implements and burial 
offerings have been found, both in the village and the burial mound. 
They include a conch hoe, a conch abrader, a conch bowl, and an 
unidentified piece of polished conch. Pendants carved from turtle shells 
and the teeth of bears are among the invaluable archaeological finds 
which have been made. 



In all my extensive research into the hidden history of giants in 
America, the most detailed, wide-ranging, and colorful account I came 
across was The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee: Up to the 
First Settlements Therein by the White People, in the Year 1768 by 
John Haywood. Haywood combines an exhaustive first-person account 


of his many astonishing discoveries with an excellent overview of the 
previous historical finds in the area. Among his many amazing 
discoveries are accounts of giants found in a walled spring; caves with 
stones that rolled away, containing more giants; and four upright 
standing stones that formed a square box, inside of which was the body 
of another giant. 


The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee, 1823 
By John Haywood 

The length and dimensions of the skeletons . . . found in East and 
West Tennessee . . . prove demonstratively, that the ancient 
inhabitants of this country, either the primitive or secondary 
settlers, were of gigantic stature compared with the present races of 

On the farm of Mr. John Miller of White county are a number of 
small graves and also many large ones, the bones in which show 
that the bodies to which they belonged, when alive, must have 
been, seven feet high and upwards. 


I am always particularly fascinated with reports of hidden caves and 
giant burials. In this account, the cave in question is located near 
Sparta, Kentucky. In 1814, giant bones were found in this cave, as well 
as in a grave burial in the same area. Later in the report, more giant 
bones are found along the Tennessee River below Kingston and at 
another site two miles from Nashville. John Haywood continues: 

About the year 1814, Mr. Lawrence found in Scarborough’s cave, 
which is on the Calf-killer River, a branch of the Cany Lork, about 
12 or 15 miles from Sparta, in a little room in the cave, many 
human bones of a monstrous size. He took a jaw bone and applied 
it to his own face, and when his chin touched the concave of the 
chin bone, the hinder ends of the jaw bone did not touch the skin of 
his face on either side. He took a thigh bone, and applied the upper 
end of it to his own hip joint, and the lower end reached four 
inches below the knee joint. 


Mr. Andrew Bryan saw a grave opened about 4 miles 
northwardly from Sparta, on the Calf- killer Fork. He took a thigh 
bone and raising np his knee, he applied the knee joint of the bone 
to the extreme length of his own knee, and the upper end of the 
bone passed out behind his as far as the full width of his body. Mr. 
Lawrence is about 5 feet, 10 inches high, and Mr. Bryan about 5 
feet, 9. Mr. Sharp Whitley was in a cave near the place where Mr. 
Bryan saw the graves opened. In it were many of these bones. The 
skulls lie plentifully in it, and all the other bones of the human 
body; all in proportion, and of monstrous size. 

Human bones were taken out of a mound on the Tennessee River 
below Kingston, which Mr. Brown saw measured by Mr. Simms. 
The thigh bones of those skeletons, when applied to Mr. Simms’s 
thigh, were an inch and a half longer than his, from the point of his 
hip to his knee: supposing the whole frame to have been in the 
same proportion, the body it belonged to must have been seven feet 
high or upwards. Many bones in the mounds there are of equal 
size. Suppose a man seven or eight feet high, that is from 10 inches 
to 2 feet taller than men of the common size; suppose the body 
broader in the same proportion, also his arms and legs; would he 
not be entitled to the name of giant? 

Col. William Sheppard, late of North-Carolina, in the year 1807, 
dug up, on the plantation of Col. Joel Lewis, 2 miles from 
Nashville, the jaw bones of a man, which easily covered the whole 
chin and jaw of Col. Lewis, a man of large size. Some years 
afterwards, Mr. Cassady dug up a skeleton from under a small 
mound near the large one at Bledsoe’s lick, in Sumner County, 
which measured little short of seven feet in length. 


While a cellar was being dug at a plantation four miles outside 
Nashville, giant burials were found in association with a walled and 
enclosed sacred spring. 

Human bones have been dug up in the cellar at the plantation 
where Judge Overton now lives, in Havidbon County, four miles 
southwestwardly from Nashville. These bones were of 


extraordinary size. The under jaw bone of one skeleton very easily 
slipped over the jaw of Mr. Childress, a stout man, full fleshed, 
very robust, and considerably over the common size. 

These bones were dug up within the traces of ancient walls, in 
the form of a square of two or three hundred yards in length, 
situated near an excellent, never failing spring of pure and well- 
tasted water. The spring was enclosed within the walls. A great 
number of skeletons were found within the enclosure, a few feet 
below the surface of the earth. On the outer side were the traces of 
an old ditch and rampart, thrown up on the inside. Some small 
mounds were also within the enclosure. 


This part of Haywood’s report is of the discovery of a cave with several 
secret rooms, located seven and a half miles north of Pulaski, 
Kentucky. The entrances to the cave and to an interior secret 
passageway were both covered by flat stones that could be rolled away. 
Inside, the bones of giants were found laid out over a paved floor. 

At the plantation of Col. William Sheppard, in the county of Giles, 
seven and a half miles north of Pulaski, on the east side of the 
creek, is a cave with several rooms. The first is 45 feet wide, and 
27 long; 4 feet deep; the upper part is formed of solid and even 
rock. Into this cave was a passage, which had been so artfully 
covered, that it escaped detection until lately. A flat stone, three 
feet wide and four feet long, rested upon the ground, and inclining 
against the cave, closing part of the mouth. At the end of this, and 
on the side of the mouth that is left open is another stone rolled, 
which filling this also, closed the whole mouth. 

When these rocks were removed, and the cave opened, on the 
inside of the cave were found several bones—the jawbone of a 
child, the arm bone of a man, the skulls and thigh-bones of men. 
The whole bottom of the cave was covered with flat stones of a 
bluish hue, being closely joined together, and of different forms 
and sizes. They formed the floor of the cave. Upon the floor the 
bones were laid. The hat of Mr. Egbert Sheppard, seven inches 
wide and eight inches long, just covered and slipped over one of 


the skulls. 

At the mouth of Obed’s river, on the point between it and the 
Cumberland river, which is high ground, certain persons, in 
digging, struck a little below the surface, four stones standing 
upright, and so placed in relation to each other, as to form a square 
or box, which enclosed a skeleton, placed on its feet in an erect 
posture. The skull was large enough to go over the head of a man 
of common size. The thigh bones applied to those of a man of 
ordinary stature, reached from the joint of his hip to the calf of his 

The article below is one of the first articles to lament the destruction 
of the mounds, with these florid words, which bring an ironic Victorian 
smile to my face when I read them. 



For two centuries, at least, the body has lain crumbling away to mother 
earth. Who can speak the weal and woe, the heart ache and joy thus 
represented? It is like a breeze from another world, and life seems 
fleeting faster still as one gazes on the remains of a once glorious 
union, now silent evermore. 



The finding of arrowheads and stone axes that were used by the 
roaming Indians of other days is a common enough occurrence, but this 
week there was disinterred the bones of one of these ancient 
inhabitants, which has made it the talk of the community. Charley 
Dukes, on the old family farm near Shady Dell School House, while 
plowing near a large, old oak stump, the tree of which was cut down 
over forty years ago, turned up the skeleton of a giant of the Indian 
occupation of this country. 

For years, two large rocks in the field, which had the appearance of 
being perfectly placed, have been the wonder of the Dukes family, but 
now they find that the mound in which the bones were found is directly 


on the line between these stones, designating, therefore, the place of 
burial like our tombstones of today. 

The bones are those of a large person, although the two centuries of 
summer and winter have dealt severely with them. The remains show 
parts of the femur, tibia, innominate, phalanges, and several face bones 
including some very well-preserved teeth. 


A huge gravel pit has been opened at Whitlock, Indiana. Soon after the 
excavating began a skeleton was found and as the pit widened other 
skeletons were unearthed until at least thirty graves had been opened 
and many skeletons brought to light, evidently the remains of an Indian 

One skeleton was found beneath a large stump, and another was 
found twelve feet underground. The graves appear in regular order, and 
the occupants were buried in a sitting posture. In one grave three 
skeletons, supposed to be those of a woman and two children, were 

The other day the largest specimen was unearthed, the body of a 
person who in life must have been a giant. 

A peculiarity of the skeletons is that the teeth are nearly all in a 
perfect state of preservation. In one grave beside the human skeletons 
was that of a dog, a copper spearhead, an earthen pot, and numerous 
beads proving that some important personage had been put to rest there. 



Here is a case of the burial of a white-haired child and a nine-foot-tall 
giant with a chain of mica around his neck. Other finds in Indiana 
include giants clad in copper armor. 

A History of Jennings County, Indiana, 1885 

Years ago, when Mr. Robinson’s father began digging a cellar out 
of the hillside, he found there the skeleton of a little child. The hair 
was white and there were many indications that the child was not 


an Indian, but belonged to a fair-complexioned race of people. 

Again in 1881, the skeleton of a human of unusual size was 
found in the mound. From comparative measurements of bones of 
this skeleton, it was thought to have been about nine feet in length. 
Cedar sticks were found around his waist, probably a symbol of 
some religious rite. A chain of mica was around his neck. 



Charles Milton found a skeleton that is thought to be that of an Indian 
while digging sand near Lake Cleott yesterday. The bones are well 
preserved and very large. The jaw bone is almost twice as large as that 
of the ordinary person. 

One peculiarity about the jaw is the fact that the teeth are double 
both front and back. The sandpit where the bones were found is 
supposed to be an old Indian mound. Several arrow heads were 
excavated and other like utensils were found. Among these was a 
peculiarly shaped flint supposed to have been a fish scaler. About two 
or three bushels of charcoal was found along the side of the skeleton. 

A History of Clay County, Missouri, 1888 

In his researches among the forests of western Missouri, Judge E. 
P. West has discovered a number of conical-shaped mounds 
similar in construction to those found in Ohio and Kentucky. 

As yet only one of these mounds has been opened. Judge West 
discovered a skeleton about two weeks ago and made a report to 
other members of the society. They accompanied him to the 
mound, and not far from the surface excavated and took out the 
remains of two skeletons. 

The bones were very large—so large, in fact, that when 
compared with an ordinary skeleton of modern date, they appear to 
have formed part of a giant. 

The head bones, such as have not rotted away, are monstrous in 
size. The lower jaw of one skeleton is in a state of preservation, 
and is double the size of the jaw of a civilized person. The thigh 
bone, when compared to that of an ordinary modern skeleton, 


looks like that of a horse. The length, thickness, and muscular 
development are remarkable. 

The bodies were discovered in a sitting posture in the mounds, 
and among the bones were found stone weapons different in shape 
from the tools and weapons known to be in use by the aboriginal 
Indians of this land. 



Skeletons of a race of giants who averaged twelve feet in height were 
found by workmen engaged on a drainage project in Crowville, near 

There are several score at least of the skeletons, and they lie in 
various positions. It is believed they were killed in a prehistoric fight 
and that the bodies lay where they fell until covered with alluvial 
deposits due to the flooding of the Mississippi River. No weapons of 
any sort were found at the site, and it is believed the Titans must have 
struggled with wooden clubs. The skulls are in a perfect state of 
preservation, and some of the jawbones are large enough to surround a 
baby’s body. 


In Texas, where everything is big, it would be to the state’s everlasting 
horror if it turned out that its giants were smaller than the other giants 
who once ruled over the rest of America in ancient times. In 1931, the 
San Antonio Express announced that a federal Works Progress 
Administration (WPA) archaeological team digging in association with 
the University of Texas discovered what at that time was called “the 
largest human skull found in the world in Victoria County Texas,” and 
its owner was dubbed the “giant on the beach.” Photographs reveal that 
this skull was “twice the size of the skull of a normal man.” This find 
was held at the University of Texas, where Dr. Ales Hrdlicka of the 
Smithsonian examined it and related discoveries, and in a joint press 
release it was said that “these finds in Texas are beginning to give 


weight to the theory that man lived in Texas 40,000 to 45,000 years 

A close-up photo shows three skulls in comparison with the Giant 
Skull. The caption under the giant skull reads: “Believed to be possibly 
the largest found in the world, the human skull shown on the right was 
recently unearthed in Victoria County by the University of Texas 
anthropologists. The other two skulls are of normal size.” 


Beach Giant's Skull Unearthed 
By WPA Workers N ear Victoria 

Believed fo Be Largest Ever Found in 

World; Normal Head Also Found 

Tint Tex>* "had a (Mot on the buch" In the lor* ago appears 
prcJm'jlc from IV li.-gc tktil! rrcentjy uvsrthed in * mound ir, 
Victor:* Cmnty, behoved to V the largest huctnn skull ever found 
| in the United sines and possibly in the world 

Twice the cue et the tkuli of 
normal man. the lragmer.ti were 
dug up by W, Daffm, archaeclo 
gist, who It emsvjiiEg the GMUnd 
in Victoria County under a WPA 
protest epansered by the Vniver- 
sity of Texas. In the same mound 

case of giantism. Several large 
human body bones aita bar* been 
unearned at tlie site. 

Marcus K GcicHiein, physical 
ar.thropclcgu; employed on Use 
WPA ptojest. formerly Wes an 
aid* of Ales Hdrlleken. curator of 

and at the «w '■**?•* I tb* National Museum of Physical 

deed skull was found. The pieces f Anthropolgy. 

****** from the pound were re- Finds made through excavs- 
constructed in the WPA labi/ri- : ; ons j n T*exas are beginning to 
tory coder supervision of ptiys.- give weight to t.V theerv that 
ca: anthro;iu:C<SsU. man lived IB Texts 40000 to 

A study is selng made to deter years ago, It Is said. 

mine the hu.*« ukuSl w;t — — - 

tail ftf a n» beloncirf lo a trit* ATAMT SOCIETY Mt’KW 
of cxi/aoMlintrv garsc men or. San Ar.cotuo Phaiitclic Social 
\a tether the aktill wi that ol hold it* fir« mttliti of 1M0 

nbnoniul membrr of n tribe, a I at the Y. C A. at fi:.% p. n 

GIANT SKULL—Believed to be possibly the larg¬ 
est found in the world, the human skull shown on 
the right was recently unearthed in Victoria 
County by Texas University anthropologists. The 
other two are of normal sac. 

Monday, vh«n a hours* of rare 
stamp* will be nhowa by col- 
lectors in this vicinity. New offi- 
fws of Jit society arc Norman 
11. VtrorV, pmtdmt; B. A. Tur¬ 

ner. vies prttident: L. F Fields, 
jterttary and treasurer. and Kd 
ward A’.hach. reporter. Both the 
president and vice president were 

Fig. 1.3. This 1931 article documents the WPA find of the largest skull ever 
discovered. Scientists from the University of Texas posited inhabitation of Texas 
40,000 years ago (San Antonio Express). 


Earlier we learned about Hrdlicka in connection with the finds of giants 
off Georgia’s coast (see here). Now we find that Hrdlicka was also 
involved with the Texas beach giant, in a special consultation for the 


For anyone doubting the immediate and immense reach of the 
Smithsonian, here is an amusing article about a rancher who refused to 
sell his giant to the Smithsonian representatives, who had traveled from 
Washington D.C., reaching Arizona within an incredible two weeks of 


the discovery. 




Peter Marx of Walnut Creek, discoverer of a prehistoric human giant 
on his farm several weeks ago, while in the city yesterday, stated that 
the curiosity is attracting such deep interest in scientific circles that he 
is almost delayed with his letters and during the past two weeks he has 
been visited by Mr. and Mrs. Shoup, the former an attache of the 
Smithsonian Institution at Washington, who made the long journey for 
the express purpose of viewing the frame of the giant of other days. Mr. 
Shoup was provided with photographic instruments and took several 

Mr. Shoup, of the Smithsonian, also desired to take it (the giant 
skeleton) back to Washington, but this request was held up by Mr. 
Marx stating that as the subject was found in the territory it should be 
kept there. 

Mr. Shoup was very much interested in those portions of the human 
frame that were unusually large, particularly the skull, which indicated 
that the giant was of such abnormal size as to be beyond 
comprehension as that of a human being. Mr. Marx has uncovered 
another burying ground near the point where the skeleton was found. 


An old irrigating ditch has also been partly recovered, and it is Mr. 
Shoup’s (of the Smithsonian) belief that the place was intelligently 
cultivated in some past age by an industrious people. Mr. Marx has 
uncovered many implements, some of which are unique in construction 
and for what purposes they were utilized is problematical. 


When looked at in its entirety, it seems fitting that our trip west across 
the United States in search of the ancient giants who once ruled this 


land should end at the Pacific Ocean. In 1911, it was reported that 
William Altmann, assistant curator of the Golden Gate Park Memorial 
Museum, found skeletons, pottery, and artifacts in Port Costa, 
California, including the skeleton of a giant more than seven feet tall. 
Later the same year, Altmann reported finding more giants on an island 
in the Santa Barbara Channel, including one skeleton that measured in 
at seven feet, four inches tall. 



Ethnologists will be interested in a discovery made by Assistant 
Curator William Altmann of Golden Gate Park Memorial Museum— 
namely, the fact hitherto denied that the Digger Indians of California 
were acquainted with at least the rudiments of pottery making. “Until 
now, no pottery of Digger Indian manufacture has ever been found,” 
says Altmann, and therefore he highly values the find he made in an 
Indian Burial Mound at Concord, in Contra Costa County. 

From an excavation made by workmen in the employ of the Port 
Costa Water Company has been found a large number of Indian relics 
of great age, including the specimens of crude pottery already 
mentioned and the skeleton of an Indian giant more than seven feet tall. 
The skeleton is in the possession of Dr. Neff of Concord, who is 
mounting it for exhibition. The pottery specimens consist of charm 
stones of baked clay of spindle shape and pierced so that they may be 
suspended from the neck by cords. 

In addition, there are a large number of knives and arrowheads of 
obsidian or volcanic glass, which is extremely rare in this part of the 
state, and leads to the belief they were brought down by the Shasta or 
Modoc Indians and traded for other things with the Diggers of Contra 

A striking peculiarity about these arrowheads is their shape and 
pattern. They are notched in a very painstaking way with jagged 
division and resemble very much some of the weapons Filipino 
warriors use. A stone mortar and several phallic pestles carved with 
considerable skill and precision, stone sinkers for fishing, and artistic 


pipes made of soapstone, together with a quantity of wampum, are 
among the souvenirs secured by Assistant Curator Altmann, the donor 
being Joseph Hittman of Concord. 

The mound from which these relics were taken is close to the 
railroad depot at Concord. The work of excavation is still going on and 
more interesting finds are looked for. 

Fig. 1.3. Indian cemetery, Santa Rosa Island, containing abalone shells carbon 
dated at seven thousand years old. The tops of the skulls were painted red; 
several skeletons measured over seven feet tall (photo courtesy of Santa Barbara 

Museum of Natural History, 1959). 


Fig. 1.4. Bone whistles from Santa Rosa Island, early to mid-1900s 



Up to about three hundred years ago, a giant race inhabited the coastal 
regions of California. Remains of these people have been discovered in 
the islands of the Santa Barbara Channel. To William Altmann, 
assistant curator of the Golden Gate Park Memorial Museum, belongs 
the honor of discovering one of the tallest and best preserved skeletons 
of this extinct tribe. Altmann utilized his vacation a week ago in 
excavating an old Indian burial mound in the nursery of Thomas S. 
Duane, two miles from Concord, in Contra Costa County. 

The giant skeleton found was ten feet from the surface and around it 
were a large number of mortars and pestles, charm stones, and obsidian 
arrow heads. The giant skeleton has been laid and reconstructed in the 
Curator’s office and placed on private exhibition yesterday. The bones 
are in a good state of preservation, being hard and firm, although brown 
with age. Two or three of the vertebrae are missing and the skull is 
broken into three parts. 

The skeleton is seven feet four inches. The skull is in great contrast 
to that of the Indian today. The under-jaw is square and massive, being 
remarkably thick and strong. 


The artifacts are ornamented with phallic carvings, whereas the marks 
made by the former and present-day Diggers are not carved or 
ornamented in any way. The charm stones are of baked clay, a 
beginning of the more advanced works of pottery, which are not found 
with Digger remains. This interesting find was made on the Salvadore 
Pacheen Ranch, part of which is occupied by Duane’s nursery. It is 
Altmann’s intention to make a further exploration of the mound at an 
early [date] for other relics of this by-gone era. 




The find is of the greatest importance to anthropologists the world over, 
confirming as it does, the theory originally advanced when the giants 
were unearthed in the Santa Barbara Islands, that a superior race of 
Indians, both physically and mentally, preceded the Digger and other 
native races of the present day. This is evidenced also in the burial 
posture and the charm stones found near the body. 


TffV. WrtRLDi 




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Fig. 1.5. Bones of a giant found in southern California (The World, 1895) 




Land of the Giants 

While the idea of prehistoric giants inhabiting the United States may 
seem strange to us today or the result of some fantastic hoax, in the 
nineteenth century, reports of archaeological evidence regarding giants 
were commonplace. In addition, one must remember that America was 
an agrarian society at this time and its citizens were in regular contact 
with their fields, as well as the mounds and the remains they found 
while plowing. Knowledge of the giants was part of the current 
thinking, as was a heightened awareness of who the mound builders 
really were. As this chapter demonstrates, highly credible reports of 
skeletons and artifacts, from the eastern states to the Pacific Ocean, 
appeared in newspapers across the country with surprising frequency. 
The fact that this idea seems so strange to us today can be directly 
attributed, at least in part, to the role the Smithsonian played in 
suppressing the evidence, as attested by several of the reports 
documented here. 


Fig. 2.1. Giant skeleton from Serpent Mound of Adams County, Ohio 



The Lenni Lenape Indians were often referred to as a tribe of giants. 
Technically, their name translates as “the real people,” or “the human 
beings” in the Unami language. Their principle area of inhabitation 
encompassed much of southeastern New York State, including the 
lower Hudson River Valley and most of Long Island and Staten Island, 
as well as eastern Pennsylvania around the Delaware and Lehigh 
Valleys, in addition to the coastal regions that extend south to the north 
shore of Delaware. Another designation of the tribe was the “original 
people,” which is similar to the appellation of the Copper culture tribes 
of Michigan, which were called the “Old People,” and the Anasazi of 
the Southwest, who were called “The Ancient Ones.” Since their 
legends state that they originally migrated from the west, this is not 

Lenni Lenape legend relates what is no less than a mass exodus that 
began west of the Mississippi and involved the use of scouting parties 
that went out in search of suitable land. Although the legends are 
thought to be several hundred years old, research in chapter 10 


indicates that this migration may have happened as long ago as 5000 
BCE as a result of the cataclysmic explosion of the Lassen Volcano in 

Fig. 2.2. Lappawinsa, chief of the Lenni Lenape ( Lappawinsa , painted by 
Gustavus Hesselius in 1735, Library of Congress Rare Book and Special Division 



Fig. 2.3. Benjamin West’s painting (in 1771) of William Penn’s 1682 treaty with the 
Lenni Lenape Indians. Notice that the seated warrior is taller and whiter than 

anyone else present. 

An Account of the History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian 
Nations Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania and the Neighboring 
States, 1819 

By Rev. John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder 
The Lenni Lenape, according to the legends handed down to them 
by their ancestors, resided many hundreds of years ago in a very 
distant country in the western part of the American continent. 

For some reason I do not find accounted for, they determined on 
migrating to the eastward, and accordingly set out together in a 
body. After a very long journey, they fell in with the Mengwe 
(Iroquois), who likewise emigrated from a distant country. Their 
object was the same as with that of the Delawares. They were 
proceeding along to the eastward until they should find a country 
that pleased them. 

The spies, which the Lenape had sent forward for the purpose of 
reconnoitering, had discovered that the country east of the 
Mississippi was inhabited by a very powerful nation who had 
many large towns built on the great rivers flowing through their 
land. These people (as I was told) called themselves “Talligew” or 


“Talligewi.” Colonel John Gibson, however, a gentleman who has 
a thorough knowledge of the Indians and speaks several of [the 
languages], is of the opinion that they were not called Talligewi, 
but Alligewi. And it would seem that he is right, from the traces of 
their name which still remain in the country, the Allegheny River 
and mountains having indubitably been named after them. 

The Delawares still call the former the Alligewi Sipu, the River 
of the Alligewi. 



The Lenni Lenape eventually came in contact with the ancestor race of 
the Allegheny or Alligewi people, a race even greater in stature than the 
Lenni Lenape and known for their massive earthworks throughout the 
regions of Lake Erie and Lake Huron. Heckewelder continues: 

They are said to have been remarkably tall and stout, and there is a 
tradition that there were giants among them, people of a much 
larger size than the Lenape. It is related that they had built regular 
fortifications or entrenchments. I have seen many of the 
fortifications said to be built by them, two of which in particular 
were remarkable. One of them was near the mouth of the river 
Huron, which empties itself into the lake St. Claire, on the north 
side of that lake at a distance of about twenty miles northeast of 
Detroit. The other works, properly entrenchments, being walls or 
banks of earth regularly thrown up with a deep ditch on the 
outside, were on the Huron River east of Sandusky, about six or 
eight miles from Lake Erie. 


Fig. 2.4. Teedyuscung (1700-1763) was known as king of the Delawares. He 
worked to establish a Lenni Lenape (Delaware) home in eastern Pennsylvania in 
the Lehigh, Susquehanna, and Delaware River Valleys (King of the Delawares: 
Teedyuscung 1700-1763, courtesy of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum 


Outside of the gateways of these entrenchments were a number 
of large flat mounds, in which the Indian pilot said, were buried 
hundreds of slain Alligewi. 


When the Lenape arrived on the banks of the Mississippi, they 
sent a message to the Alligewi to request permission to settle 
themselves in their neighborhood. This was refused them but they 
obtained leave to pass through the country and seek settlement 
further to the eastward. They accordingly began to cross, when the 
Alligewi, seeing that their numbers were so very great, and, in fact, 
they consisted of many thousands, made a furious attack on those 
who had crossed, threatening them all with destruction if they 
dared to persist in coming over to their side of the river. Fired at 
the treachery of these people and the great loss of men they 
sustained, the Lenape consulted on what was to be done. Whether 
to retreat in the best manner they could, or try their strength and let 
the enemy see they were not cowards but men, and too high- 
minded to suffer themselves to be driven off before they had made 
a trial of their strength and were convinced that the enemy was too 
powerful for them. 


When the Mengwe, or Iroquois Indians, saw that the Lenni Lenape 
were losing the battle, they agreed to fight on their side in exchange for 
a promise that they would have a part in jointly ruling the conquered 
lands east of the Mississippi. The Alligewi were finally defeated, and it 
was said that they fled south down the Mississippi River, never to be 
seen again. Again, Heckewelder continues: 


Fig. 2.5. The giants Fafner and Fasolt seize Freya in Arthur Rackham’s illustration 
of Der Ring des Nibelungen by composer Richard Wagner. 

The Mengwe, who hitherto had been satisfied with being 
spectators from a distance, offered to join them on the condition 
that, after conquering the country, they should be entitled to share 
it with them. Their proposal was accepted and the resolution was 
taken by the two nations to conquer or die. 

Having thus united forces, the Lenape and Mengwe declared war 
against the Alligewi, and great battles were fought in which many 
warriors fell on both sides. The enemy fortified their large towns 


and erected fortifications, especially on large rivers and near lakes, 
where they were successively attacked and sometimes stormed by 
the allies. 

An engagement took place in which hundreds fell, who were 
afterward buried in holes or laid together in heaps and covered 
over with earth. No quarter was given, so that the Allegewi, at last 
finding that their destruction was inevitable if they persisted in 
their obstinacy, abandoned the country to the conquerors and fled 
down the Mississippi River from whence they never returned. 


_ CHARLEROI MAIL, MAY 7, 1953 _ 

The name “Monongahela” derives from the Indian river title, it being 
the name by which the Indian described the falling banks of the river as 
soil erosion loosened the earth on its sides and caused it to slip into the 
stream. The other two bodies of water also derive their name from the 
Indian: Mingo Creek (and the entire Mingo section) and Pigeon Creek. 

The Mingoes, with Chicka-Mingo as their Chief, inhabited the 
section to the north of what is now Monongahela, while Pigeon was the 
Chief of the great tribe which occupied for many seasons the waters of 
what is now called Pigeon Creek. 

Earlier Indians in this section of the county were “Mound Builders,” 
evidences of such still being apparent from the surface in several 
places. The “Mounds,” embracing the section surrounding Decker 
Street and the old Crall greenhouse property, took its name from the 
huge mound at the southern end of Decker Street. Mounds also have 
been discovered on the Van Voorhis farm and at a site near Elrama. 

The Elrama mound revealed 45 skeletons, giving proof that the 
Mound Builders lived here 10,000 years ago. 

The late George S. Fisher, Finleyville archaeologist, made 
excavations at the site and reported that the largest skeleton was seven 
feet five inches in length. The bones, unearthed in pieces, were put 
together and sent to the museum at Harrisburg. At a distance of 29 feet 
behind the mound, another terrace was apparently a place of sacrifice to 
the Diety. Here were found beads, knives, bear tusks, arrow points and 
clay ovens. 


Fisher, during his years as an Indian authority, excavated more than 
one thousand skeletons, claims this 1953 article in the local 
Pennsylvania newspaper. There were more than one hundred campsites 
marked in the immediate district and a number were not yet listed. 




At Petersburg, Kentucky, twenty-five miles below here, an excavation 
for a new building has brought to light a peculiar find; it being a 
strange-looking Indian grave, the receptacle of which has been made of 
stone and clay, formed into a kind of cement, about three feet in height, 
and fully nine feet in length. 

Within the rude vault lay a giant human skeleton that measured 
seven feet, two inches, in length. The bones were all of large 
proportions, and the monstrous skull, with teeth perfect and intact, was 
more than half an inch thick at the base. 

A number of copper pieces, evidently worn for ornaments, a stone 
pipe, and a quantity of arrowheads were found with the decaying bones. 


In the diary entry below, written in 1792, General John Payne reports 
uncovering an ancient burial ground along the banks of the Ohio River 
in Kentucky. A total of 110 skeletons were removed, the tallest 
measuring in at seven feet tall. 

Diary of General John Payne, 1792 

From The Natural and Aboriginal History ol Tennessee 
by Dr. John Haywood 

The bottom on which Augusta is situated is a large burying ground 
of the ancients. They have been found in great number and of all 
sizes. From the cellar under my dwelling, over 110 skeletons were 
taken. I measured them by skulls, and there might have been more 
whose skulls had crumbled into dust. The skeletons were in all 
sizes, from 7 feet to infant. Dave Kilgour, who was a tall and very 


large man, passed our village at the time I was excavating my 
cellar, and we took him down and applied a thigh bone to his. The 
man, if well-proportioned, must have been 10 to 12 inches taller 
than Kilgour. The lower jawbone would slip over his skin and all. 

A Survey of Archaeological Activity in Tennessee, 1835 

In the county of Williamson, on the north side of Little Harpeth, in 
the lands owned by Captain Stocket northwardly from Franklin, 
are walls of dirt running north from the river and east and west. 

In 1821 they were four or five feet high, and in length from the 
river between 490 and 300 yards. There is a ditch on the outside all 
around, four or five feet in width, partly filled up. Upon the soil, 
which has partly filled it up, are black oaks two feet or more in 
diameter. A spring of excellent water is in the middle of the 
enclosure and a branch runs from it into the river through the 
interval left by the wall of its passage. The enclosure contains 40 
or 30 acres. 

Three mounds are in the inside, standing in a row north to south, 
and near the wall and ditch on the north side of the area. All these 
mounds are of nearly the same size. Within the enclosure are a vast 
amount of graves, all of them enclosed within rocks, and the bones 
are very large. James McGlaughlin, who is seven feet high, applied 
one of the thigh bones found there to his thigh, and it was three or 
four inches longer than his thigh. 


The tight-lipped account below concerns a giant skull found by a 
museum curator from Ohio State University. This burial is interesting 
in that it combines several of the burial motifs previously discussed. 
First of all the skeleton was found inside a log hut buried in the mound. 
Second, the skeleton’s arms and legs were wrapped in half-inch-thick 
bracelets. Third, the skeleton itself was seven feet tall, with a skull 
twenty-five inches in circumference. 





Clarence Loveberry, curator of the Museum of Ohio State University, 
has made remarkable discoveries in a large Indian mound. He is 
excavating just outside the city limits. Several days ago he found a 
well-preserved log hut in the interior of the mound, and yesterday he 
found a skeleton of the occupant of the log hut. 

The skeleton’s wrists were wrapped with copper cerements, 
indicating it to be that of a distinguished person. The skull was at least 
half-an-inch in thickness. 



Discovery of ancient skeletons and priceless relics in an Indian mound 
in North Benton, northwest of Salem, by two Alliance, Ohio mail 
carriers, has brought hundreds of visitors to the scene and attracted the 
attention of expert archaeologists. The two amateur archaeologists Roy 
Saltsman and Willis Magrath, made the excavation on the farm of John 
Malmsberry. After examining the mound, Richard G. Morgan, state 
archaeologist, declared that the work of the two Alliance men was the 
most important archaeological discovery in this section of the state in 
recent years. He estimated the age of the findings at more than 2,000 
years old. 

One skeleton uncovered was that of a man, apparently a chief, 
estimated to have been seven feet tall, whose skull was 25 inches in 

Other findings included flint arrows, the stones of three sacrificial 
altars, spear heads, flake knives and beautifully wrought objects of 


This is one of many accounts that report a giant’s jaw was big enough 
to fit over that of a normal man. In this case the burial field was thought 
to contain between two and three thousand skeletons. 

History of Ashtabula County, 1800 

The graves were distinguished by slight depressions in the surface 


of the earth, deposited in straight rows. The number of these graves 
has been estimated to be between two and three thousand. Aaron 
Wright— made a careful examination of these depressions, and 
found them invariably to contain human bones, blackened with 
time, which upon exposure to the air quickly crumbled to dust. 

Some of these bones were of unusual size, and evidently 
belonged to a race aligned with giants. Skulls were taken from 
these mounds of which were of sufficient capacity to admit the 
skull of a normal man, and jawbones that may be fitted over the 
face with equal facility. The bones of the upper and lower 
extremities were of corresponding size. 


There have been a number of intriguing finds in Indiana over the years. 
The following article describes how an Indiana farmer found eight 
skeletons, one clad in copper armor, buried together in a circle. 




Another discovery was made of eight skeletons, one clad in copper 
armor, buried in a perfect circle, made when the Logan Grays, a 
military group led by A. M. Jones, were conducting military exercises 
in 1888 on a small island on Eagle Lake near Warsaw, Indiana. Under a 
flat stone, they discovered a hole that led to the entrance to a secret 
cave with the skeleton of a 6'9" giant buried next to a stream that led to 
what was called a sacred pool. It is interesting to note that the 
dimensions of this secret room are almost identical to one described in 
Tennessee, i.e. 25 feet long by 15 feet wide by 8 feet deep, branching 
out at the middle to form two rooms. 





A member of the Logan Grays, the crack military organization of 
Logansport that held its encampment this year at Eagle Lake, near 
Warsaw stopped in this city on his way home from camp and told the 
following story of the discovery by the party of a cavern on an island in 
Eagle Lake; A.M. Jones rowed to a small island near the southwest 
corner of the lake and began digging for worms. 

He turned over a large, flat stone near a tree, and under it was a small 
hole, which was an entrance to a cave. Jones called the boys up, and we 
began an exploration of the cavern, which proved to be twenty-five feet 
long, fifteen feet wide, and eight feet deep. The walls are of a natural 
formation of stone, branching out at the middle so as to form two 

In the front room was the skeleton of a man six feet nine inches long. 
The bones were very large, indicating great strength. Along one side of 
the cave runs a small stream of water, as pure as crystal. In the front of 
it forms a small pool. In this were a number of bones. Old settlers in 
this vicinity of the lake claim that the skeleton is that of Eagleonkie, the 
giant Indian chief who lived alone on this island and mysteriously 
disappeared during a severe winter. The island was known after this 
chief and was once known as Giant Island. 


From 1891, we find this news report on skeletons found in the aptly 
named city of Carthage, Illinois. 



No little excitement has been occasioned by the discovery on a farm 
near Carthage of several skeletons in a mound that are doubtless those 
of prehistoric people. In regard to this historic find the Carthage 
Republican newspaper will publish the following. 

The Sweney Farm Mounds, located near the south line of the farm 
quarter, on Section Five, Carthage Township, have been a familiar 
landmark to the oldest citizens since, and the quarter was entered by 
Samuels in 1836, or thereabouts. 


Last Saturday afternoon the new owner of the Sweney Farm Indian 
Mounds was plowing on one of his mounds when he hit a series of 
sandstone blocks. On the removal of several sandstone rocks embedded 
in the ground, the owner Mr. Felt procured a spade and proceeded to 
dig out the rocks with some difficulty. 

On the removal of these rocks there was revealed an almost perfect 
skeleton of a man of very large size. The authorities of Carthage 
College have secured permission to investigate the find to its fullest 
extent and Rev. Dr. Stephen D. Peet has been notified. 


This definitive report states that the entire country lying between the 
Illinois and Mississippi Rivers, between Galena and Cairo, is 
honeycombed with Indian mounds. 



Near Carthage, Illinois, about one year ago, a mound was plowed up 
and the bones, principally the skulls of human beings, were found in 
sufficient quantities to warrant the conclusion that hundreds of people 
had been buried there. From measurements taken of some of the skulls 
and principal bones, it was decided that the persons buried were of a 
race of giants. Some of the femur bones measured 1914 inches, and the 
measurements of the skulls and other bones indicated that these people 
must have attained an average of seven to eight feet in height. 

The entire country lying between the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers, 
between Galena and Cairo, is honeycombed with Indian mounds and 
mounds that are believed to be the handiwork of a pre-historic race. 
Nansook County, especially in localities bordering the Mississippi 
River, is covered with evidences of Indian burials and their mounds are 
very numerous. Some interesting discoveries have been made. 

Some of the best descriptions of the finds of the mound builders are to 
be found in county and state historical society reports. This one from 
1902 reports the discovery of fields of mounds along Lake Michigan, 
as well as along related rivers, creeks, and lakes, with the skeletons of 


giants uncovered measuring between seven and eight feet in height. 

The History of Lake County, Illinois, 1902 

These mounds were quite numerous along the rivers and in the 
vicinity of the inland lakes. That they were of great antiquity is 
evident from the fact that huge trees had come to maturity upon 
their summits and were awaiting the ax of the pioneer. 

Excavations of these piles of earth have revealed the crumbling 
bones of a mighty race. Samuel Miller, who has resided in this 
county since 1835, is authority for the statement that one skeleton, 
which he assisted in unearthing, was a trifle more than eight feet in 
length, the skull being correspondingly large, while many other 
skeletons measured at least seven feet. There were extensive burial 
grounds on the shore of Lake Michigan, mainly south of the 
Waukegan River, also at various points all through the county. 
Many of the skeletons found near the lake shore were of an 
unusually large size. 


In 1930, newspapers across the country ran half-page photos of more 
than fifty skeletons laid out on various dirt platforms in the middle of a 
large archaeological dig, led by the University of Chicago. It was a 
truly riveting photo and was used in many year-end features as one of 
the top stories and photographs of the entire year. Eighty-three years 
later, in a museum at the site, there is no mention of what was then 
called “the largest Neolithic burial site ever discovered in the world.” 

The story of Don Dickson and his mounds could serve as a 
microcosmic primer for many of the stories pertaining to the recovery 
of ancient bones and the true history of America. In this case, the 
political correctness fallout that resulted in the Native American Graves 
Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) laws once again being 
misapplied eventually led to a once-thriving tourist destination being 
shut down and the skeletons it exhibited being buried by a local Indian 
tribe who have no genetic relation to the skeletons they claim to 

To give a little background, Don Dickson, a chiropractor from 


Lewiston, Illinois, grew up on a farm about ninety miles south of 
Peoria that was intersected by the Illinois River. In 1927, Dickson was 
plowing on a hill near the river, and he broke through to a layer of clay 
and gravel that he immediately recognized as an ancient Indian burial. 
Dickson then spent the next two years excavating the site, most 
famously with the help of the University of Chicago in 1929 and 1930. 

What they found and how they left it became a national news story. 
In short, instead of removing 248 skeletons, they exposed them to the 
air by removing all the dirt surrounding them and leaving them in situ 
to be photographed and visited like some colossal ancient boneyard 
sideshow. In all, it was estimated that the site contained well over three 
thousand burials, and the University of Chicago was calling it the 
largest Neolithic burial site in the world. 

Fig. 2.6. Don Dickson (courtesy of Illinois State Museum) 

In the early 1930s, Dickson constructed a building to house the 
exposed skeleton field and opened the site to tourists. In the first year 
he had forty thousand visitors, and the whole venture became a national 
tourist destination, as people loved being able to see these large 
skeletons displayed in situ—though in all probability not in their 
original, and far more bizarre, burial positions. 


Dickson successfully ran the tourist operation until 1945, when he 
sold the mounds to the state of Illinois, who made the site part of their 
state museum system in 1965. The Dickson Mounds averaged about 
seventy-five thousand visitors a year, who were exposed not only to the 
skeletons, but also to a history lesson on the mound builders and their 
extremely ancient history in the area. 

All of that came to an acrimonious end beginning in 1990, when 
Native Americans began to petition and protest that the site be shut 
down and sealed and that the skeletons should be reburied under 
NAGPRA, which was then brand new. The NAGPRA laws mandated 
that all Indian relics and skeletons be returned to their rightful tribal 
owners. After several years of battle in court revolving around 
ownership issues pertaining to the lack of genetic associations of the 
skeletons to the current local tribes, among other controversial subjects, 
the Indians won out and the mound exhibit was shut down and sealed in 
1992. The site remained closed for the next two years, as the tribes 
involved reburied an undisclosed number of skeletons found at the site, 
which ultimately is known to have contained more than three thousand 

When the “renovated” museum reopened two years later, without the 
open boneyard exhibit, interest in the site as a tourist attraction 
immediately disappeared, and although the site remains opened to this 
day, it generates very little interest from the public in regard to its new, 
cleaned-up, skeleton-free existence. 



It is hard to imagine today, but the historical record is filled with vivid 
descriptions of how Wisconsin and Minnesota were like the Nazca 
Lines of burial mounds, so it comes as no surprise that giants have been 
turning up there for a long time. 

This case covers the involvement of the Smithsonian at a Wisconsin 
site in the 1880s and a collection of ancient skeletons of giants called 
the Stoddard Collection, so it is of particular interest to our study of 
that museum’s long-standing policy of burying the evidence when it 
comes to proof of ancient giants ruling America in extreme antiquity. 




More than fifty skeletons of the ancient mound builders were unearthed 
Saturday from five mounds in the town of Stoddard, by a party of 
Normal students and professors, who made a special trip to investigate 
them. Valuable relics were also recovered that will be on exhibition at 
the Normal museum. 

The country around La Crosse has long been known as the center of 
Indian activities in centuries long past and as evidences of this fact 
there are many Indian mounds in this vicinity. 

About thirty years ago agents of the Smithsonian Institution in 
Washington D.C., investigated several mounds in what is now the town 
of Stoddard. They unearthed much valuable material in the line of 
skeletons, arrow heads, and spear heads from the first few of a chain of 
a dozen mounds and at the present time there is in Washington a 
Stoddard Collection of Indian relics. 

Since that time Smithsonian officials have often considered opening 
more of the mounds but nothing has been done. Spurred on by the 
generous offer of A. White, who owns the ground on which are located 
five large mounds, to donate the contents to the Normal School 
Museum (apparently no help from Smithsonian officials), the Normal 
authorities recently took the matter up, and several local citizens 
generously provided a fund for the expenses of an expedition to unearth 
the contents. 


Professors A. H. Sanford and W. H. Thompson of the University of 
Wisconsin Department of History, and L. P. Deneyer of the Geology 
Department, together with a company of thirteen students left on 
Saturday morning with shovels to examine the ancient graves. 
Professor Austin and some of his students surveyed and made a contour 
map of the field determining the dimensions of the mounds and the lay 
of the surrounding country. The expedition was of a scientific 


character, and the results of the investigations will appear in printed 

A large mound in the center, probably the grave of an Indian chief, 
was adjoined by two smaller ones on each side. The latter were 
investigated first and the efforts of the diggers were rewarded at once 
by the unearthing of a skeleton about five feet down, which measured 
six and a half feet in length. 

The skull was very large being eight inches in diameter from ear to 
ear. The teeth were well preserved, but the other bones quickly fell to 
pieces. The first mound yielded eleven skeletons. The second contained 
only charcoal and burned bones indicating cremation. 



The middle mound, which was the largest, required much effort to 
excavate. More than twenty skeletons were found besides the bowl of a 
clay peace pipe, a copper arrow head, copper skinning knife, a 
sandstone spearhead, and several flint arrow heads. The fourth 
eminence yielded over twenty five skeletons, pieces of clay pottery, 
and a bear’s tooth. The last mound, after digging about six feet down, 
brought up a large spear point of quartz with a red coloring design on 
each side. Adjoining the White farm is property owned by Homer Hart 
of La Crosse on which are located several more mounds. 




An Indian skeleton was dug up on the farm of Matt and Joseph Leon, 
one mile south of St. Cloud on Saturday. There is nothing strange in 
finding an Indian skeleton, but this one was a giant in size, his frame 
measuring seven feet. He must have been a man of note among his 
people, for he was buried in a large mound, sixteen handsome arrows 
surrounding his body. The skull was brought to this city and is on 
exhibition in one of the Main Street windows. 





Indian mounds and relics are found in various parts of this township. 
Not long since, while some men were digging in Mineral Bluff, some 
one hundred and fifty feet above the river, a skeleton of unusual size 
was unearthed. On measuring, the skeleton was found to be ten feet in 
length, with other parts in proper proportion. In the skull was found a 
copper hatchet and a dart or arrow-head nine inches long. Another 
skeleton, nine feet long, was found in the village of Dresbach, while 
some men were digging a road or trench. These skeletons were of an 
unusual size to those generally taken from Indian mounds. Their size, 
form, and structure would lead those well versed in paleontology to 
believe they belonged to a race prior to the Indian. In many mounds 
have also been found copper hatchets, chisels, and various kinds of 
tomahawks and other weapons of war; also these antique races seemed 
to have had some process for hardening copper unknown to any 
modern process. 

Where they came from, when they lived, and from whence they have 
gone, is only conjecture and speculation. That they were mighty races, 
skilled in the mode of warfare, understanding the mechanical arts, for 
all these we have conclusive evidence. But of their final end we know 


Throughout the Indian lore of giants are also stories of skulls being 
found with double rows of teeth, called double dentitions. (See also 
“Double Dentitions” .! While there is often controversy regarding these 
claims, here is a modest and convincing story. 



The discovery in Hardin County a short time ago by Joseph Booda and 
Elliot Charles Gaines of innumerable mound builders’ relics, and the 
subsequent finding, by other parties, of the remains of a man of the 


prehistoric period, have greatly interested scientists in other parts of the 
country, the chief among these being Curator Charles Aldrich, of the 
state Horticultural Society. 

Assuring himself of the truthfulness of the various newspaper 
reports, Mr. Aldrich has arranged to be in Eldora next month and begin 
a careful and systematic exploration of some of the mounds in the 
vicinity, the legal permission having been obtained. 

In a large show window in Eldora for several days has been 
exhibited the skeleton of the man, which was found in a mound on the 
banks of the Iowa River, near Eagle City, six miles north. It has caused 
much interest and wonderment. Although well preserved, it is estimated 
that the skeleton is many centuries old. The skull is very large and 
thick, fully a quarter of an inch. A set of almost round double teeth are 
remarkably well preserved. They are yellow with age, are perfect in 
shape, and appear to have been double, both above and below. The 
femurs are very long showing a giant in stature. 

Dr. N. C. Morse, a prominent physician who examined the skeleton, 
pronounced it that of a person who had evidently been trained for 
athletics, as the extremities were so well developed. 


Joseph Booda, who has taken much interest in mound exploration, has 
a rare collection of implements of the stone age, all found near Eldora. 
Among these are pottery axes, arrows, beadwork, pestles, mallets, and, 
although he has offers for the collection, will not part with it, unless he 
may be induced by Curator Aldrich to loan the collection to the state, to 
be placed in the historical building in Des Moines when completed. 




Out of a mound in Iowa was dug the skeleton of a giant who, judging 
from the measurement of his bones, must have stood six inches over 
seven feet high when he was alive. In another there was a central 
chamber containing eleven skeletons arranged in a circle with their 


backs against the walls. In the midst was a huge sea shell which had 
been converted into a drinking cup. 



Within the last few weeks it has been reported from Missouri the 
discovery of the skeleton of a man who was a trifle more than seven 
feet, two inches tall. Frank Plumb, a student of archaeology who made 
the find, reported discovering inside the skull a pear-shaped stone such 
as the Mayas placed in the mouths of their dead. 

The article below, which appeared all over Texas and the nation in 
1931, omits all information about the size of the skeletons in an 
obvious effort to hide the skeletons’ actual heights. It is standard 
practice for all archaeologists to give heights for any skeletons they 



_ REVIEW-MINER, JUNE 19, 1931 _ 

Waco, Texas: Twenty-five complete human frames, those of Indian 
Braves and Squaws and their papooses with such of their possessions as 
have survived burial, have been unearthed near here and today are in 
the museums of three Texas schools. 

The twenty-five bodies were placed in the burial mound, each facing 
East, more than 100 years ago. They were discovered by Dr. K. D. 
Aynesworth thirty miles west of here in Coryell County. The mound 
was explored by The Department of Anthropology and Archaeology of 
The University of Texas. 

The first of the three layers of bodies was only 21 inches below the 
surface and the second layer was just below the first. The third tier was 
36 inches deep. Beside the bodies of the women were the large rock 
bowls and the round-headed clubs they used to grind corn. Arrows and 


spearheads of flint were found near the bones of the men. One bone 
knife, ten inches in length, its back notched, was found by the side of 
one brave. 


The bones were divided between the State University at Austin; Baylor 
Women’s College at Belton; and Baylor University here. 




(Associated Press ) Kathryn N.D.: The remains of an Indian woman, 
judged by some to be at least 1,000 years old, have been unearthed 
from a burial mound on the Vincent Zacharias farm four miles east of 
here. The skeleton was found about two feet below the surface. The 
body had been buried in a sitting position and nearly all the skeletal 
bones were found intact. 

Two men from the Smithsonian Institution visited the farm recently 
and made an analysis of the skeleton. They estimated the remains were 
those of an Indian woman about 23 to 25 years of age and that she had 
been buried about 1,000 years ago. 



Ogden, Utah: Evidences of a group of Utah natives who had no housing 
problems were uncovered by earth-moving machinery at the Willard 
Bay Dam this week. A bulldozer scraped off the top of an Indian 
mound in which artifacts and a human skeleton were found. Bureau of 
Reclamation men stopped work at the site and notified the University 
of Utah. 

James H. Gunnerson of the archaeology department of the university 
visited the area Tuesday with Robert Robinson of 665 Polk, a field 
engineer with the bureau. Mr. Gunnerson said the remains were those 


of a group of Pueblo-type Indians who inhabited the area from AD 
1000 to 1200. 

“From signs and artifacts, there had been a village of several dirt 
houses at the site,” the Utah University man said. 


The Utah scientists said these people were farmers, who raised corn, 
squash and beans. They had a certain culture, he said, which was 
indicated by a piece of broken pottery with a decorative line around its 

The skeleton was complete, except for the skull. Mr. Robinson said 
that the scientists estimated the skeleton was that of an adult about 5 
feet 10 inches in height, somewhat taller than average for this race of 
early Indians. 

An employee at the University of Utah yesterday quoted Dr. 
Gunnerson as saying the archaeology department has no plans for 
further exploration at the Willard dam site. 


This story from the Nevada News relates how Dr. F. Bruce Russell, 
following up on reports that the Smithsonian had hidden evidence of 
giants found in Death Valley, eventually uncovered a complex of 
thirty-two caves in a 180-square-mile area around the Nevada- 
California-Arizona border. Inside the complex of caves, he reported 
finding the skeletons of eight- and nine-foot giants dressed in animal 
skins that had been tailored into jackets and pants that resembled 
“prehistoric Zoot-suits.” Russell also reported finding hieroglyphics, 
extensive weapons, religious artifacts, and cooking utensils, and at the 
end of a hall leading from the main temple he said there was a room 
filled with the well-preserved remains of dinosaurs, saber-toothed 
tigers, imperial elephants, and other extinct beasts paired off in niches 
as if on display. 





Near the Nevada-California-Arizona border area, 32 caves within a 
180-square-mile area were discovered to hold the remains of ancient, 
strangely costumed 8-9 foot giants. They had been laid to rest wearing 
the skins of unknown animals similar to sheepskins fashioned into 
jackets with pants described as “prehistoric Zoot-suits.” The same 
burial place had been found 10-15 years earlier by another man who 
made a deal with the Smithsonian. The evidence of his find was stolen 
and covered up by Darwinian scientists. 

Dr. F. Bruce Russell had come to Death Valley from the east coast 
for the sake of his health. He had taken up mining in the west and was 
exploring across the Colorado River into Arizona. What he found he 
described as the burial place of a tribal hierarchy within the ritual hall 
of an ancient people. He felt that some unknown catastrophe had driven 
them into these caves. All of the implements of their civilization were 
there, including household utensils and stoves. Dr. Russell reported 
seeing hieroglyphics chiseled on carefully polished granite within what 
appeared to be a cavern temple. Another cave led to their sacred hall, 
which contained carvings of ritual devices and markings similar to 
those of the Masonic Order. A long tunnel from this temple led to a 
room where, Russell said, “Well-preserved remains of dinosaurs, saber- 
toothed tigers, imperial elephants, and other extinct beasts were paired 
off in niches as if on display.” 

Ten to fifteen years earlier the caves had been seen by another miner 
who had fallen from the bottom of a mineshaft. In his book. Death 
Valley Men, Bourke Lee related a conversation among residents of 
Death Valley concerning the local Paiute Native American legends of 
an underground city at Wingate Pass. After falling through the ceiling 
of an unknown tunnel, the miner had followed it 20 miles north of the 
Panamint Mountains to discover a huge ancient underground city. He 
saw arching stone vaults with huge stone doors and a polished round 
table in the center of their council chamber, which had once been lit by 
ingenious lights, fueled by subterranean gases. 

Leaning against the walls were their tall gold spears. He said that the 
designs on their thick golden armbands resembled the work of the 
Egyptians. The tunnel ended at an exit overlooking Furnace Creek 
Ranch in California’s Imperial Valley. He could see from there that the 
valley had once been underwater. The tunnel entrance had been a dock 


or a quay located halfway up the side of the mountain. A deal was 
made with the Smithsonian Museum for the find, but the miner was 
betrayed by his partner. The evidence was stolen and the entrance 
concealed. In a 1940 mining journal, another find was reported of much 
worked gold found in an 8 mile long cave near San Bernardino. 

University of Arizona professor Vine Deloria, himself a Native 
American, made a similar accusation against the Smithsonian for 
covering up the remains found within the burial mounds of the 
Moundbuilder civilization. Surviving diaries from before the time of 
Darwin attest to these discoveries. The Moundbuilders were a different 
civilization than that of the Indians, they said. The mounds contained 
the remains of hundreds of giants along with the bones of giant 
mastodons. In Cincinnati, Ohio, the giant bones were found with large 
shields, swords, and engraved stone tablets. In Kentucky and Tennessee 
the bones of “powerful men of towering stature” were excavated. One 
of these 7-foot men was buried with an engraved copper plate beneath 
his head. A woman was also found. She was wearing a silver girdle 
with letters written on it. The Detroit Free Press reported in 1884 the 
discovery in Gartersville, Mississippi, of the remains of a giant with 
waistlength jet-black hair. He was wearing a copper crown. With him 
in his timber burial vault were his children who wore garments 
decorated with bone beads. The tomb was covered with large flagstones 
engraved with inscriptions. In Cayuga Township, Niagara, there is a 
place called “The Cemetery of the Giants,” which was discovered in 
1880. Those giants were nine feet tall and appear to have died violent 
deaths. Their axes were found with them. 

Giant bones were also unearthed from a rock fissure on Lake Erie 
Island. In some of the finds of giant bones, the bones lay in confusion 
as if left on a battlefield. The Smithsonian does display some artifacts 
of the Moundbuilders found with the bones of the giants: shell discs 
and carved stone beads. Many of the bones turned to powdery ash 
within a short time of being exposed to the air. The Smithsonian has 
been reluctant to test some less fragile finds. The late Vine Deloria said 
that it is because they “Might find a really early date for the bones” and 
that it would be distressing: distressing to their Darwinian time-line. 






More than 4000 artifacts and hundreds of Indian burials have been 
excavated at the site of the Tulamni Company lease near Taft during 
the past three and a half months. It was revealed here today with the 
announcement that the camp of workers, supported by federal funds, 
will all be dispersed by Friday. 

The archaeological projects, which have employed varyingly from 
190 to the 26 men retained to make the final surveys, have been 
directed by Dr. W. T. Strong and W. M. Walker, assistant, from the 
Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution with Dr. 
Edwin F. Walker as archaeologist and W. R. Wedel as assistant 
archaeologist. In the opinion of the directors, two more months could 
be spent excavating the Kern Indian Mounds. 

The artifacts uncovered, classified, and shipped to the Smithsonian 
Institution include mortar and pestles, flint points, bone tools, textiles, 
shells, and soapstone beads and other ornaments, stone vessels, and 
fragments of basketry. 

A total of 564 skeletons were uncovered in the burial mounds, of 
which 348 were taken from the first mound. Not all the skeletons found 
were considered good specimens. One of the last to be uncovered had 
been interred in a round hole with the body flexed grotesquely to make 
it fit the chosen grave. Three thousand specimens were uncovered in 
the first mound and 1,000 from the second mound, which was conceded 
to be much older in time than the first. 


A topography map of the mounds and the excavation area has been 
made by Pavey L. Stanley of Bakersfield, who headed one of the 
excavation crews, and it will be filed with the collection at the 

Mr. Walker is returning to Washington D.C. and will study the local 
collection and write a report on the finds for the Smithsonian Institution 


that will make clear Kern County’s contribution to filling in the larger 
picture of pre-historic human life on the American continent. 



Students of early California history have turned their attention to the 
discovery of an early Indian burial ground near Carpinteria, uncovered 
unexpectedly by a crew of workmen making a cut through a cliff for a 
road to the beach. Some of the traditional Indian burial customs were 
revealed as the great steam shovel tore open the graves. The skeletons 
were found lying face down, foreheads resting on surfaced stones, with 
arrowheads, cooking utensils, and other articles buried with them. The 
story of the savages’ graves was related in Los Angeles by George A. 
McDonald, local broker, on whose property the burial ground was 
uncovered by a drilling crew engaged in running a road to the beach for 
oil-drilling work. 


For 80 feet from the place where a steam shovel started digging into the 
edge of the cliff, which drops straight to the ocean’s edge, skeletons of 
Indians were uncovered by the score, according to McDonald. In the 
majority of the graves the Indians were lying on their faces, their heads 
toward the west. In one grave a mother and her child were discovered, 
the mother had one arm half-circling the infant. Close by was the 
skeleton of a brave. Imbedded in his forehead was an arrow, one which 
undoubtedly struck him down during battle more than a century ago. 

Hundreds of arrowheads, a number of grinding and mixing bowls, 
and other articles were buried with the bodies. Many of the skulls have 
been removed from the property with the permission of the owner. 
When Roscoe Eames, drilling superintendent, encountered the old 
burial ground he immediately halted excavation and made a 
preliminary investigation. He asked McDonald for permission to 
continue, and given the right, resumed building the road to the edge of 
the cliff and throughout the entire distance turned up many of the 



When word was received of the discovery at Carpinteria, classes from 
nearby schools were dismissed to visit the old burial grounds and to 
study the various finds. According to McDonald the cemetery may 
stretch many feet out and around the road under construction, and 
hundreds of skeletons probably would be found if that entire area were 

Parts of skeletons could be seen sticking out over the edge of the 
newly excavated portion of the road, and these were pulled out of the 
ground by members of the steam shovel crew and tossed in a heap. 
Sightseers removed the pieces. McDonald owns the property and for 
many feet into the ocean fronting the old burial ground. The oil well 
will be drilled out in the ocean and within a stone’s throw of the 




Clues from Mastodons and Carbon Dating 

One of the most amazing aspects of the findings related to the 
prehistory of America is their extreme antiquity. The dates of early 
finds were often estimated based on the ages of trees that had grown up 
over previously inhabited sites, such as in the following excerpt from A 
History of Miami County, Ohio, 1880. As testing became more 
sophisticated with carbon dating and other analyses, the dates of the 
finds kept getting pushed back, from hundreds to thousands of years. 
Scientists are now getting dates of 14,000 BCE for some of their finds 
in the Americas. 

There were several mounds, which indicate the existence, in this 
locality, of a prehistoric race. The largest of these earthworks 
embraces about two acres in extent, and is some three feet high. 
Various pieces of workmanship found upon the spot, such as 
arrow-heads, pieces of pottery, and images carved upon stone, go 
to prove that these people were not totally unacquainted with the 
fine arts, and that they possessed more than the ordinary 
intelligence of the Indian. 

Upon this mound a human skeleton was plowed up, which, 
although badly decayed, was judged, by those who examined it, to 
have been that of a man at least seven feet in height. An ash tree, 
more than one hundred years old, growing on one of the mounds, 
shows that they must have been built at a period of time very 
remote from the present. 

At other sites, careful archaeological study resulted in estimates of a 
few thousand years before, such as the discoveries of the Iowa 
Archaeological Survey in association with the WPA mentioned in the 
following article from 1935 or those of the State University of Iowa, as 
described in the 1958 article. 





Thousands of years before the arrival of the white pioneers to what is 
now Emmet County, Iowa, there inhabited in this section of Northern 
Iowa, a strange race of people whom science has named the “mound 
builders.” Evidence of this race has been found at various points in 
north central Iowa, especially along the shores of Lake Okoboji, and 
other bodies of water, such as creeks and rivers. These artifacts, in the 
shape of arrow heads, pottery, spear heads, axes, and some human 
skeleton remains give to archaeologists the story of this strange race 
that is believed to have antedated the white pioneers by at least 2,000 

Traces of extinct fortifications, burial, ceremonial, and effigy 
mounds have been found near Milford and Spirit Lake, in Dickinson 
County, and a line drawn east and west along Emmet and Kossuth 
counties. These mounds, and other artificial tumuli could have been 
erected only by the mound builders, as they are known to have been the 
only cultured race of ancient times of the North American continent 
capable of erecting these works of antiquity. Owing to their erection of 
these mounds, the term “mound builder” has been applied to their race 
and culture. 




The first excavation of a pre-historic Indian village in Iowa has 
revealed pottery and some stone tools which indicate the village was 
established some 3,000 years ago. Although the artifacts are not the 
oldest found in Iowa, the discoveries 80 inches below the surface of the 
ground may be considered a major archaeological find, according to R. 


J. Ruppe, State University of Iowa assistant professor of sociology and 
anthropology. Dr. Rnppe is directing a field expedition of 16 SUI 
students on the Indian village site located east of Wapello near 
Toolesboro in Louisa County. 

The site, on a 200-foot-high bluff overlooking the Iowa River, is near 
a series of large burial mounds where extensive archaeological 
exploration was carried out in the 1870s by the Davenport Academy of 
Science. The prehistoric village site was called to Dr. Ruppe’s attention 
after a roadway was cut through the bluff and large black stains in the 
clay hill indicated it was the site of a number of storage pits, which the 
Indians filled with broken pottery, flint chips, charcoal, bones, and 
other trash. 

The 3,000-year-old crumbly pottery called “Marion-thick,” is 
extremely thick and coarse tempered. Excavation will be continued 
through the summer to determine whether the village site may have 
been inhabited even earlier than 1000 BC. “We’re not sure yet how 
deep we’ll have to go to before we hit a ‘sterile’ level where there are 
no further artifacts,” Dr. Ruppe said. 

He explained that the materials found at the various depths show no 
single, extensive period of occupation to indicate intermittent 
occupation from 1000 BC to 1400 BC. The articles found at the 30-inch 
depth indicate that the Indians who used them belonged to the “early 
Woodland period,” which followed from 500 BC. Other artifacts are 
dated in the “Hopewell period,” which followed from 500 BC to AD 
500. Artifacts close to the surface are of the “late Woodland period” of 
500 to about AD 1400. A broken pottery vessel about 20 inches in 
diameter and estimated to be 1,400 years old was found by the students 
at Lake Odessa, several miles from the village site. They have 
reconstructed about half of the cordmarker, mud colored vessel. “It is 
one of the few found with all the broken pieces in one place,” Dr. 
Ruppe said. 

Thousands of artifacts have been found since the group of SUI 
students began digging at the village site. In one pit, 4,268 flint flakes 
were uncovered. Also found were arrowheads, fragments of smoking 
pipes, fish scalers, various types of bones, much charcoal and obsidian, 
and a type of volcanic glass used in making tools. Each item, when 
discovered as the students shave a quarter of an inch of earth with their 


trowels, is recorded on maps to show exactly where and at what depth 
it was found. After being carefully cleaned and labeled, all items are 
sent to SUI to be analyzed further this fall in the classroom. From this 
information the students will be able to reconstruct the lay-out of the 
village and gain an insight into the Indian culture. 

After carbon dating was developed, truly mind-boggling results 
emerged, as the articles quoted below make clear. The results have 
been reinforced by some startling finds that indicate the coexistence of 
the giants with mastodons, which became extinct some twelve thousand 
years ago. 




It’s just about time to dust off the buckets, break out the pickaxes and 
take another look at North America’s earliest residents. They lived just 
down the road from the village of Phoenix—11,000 years ago. Last 
summer anthropologists from the Buffalo Museum of Science spent 
several weeks digging on a hilltop near Route 264 about four miles 
north of the village. They plan to return May 16 to June 4, to dig again. 
Michael Gramly, curator of anthropology at the museum, said residents 
are invited to join in the dig. By studying the hundreds of arrowheads, 
stone flakes and stone tools found at the site, Gramly hopes to shed 
light on the mysterious Paleo-Indian people, believed to be the first 
inhabitants of North America. 

The dig site is located on a knoll that provides a view of the Oswego 
River valley. Gramly believes the site provided hunters with a view of 
approaching herds of animals migrating south. He said 1,400 artifacts 
were discovered last summer at one site. At least five Paleo-Indian 
campsites have been identified at the Phoenix site; only one was 
excavated by his team of 10 to 15 volunteers and adult education 
students from Buffalo. The nature of the artifacts and the relative 


scarcity of them leads Gramly to believe the hilltop was a temporary 
hunting camp, a place where prehistoric hunters spent two or three 
weeks during warm weather. Diggers, supported by the National 
Geographic Society, spent last year sifting dirt from a 275-square meter 
plot. “The area has been extensively plowed in the past, but that did not 
disturb the site too much,” Gramly said. The site was excavated 
thoroughly last year and the team is returning this spring to investigate 
a second of the five campsites. 

“We’ll be doing the same thing as last year,” Gramly said. “We need 
two areas excavated thoroughly to compare the two. It’s possible that 
the people returned to the area in a different season, which would be 
evident in certain differences and we’ve got similarities of the sites. 
The Phoenix site has been known by anthropologists for decades, but 
digs were never undertaken for various reasons.” A large number of 
arrowheads and other artifacts discovered by local farmers encouraged 
Gramly to conduct the dig. 

Artifacts discovered last year were cataloged. Gramly has lectured 
on his findings and a scholarly paper will be written in November that 
describes his findings. 


In the mid-1970s, excavators removed over twenty thousand artifacts 
from a dig in the general area of the Delaware Valley, which dated 
back to 9000 BCE at the earliest and showed thousands of years of 
continuous habitation. 




Archaeologists digging near here have discovered indications of a 
Paleo-Indian culture in the Delaware Valley no later than 2,000 years 
after the last glacier receded northward around 9,000 BC. Dr. Charles 
W. McNett Jr., an archaeologist at the American University in 
Washington, said fluted points he found at a site he is excavating, 


confirm that the site’s nomadic inhabitants were the first people to live 
in the area after it was no longer covered by ice. 

“Several of my colleagues have said they think this is the most 
important Paleo-Indian site in the East, if not in the country,” McNett 

The Paleo-Indian artifacts were discovered under eight to ten feet of 
soil, sand and silt beneath artifacts of more recent cultures on a fertile 
flood plain of the Delaware River adjoining the Delaware Water Gap 
National Recreation Area. The 11,000-year-old find this summer 
predated finds last summer dated to 8800 BC. 


“More than 20,000 artifacts were found last summer alone at the site,” 
McNett said. The river flooded several times over the centuries, 
gradually building up the soil and placing layers in between the 
artifacts that indicated occupations at various different times. 

“It is not clear where the Paleo-Indians came from but it is 
speculated that they migrated from western Pennsylvania where they 
seemed to be living around 14,000 to 15,000 years ago,” McNett said. 

Some of the oldest spear heads ever found were discovered in the 
Pee Dee Basin in the South Carolina counties of Florence, Darlington, 
Marlboro, and Marion. The oldest of these spear points are of Clovis 
origin and have been carbon-dated to 10,000 B.C. In addition, these 
points were found in association with mammoth and mastodon kills. In 
addition to the spear points, some of the oldest pottery ever discovered 
comes from South Carolina. It is what is called “fiber-tempered” 
pottery and it was found in association with polished stone tools, 
various scrapers, projectile points and lithic material. 


TO 8000 BC 

Bob Durrett, a Francis Marion College senior majoring in history, has 


just completed a comprehensive study on the early Indians of the Pee 
Dee. In his study, the young archeologist focused on the Archaic Period 
of the Indian culture of the Pee Dee dating from 8000 to 1500 BC. 
Being, for the most part nomadic, the Archaic Indians moved along 
river areas in the Pee Dee basin in search of food, probably sheltering 
themselves in rough huts of saplings or hides. Occupational sites from 
this culture were studied in four South Carolina counties: Florence, 
Darlington, Marlboro, and Marion. 

According to Durrett, the people of the Pee Dee have always been 
aware of the past existence of the Indians of this region. “Farmers have 
found the artifacts in their fields,” he said. “However, people 
mistakenly associate these artifacts with the historic Indians of early 
colonial America. In reality, Indians could have lived in this area of 
South Carolina as early as 12,000 years ago,” he added. 


Durrett bases this opinion on the fact that, in South Carolina, Clovis 
spear points have been found like those found in the Southwest, which 
are associated with the bones of now extinct mammoths and 
mastodons. Carbon-14 dates taken from the pre-historic kill sites of 
these huge animals go back to about 10,000 BC. Therefore, according 
to Durrett, since the spear points from the Southwest and from South 
Carolina are so similar, it is perhaps reasonable to assume that the age 
of the Clovis artifacts in this state would be close to those from the 
Southwest, perhaps earlier. 



In addition, archeological findings reveal that mammoths and 
mastodons existed in South Carolina and remains of these animals were 
found in Darlington County in the 1840s. It was the ancestors of the 
Archaic Indians, known as the Paleo-Indians, who exploited the large 
game. Archaics hunted smaller game and added fish, grain, and 
vegetables to their diets. In his writing, Durrett tries to relate the 
artifacts to their culture: it was with the Archaic Indians that the 
“grinding stone” and polished stone tools appeared. In addition, bone 


pins have been found that were probably used to prepare clothing from 
hides. It is thought that certain of the “dart or lance” projectile points 
were used to kill, then to butcher and dress bone or hide. One such 
artifact was found in a field across from the FMC campus and many 
have been found in this area. “Artifacts of the polished stone tool are 
relatively scarce in this area,” said Durrett. “However,” he added, 
“many early pot shards from the late archaic period have been 
discovered in the Pee Dee, this due to the fact that pottery is well 
preserved in this climate and soil. The pottery of the late-Archaic 
Indians was fiber-tempered; that is, plant fibers were added to the clay 
to make it stronger. One of the most common fibers used was the 
Palmetto fiber, which easily molded with the clay.” 


“The earliest dates,” Durrett stated, “that have been found on the fiber- 
tempered pottery in North America come from South Carolina.” 
Durrett’s collection of Pee Dee artifacts includes samples of polished 
stone tools, various scrapers, projectile points, and lithic material. 
Durrett has included pictures of many of the artifacts with his paper. In 
his paper, Durrett also includes a word on the importance of preserving 
Indian artifacts. He warns readers against “pot-holing” or going to 
historic and prehistoric sites and indiscriminately digging for artifacts. 

“Once these artifacts are removed from the context in which they are 
found, if no careful techniques and cataloging are undertaken,” said 
Durrett, the value of the material is gone forever as far as gaining 
information. There is no monetary value to the artifacts. “Their value 
lies in the insight they give into our historic heritage,” he said. 


Fig. 3.1. View of the eastern face of the Pee Dee Basin excavation under the drip 

line (photo by Mark McConaughy) 




Recent archaeological digging at a cave near Avella, in Washington 
County, and carbon-14 testing of cave materials, indicate that the 
prehistoric Indians of our area date to about 14,225 BC. Don W. 
Dragoo, Curator, Section of Man, Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh, 
states that fluted points of the Indian period, dated approximately from 
16,000 to 6,000. Most of them have been surface finds, except for one 
area along the Conemaugh River near Blairsville, which he believes 
may have been a campsite of these ancient peoples. 


In an Associated Press story from 1997, reporter Anthony Breznikan 
interviewed archaeologist James M. Adovasio about the ten thousand 
artifacts he had removed from an area of western New York since 1993 
in his capacity as a head archaeologist for the Mercyhurst College 


Archaeological Institute and the Pennsylvania Historic and Museum 


“Humans have lived at this site as early as 12,000 years ago,” said Dr. 
Adovasio about the flatlands near the Allegheny River 90 miles south 
of Buffalo, New York, “when they followed retreating glaciers north. 
The first year-round residents were the Hopewell tribe from 100 to 500 

“In the late 1800s, archaeologists from the Smithsonian Institution 
found Hopewell burial mounds in the area. There were many tribes in 
Pennsylvania who seemed to be imitating what the Hopewell were 
doing, but the artifacts from these burial mounds appeared to be real.” 






There is abundant evidence of man’s presence in Maryland for 10,000 
years or more. Along the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are more 
than 10,000 significant Indian occupation sites. In Anne Arundel 
County alone nearly 700 sites have been recorded and given permanent 
identifying numbers by the Maryland Geological Survey. These sites 
are being destroyed ... at an alarming rate. Simple pole barns and 
houses on piers did much to preserve a site. The early farmer with 
horse drawn plow did little damage to Indian ruins, even though they 
are usually so thin so as to be contained entirely within the plow zone. 
But with the advent of the tractor and earth leveling machines, 
concerned groups of preservationists watched with a little dismay. 
However, since this was a necessary part of the farming that gave us 
the free time for our pursuits, not many objected. But in the early 1960s 
with the mass movement to the suburbs and especially, the waterfront, 
the time for real concern became apparent. 





Indian ruins have not fared so well. From Wayson’s Corner to Ft. 
Meade, nearly every shred of gravel has been removed for road 
building and other construction uses. 

Some of those Indian sites extended a quarter mile and farther from 
the river edge and all the artifacts that once lay there undisturbed for 
thousands of years, are now in roads, driveways and concrete. We 
found an Archaic (2000 BC) Indian ax about 20 years ago that was 
dumped on a Deale driveway. The gravel was from the Patuxent River. 
Several Indian artifacts were recovered from St. Helena Island in the 
Severn River. They were found eroding from a decaying concrete 
bulkhead that was built in the early 1930s. The gravel in the concrete is 
of the type and color found along the Davidsonville area of the 
Patuxent. Near Rose Haven in extreme southern Anne Arundel County, 
a housing development was planned on an Indian site that has been 
nominated to the National Register of Historic Places. 


The developer was very generous in allowing the Archeological 
Society of Maryland Inc. and its chapters to conduct a test excavation 
in 1977. About 80 people participated in the dig over a period of 10 
days. After finding much cultural material, mostly Middle Woodland, 
(400 BC-AD 400) we found that the primary site was in no immediate 
danger since it was in a low area encompassed by the so-called 100- 
year flood plain. We abandoned the project at this point. It is our hope 
the site will remain forever undug. The longer a site remains 
untouched, the longer archeologists of the future will have to observe a 
ruin without its having been destroyed and just written about. 




Some [mounds] have the appearance of military structures, and others 
look as though they were built as observatories, while others seem to be 
designed for religious or burial purposes. Some mounds have the form 
of birds, serpents, alligators, and other animals. The “old fort” at 
Newark, has a mound in the center several feet high and about fifty feet 
long, built in the shape of an eagle with spread wings. 

Fig. 3.2. Alligator effigy mound in Ohio, built circa 950 CE 


It was certainly no barbaric skill that could have traced out those 
perfect circles, surveyed those rectangles and octagons, much less 
controlled the tens of thousands of laborers that must have been 
necessary to construct these earthen walls and mounds. 

But it is all a mystery. One can only wonder that such a mighty 
people should so completely pass away as to leave no trace of their 
history but these piles of earth. 



The Meadowcroft Rockshelter in western Pennsylvania has recently 
come into prominence as one of the oldest verified archaeological sites 
in the United States. Although no skeletons have been recovered from 
the rock shelter, it must be born in mind that two documented 
excavations of skeletons in the area predate the rock shelter finds by 
fifty years. They tell us in no uncertain terms who these people were 
and what they looked like. 

In addition, fossilized bits of bone have been reclaimed from Paleo- 
Indian, Archaic, and Woodland Indian sites, and radiocarbon dating has 
revealed continuous use and possible occupation from 17,000 to 14,000 
BCE and right up until the present. Digging at the site has gone down 
11.5 feet to obtain these results, this being the first site in the Americas 
that was dug down past the Clovis levels to reveal Solutrean projectile 
points that predate the Clovis points by thousands of years. Clovis 
points and other bifacial (two-sided) objects like scrapers have also 
been recovered, as well as flint from Ohio, jasper from eastern 
Pennsylvania, and shells from the Atlantic coast, showing that these 
people engaged in widespread trade in the extremely ancient past. 

The Meadowcroft Rockshelter site was first discovered and 
excavated from 1973 to 1978 by an archaeological team from the 
University of Pittsburgh led by James M. Adovasio, Ph.D., perhaps the 
main academic in the forefront of the study of what are called Paleo- 
Indians, or what should more accurately be referred to as the extremely 
ancient settlers of the Americas. Not only has Adovasio been at the 
forefront of the excavations at this site, but he has also been active in 
the dating and reclamation of the bog mummies in Florida (see chapter 
10). He has published his findings in an excellent book called The First 
Americans: In Pursuit of Archaeology’s Greatest Mystery. But despite 
his expertise in the areas of this study, Adovasio has remained silent on 
the subject of the previously discovered skeletons, which is odd, as it 
directly relates to his life’s work. Perhaps, like most of the others in the 
academic field of archaeology, he is simply unaware of the finds or has 
been brainwashed into believing these old finds were all part of some 
ongoing hoax. But the only hoaxers are at those at the Smithsonian and 
the major universities and museums across America who are involved 
in the ongoing suppression of scientific evidence crucial to 
understanding the true history of this country. 


Fig. 3.3. Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Washington County, Pennsylvania, is a 
national historic landmark and was first occupied more than 14,000 years ago by 
pre-Clovis people (photo courtesy of Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 
Department of Anthropology). 

Because of the scientifically confirmed, carbon-14-dated extreme 
antiquity of the area, as proven by the work of the team at the 
Meadowcroft Rockshelter, led by Adovasio, the fact that significant 
skeletons were recovered from this area fifty years ago takes on added 

The first skeleton was discovered by William Jacob Holland and his 
assistant. Holland was the main curator at the Carnegie Museums of 
Pittsburgh from 1896 to 1922 and was considered the most prestigious 
anthropologist and archaeologist in the state at that time. 




Dr. W. J. Holland curator of the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh and his 
assistant Dr. Peterson, a few days ago opened up a mound of the 


ancient race that inhabited this state and secured the skeleton, who, 
while in the flesh, was from 8-9 feet in height. 

The mound was originally about 100 feet long and more than 12 feet 
high somewhat worn down by time. It is on the J. B. Secrest farm in 
South Huntington Township. This farm has been in the Secrest name 
for more than a century. The most interesting feature in the recent 
excavations were the mummified torso of a human body, which the 
experts figured was laid to rest at least 400 years ago. 

“Portions of the bones dug up and the bones in the leg,” Prof. 
Peterson declares, “are those of a person between eight and nine feet in 
height.” The scientist figures that this skeleton was the framework of a 
person of the prehistoric race that inhabited this area before the 
American Indian. The torso and the portions of the big skeleton were 
shipped to the Carnegie Museum. Dr. Holland and Peterson supervised 
the explorations of the mound with the greatest of care. The curators 
believe the man whose skeleton they secured belonged to the mound 
builder class. 

The second very major find from the immediate vicinity of the 
Meadowcroft Rockshelter was of a cache of forty-nine skeletons that 
were discovered in Washington County at another mound in the 1930s. 
The story of this discovery was accompanied by photos of bones, 
skulls, and teeth, and one of the accompanying photo captions notes, 
“Archaeologists are amazed at the excellent condition of the teeth.” 


Fig. 3.4. A fanciful early illustration of our descent from giants. 



As we pull back the curtain of the true history of the Americas, the first 
thing that we discover is that many popular, iconographic images that 
we associate with the American Indians find their roots in the much 
more ancient culture of the mound builders. A case in point is the 
classic image of the thunderbird. At a site along the Shenandoah River, 
estimated to be over one mile long, effigy mounds in a number of totem 
styles, including the thunderbird, were uncovered that date back to 
10,000 BCE. Giant burials were found in association with these sites, 
as well as numerous artifacts, including Clovis point arrowheads. 


Fig. 3.5. Dr. Kenneth Campbell with the reconstruction of a teratorn, the largest 
bird to fly; it could reach speeds of 150 miles per hour. 





Front Royal: Along the floodplain of the South Fork of the Shenandoah 
River, about seven miles south of Front Royal, lay the remains of a 
primitive “factory” that was thriving in the valley long before modern 
industry came to Warren County. 

It is called the Thunderbird site, and archaeologists who have 
examined stone artifacts found there say the area was used by a Paleo- 
Indian culture for the manufacture of hunting and butchering tools 
almost 12,000 years ago. 

The site also contains the oldest evidence yet discovered of a house 
structure in North America, and evidence gathered there over the past 
13 years has allowed archaeologists to construct a working model of 


one of the oldest known civilizations on this continent. 

Amateur archaeologists began to discover Indian artifacts at the site 
in the 1960s, and their find came to the attention of William Gardner, a 
professor of anthropology at Catholic University, in 1969. Gardner and 
his assistants soon discovered that their predecessors had barely 
scratched the surface of what would become one of the most important 
archaeological finds in the eastern United States. Gardner is completing 
a book on the prehistory of the Middle Atlantic Region of North 
America, in which he is incorporating much of the information he has 
gathered from the Thunderbird excavation. 

He became so fascinated with the area that, with the help of a 
number of graduate students, he has been excavating and mapping the 
site ever since. 


The “dig” is undisturbed now because of winter weather but excavation 
will continue next summer. 

When Gardner began work on the site with the help of a National 
Geographic Society grant in 1971, it did not take him long to realize 
how significant the Thunderbird excavation would be. He thought at 
first that the artifacts at Thunderbird were strictly from a “surface 
scatter,” similar to so many other sites discovered in the east. 

Surface scatters are clusters of stone chips and projectile points that 
remained in the plow zone of the soil and were frequently disturbed by 
farmers who settled the valley in modern times, Gardner said. To his 
surprise, he discovered that the stones at Thunderbird were much older 
than he had anticipated, and that the site was more than just a 
temporary stopping point for nomadic Indians who roamed the 
Shenandoah Valley for food. 

“After taking off all the disturbed soil in the plow zone we came 
down on stains in the ground where posts had been driven,” Gardner 
said. “That was the first evidence, and so far really the only evidence, 
of a house structure at this time period. It really threw us for a loop.” It 
turned out that Gardner and his crew had stumbled on what had once 
been a traditional Indian camping ground, first established between 


10,000 and 9,000 BC. 

Using carbon dating, Gardner discovered that a piece of charcoal 
found on the site dated to about 8000 BC. He knows the site was 
probably in use for almost 2,000 years before that, because certain 
distinctive spear points known as Clovis points also were found near 
the river. Clovis points discovered in the western United States have 
been dated as early as 9500 BC, and Gardner’s student Bob Verrey has 
called them “the hallmark of the Paleo-Indian period,” the oldest 
known period of human habitation in North America. 

Gardner said that the Indians who occupied the Thunderbird site 
could confidently be dated to 9500 BC because of stylistic similarities 
between the spear points found here and elsewhere. “It’s like taking a 
piece of furniture and saying. This is Colonial,”’ he said. 

Gardner also stated that the number of stone chippings found on the 
site, and the fact that the chippings have been found at varying depths 
beneath the surface, indicates that the area was used more or less 
continuously over a period of 2,000 years as a center for making stone 
hunting and cooking tools. 

Further excavation and a painstaking system of mapping, which 
involves leaving stone chips and projectile points at exactly the level at 
which they are discovered, allowed Gardner and Verrey to construct a 
working model of the culture of the earliest known inhabitants of the 
region. Gardner calls archaeology “history without a written record.” 

Studying the Paleo-Indian culture in the Shenandoah Valley is 
complicated even more because no human or animal remains have been 
found at the site. Gardner explained that the well-drained, acidic soils 
in the Shenandoah Valley have caused all animal and vegetable matter 
of the period to decay without a trace. Even in the drier soils of the 
West, no human remains from the period have been found. 
Consequently, archaeologists are left to make deductions about the 
early inhabitants of the valley based almost entirely on the evidence of 
stone artifacts and the patterns in which they are found. 

“Though the Indians who once roamed this land in search of deer, 
elk, and moose remain faceless, certain things can now be said about 
their lifestyle with some certainty,” Gardner said. “The valley would 
have been attractive to them, with its plentiful supply of game and fresh 


water. Thunderbird was an ideal place to be in the winter, because the 
food options were better (than farther north). With the river, you can 
always break through the ice and get fish and turtle. Sooner or later the 
animals will come down there too. 

“Even more important for the Indians than the abundant game were 
the outcrops of jasper, an American flint rock that jutted from the cliffs 
just across the river from the Thunderbird site. Jasper was a stone 
highly valued by the early Indians because it was especially well suited 
for making high quality stone tools and weapons. Large piles of stone 
chippings found at the site indicate that the Indians used the area as a 
quarry reduction station, whittling rocks down to portable size before 
making the finished products: knives and spear points for the men who 
did the hunting, and scraping and cooking tools for the women who 
prepared the food.” 

Gardner and Verrey hope to learn more about these early Indians. 
Excavation at the Thunderbird site will continue for at least four more 
years, when Gardner’s ten-year excavation rights to the site expire. The 
land is owned by Thunderbird Ranch Hunt Club. Together with 
ongoing research, including the search for more carbon dates that will 
allow Gardner and Verrey to pin down the oldest date of settlement 
more precisely, the site is being used to train students. Despite the 
amount of time spent on the project, a great deal more work remains to 
be done. By the end of last summer excavation on one household area 
had been completed, but Gardner estimated there are at least twenty 
such areas that remain to be unearthed. 


Fig. 3.6. A bird mound, surrounded by a stone circle, from The Prehistoric World 

by E. A. Allen 





“The Thunderbird site is almost a mile long, and we’ve dug maybe 
2,400 square feet,” Gardner said. “We’ve opened a few small windows 
in a house of 10,000 windows.” The Thunderbird Museum and 
Archaeological Park, which houses many of the artifacts discovered at 
the Thunderbird site and other Indian sites in the Northern Shenandoah 
Valley, is closed for the winter, but will reopen in mid-March. It is just 
off U.S. 340, about seven miles south of Front Royal. 


This detailed account comes from the Chicago Tribune. The report is 
very thorough and covers the excavations of a series of mounds in 
which were found various burials and a large number of artifacts, the 


most amazing being the elephant or mastodon pipes illustrated by 
Davis and Squier in Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, the 
first book ever published by the Smithsonian. 

One of the most impressive earthworks found during this Iowa 
excavation was the remains of a six-acre octagon with curving sides 
and a passageway on the western side that led to a freshwater spring. 

To give you an idea of the vast extent of some of these sites under 
investigation, in this report on the Iowa dig, it is reported that a general 
survey of the area revealed the presence of thousands of mounds that 
went on for miles and the remains of what is described as a large, 
ancient city. 




A party of relic hunters, including this writer, arrived one fine morning 
in early autumn in the region of mounds lying to the north of 
Toolsboro. Those Mound Builders were a strange race of people. This 
continent was theirs before the arrival of our modern red man, and their 
high type of civilization is a cause of wonderment. Their origin, their 
date, and their disappearance are explained only by theory and 

Here on this majestic bluff of the Mississippi we are surrounded by 
huge, unnatural and remarkable elevations of land, undoubtedly the 
work of human hands, and of so distinctive a character that not even the 
famed works at Newark or Circleville will excite more archaeological 

Just on the outskirts of Toolsboro is the inclined mound known 
locally as “The Old Fort.” Still, it does not appear to have been erected 
for defensive purposes. To class it as a sacred enclosure would be more 
in harmony with the theories advanced by scientific men who have 
made a study of the similar earthworks in the Ohio Valley. As an 
indication that it was not originally designed as a fortification, we 
observe that its plan of construction is more ornamental than practical. 
It was built carefully—not hurriedly—and without regard to strength of 


position and, further, it is an isolated specimen of an enclosure 
earthwork. If it was designed as a fortification for practical use in the 
time of war, there would be other fortifications, or vestiges of war in 
the immediate neighborhood. 


The line of defense of the Mound Builders extended from New York 
State diagonally across the country to Wabash, which conclusively 
proves that the hostilities encountered from the race came from the 
Northeast, and there was no occasion for a fort in the region. 

This enclosure, the only one of importance west of the Mississippi 
and probably the most unique on the continent stands without 
counterpart, while the various geometric forms of squares and circles 
represented by Newark or Circleville are common to other sections of 
the mound region of the Ohio Valley. 

The earthen embankments are now somewhat obliterated, but can 
still be distinctly traced, the angles and bastions exhibiting the form of 
an octagon, the sides of which are curved inwards, and enclosing the 
area of half a dozen acres. A lane or passageway originally extended 
back from the west side of the enclosure several hundred feet to a 
spring, which has long ceased to be in existence, though it is 
remembered by local settlers. 

Within the enclosure great quantities of pottery, flint chips, arrow 
points, polished stone axes and tomahawks, occasional pipes, and 
copper implements and other articles have been picked up from time to 
time and found their way into museums and collections. 


Standing upon the margin of this, the highest and most precipitous of 
the Mississippi river bluffs, are eight stalwart sentinel mounds, drawn 
up in a line as though zealously guarding through the ages the sacred 
enclosure just behind. They are conical in shape with a terraced 
summit; their height is from twenty to thirty feet and their 
circumference from 60 to 100 feet. 

Our first day here was consumed in a general survey of the mound 


region, which, in addition to the above, includes several thousand burial 
mounds, some large and some small, extending along the bluffs for 
miles; and one must naturally conclude that this was the site of a 
densely populated mound builder’s city. Early the following morning, 
while at work on the mounds, two of the largest were attacked 
simultaneously. Human remains were first discovered in Mound 1. 

When the earth was cleared away exposing the skeleton, it became 
apparent that the individual had been buried in a sitting posture facing 
towards the rising sun. The skeleton was that of a man of medium 
height (very rare); around the neck was a string of shell beads, while 
scattered about the remains were numerous arrow points and two small 
stone axes. The cranium was of the short-headed type, the forehead less 
receding and the crown less dome-shaped than that of the modern 
Indian. Nothing of consequence was exhumed from Mound 2. 

Mound 3, disclosed a perfect skeleton, within a few feet of the apex, 
which was readily identified as an intrusive burial, and proved to be the 
remains of a representative American Indian. Intrusive burials are not 
of uncommon occurrence, as the Indians, feeling an innate reverence 
for the mounds, frequently appropriate them for their own sepulchers. 
The practice confused early investigators, but from what is now 
definitely known of the burial habits of the two races, the question may 
easily be decided. 

The Indian remains were carefully removed and the excavating 
proceeded. At last the original occupants of the mound were unearthed: 
two figures in a sitting posture facing eastward. The practice of placing 
the remains in this position was a common though not universal custom 
of the mound builders, and is one of the points of evidence on which 
archaeologists base their opinion regarding them as a race of sun- 

From this mound were secured relics which would indicate an age 
somewhat more advanced than shown by Mound 1. 

The knives and hatchets were of hammered copper; some being 
wrapped in a cloth of coarse texture, though exhibiting skilled 
workmanship, which only could have been preserved for so many 
centuries by the chemical action of the copper with which it had lain in 


Copper beads and a copper bracelet adorned one of the skeletons. 
Two finely-carved pipes of catlinite—of curved base variety—one 
representing a bird with eyes of pearl and the other an animal of 
questionable description, together with other specimens of less 
consequence were discovered. 



During the remainder of the week several more mounds were explored 
and numerous interesting relics of that pre-historic age were added to 
our collection. 

Here it was in the immediate neighborhood that the two elephant 
pipes—now world famous—were found, furnishing the strongest proof 
of the antiquity of man on the continent. These pipes, carved from solid 
stone, representing the form of the elephant or mastodon —the only one 
ever known —were both found in Louisa County, Iowa and both are 
now to be seen in the museum of the Academy of Sciences at 

These pipes show beyond a reasonable doubt that the mound builder 
and the mastodon were contemporaneous. Their genuineness has been 
called into question, to be sure, but the severe criticism to which they 
were subjected only proves their value and importance. Their 
genuineness is attested by scholarly men of the highest character.” 


Fig. 3.7. Elephant pipe, from Iowa, illustration from Ancient Monuments of the 
Mississippi Valley by Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis 

On the more traditional front, archaeologists have uncovered 
evidence of advanced culture and mining activities in Wisconsin dating 
back to at least 9000 BCE. At sites like Oconto and Osceola, copper 
artifacts, including spears, arrow points, knives, adzes, gouges, 
fishhooks, and harpoons have been found in association with textiles, 
drilled beads, and even bone flutes that can still be played. 




“Dating of the Old Copper Culture, also tells us that the Paleo-Indians, 
who preceded the Old Copper Culture, arrived shortly after the 
disappearance of the last glacial age in the state,” explained Warren 
Wittry of the Wisconsin State Historical Society. 

The date of the last glacier has been determined as about 11,000 
years ago, again by use of the “atomic calendar” (carbon-14 dating) 
method. The material tested in this instance consisted of wood from a 
spruce swamp in Manitowoe County that had been flattened by the last 
glacier. The Paleo-Indians hunted now-extinct bison, elephants, the 
North American horse, and camels in this country, with those in 
Wisconsin hunting the bison and probably the mastodons or mammoths 
of that day. “We have found their tools: a distinctive type of arrow, 
without the fluting of later Indians and a small flint incising tool with a 
sharp point. What we hope to find are these tools in association with 
bones of bisons and mastodons from that period,” said Wittry. 


“Burials at Oconto were in pits just large enough to receive the bodies 
of the dead, which were put in a variety of positions. Some were flexed, 
with knees under chins. Some were extended, face up or face down. 
Some of the pits contained bones and several of these had copper 
instruments of spatula form but with sharp edges. The supposition is 
that they were used to dismember the dead before cremation,” Wittry 


Some pits contained burials in the flesh, as shown by the related 
pattern of the bones, with bundle burials on top. 





! Akca U 



Fig. 3.8. Diagram of the Oconto County, Wisconsin, archaeological dig site 

Fig. 3.9. (left) Hopewellian ear spools and bead ring made of copper (courtesy of 
the Field Museum); (right) Hopewellian copper headdress (courtesy of the Field 



“Apparently the Indians waited until a member of the group died in 
the spring, to dig the grave, then put in the bundles of bones of those 
who had died during the winter,” explained Wittry. 

The burials in Oconto were about 2Vi feet below the surface. One pit 
contained the body of a woman and a child about 2 years old. At the 
base of the child’s neck was a whistle made from the tibia of a deer. 
Markings and placement was distinctive. 

“One of the big thrills for an anthropologist came later when I 
discovered that this was only the fourth such whistle to be discovered,” 
said Wittry. “Two of the other known whistles were found in Kentucky, 
and one of them was found in the same manner: placed at the base of 
the neck of a small child.” 


5,600 YEARS 

The date at which at least one group of Indians of the Old Copper 
Culture lived in Wisconsin has been established as 5,600 years ago, 
with a leeway of only several hundred years one way or the other as a 
safety margin. Called one of the most important findings in state 
anthropology in recent years, the dates were arrived at through the 
newly-discovered radioactive carbon-14—sometimes called the 
“atomic calendar”—method of computing age of once living materials. 



The burial ground was discovered in June, 1952, by Donald Baldwin, a 
13-year-old boy digging in the wall of an abandoned gravel pit near 
Oconto. The Oconto County Historical Society immediately acquired 
the land and kept it under guard, preserving it from vandals and 
souvenir hunters. 

The site, when excavated, yielded bones of 45 individuals in 21 
burial pits with the bones in fair to good condition. 

“Luckily the burials were in sand over gravel,” noted Wittry. “So the 
drainage was good and the conditions for preservation excellent.” 



The Oconto burial ground of the Old Copper Culture is the second 
found in the state. In 1945, erosion on the banks of the Mississippi 
River near Potosi revealed the burial ground of about 500 individuals. 

The bones were in a trench, some 20 feet wide and 70 feet long, 
under a cover of black sand about five feet deep. 




An Indian camp site which may have belonged to the earliest Indians 
yet known in northeastern Wisconsin has been uncovered in the town 
of Scott, Brown County, not far from the east shore of Green Bay. The 
site, which is being excavated, was found by Ron Mason, curator for 
exhibits at the Neville Public Museum, and his wife, Carol. Both are 
anthropologists. Mason says everything points to the Scottsbluff 
Indians, who roamed the Plains States from 6,500 to 8,500 years ago. 

Mason compared the Scottsbluff period of 6,500 to 8,500 years ago, 
to the Old Copper Culture site at Oconto. So far, the Old Copper 
Culture Indians have been the earliest known Indians in northwestern 
Wisconsin. Two carbon readings have been made at the Oconto site. 
They fixed the age of fragments at between 5,500 and 7,500 years. 





Russell Cave, Alabama, is open to visitors and study of the 9,000-year- 
old home of the Stone Agers has moved into the laboratory. The cave 
on a wooded mountainside near Bridgeport is man’s oldest known 


habitation in the southeast. From at least 7000 BCE to as late as 1650 
CE, generations of primitive huntsmen found ready-made shelter there, 
a mild climate, clear fresh water, and a forest full of game. 

The Smithsonian Institution and the National Geographic Society 
explored and excavated the cave several years ago. It is now a national 


From a deep working trench, Carl F. Miller of the Smithsonian 
excavated five tons of artifacts: stone projectiles, arrowheads, fish 
hooks, bone awls and needles, shell ornaments, human skeletons, 
animal bones, and the ashes of ancient campfires. Much of this material 
has been catalogued and studied by the Smithsonian. In a separate 
project, the National Parks Service has enlisted the aid of several 
universities to classify animal bones from the new trench. 




Fast year a joint expedition of the University of Minnesota and the 
Archaeological Institute’s School of American Research excavated a 
large area in the Mimbres Valley-Cameron Creek section of 
southwestern New Mexico. There they discovered skeletons, pottery, 
jewelry, weapons, food, and other relics of a race whose history is 
believed to extend more than 2,000 years. 

Not the least interesting among the finds were shell bracelets and 
beads identified with the Gulf of California and indicating commercial 
connections with the West and the South. 

This year further exploration of the ruins was carried on by an 
expedition from Beloit College. Professor Paul Nesbit placed the first 
period of the Mimbres people at 2,500 B.C., placing them as one of the 
earliest known American civilizations. These investigations uncovered 
more evidence of commerce, including a beautifully cast copper bell 
said to be symbolic of the Central American culture. 




Other ancient relics were found in the Lowry Ruins of southwestern 
Colorado last summer by the Field Museum Archaeological Expedition 
to the Southwest, led by Dr. Paul Martin. 

A year and a half ago Dr. Martin announced the discovery of a 
hitherto unknown savage culture in ruins in that area, more modern, 
however than those explored earlier this year. There he found a grim 
ceremonial room literally heaped with skeletons—and other evidence 
of gruesome rites—or of a horrible massacre. 



This year Dr. Martin worked on two kivas, or ceremonial rooms, one 
built on top of still older ruins. Remains of these houses and pottery of 
cultured design representing a highly-advanced Indian tribe were 

“Then,” says Dr. Martin, “we penetrated to the lower kiva, where we 
found that paintings on its walls had been preserved more perfectly 
than paintings on the room above.” The lower kiva was estimated by 
Dr. Martin to date back about 3,000 years. 


20,000 BC 




The most startling find of the year, however, was that of Dr. Mark 
Harrington in an expedition to Gypsum Cave, near Las Vegas, Nevada, 
for the Southwest Museum in Los Angeles. Working in an area that 
will be submerged by water impounded by the projected Hoover Dam, 
the party first came on darts from an atlatl, a weapon that preceded the 


bow and arrow. With these darts they found the skull of a giant ground 
sloth, which was known to be of great antiquity. Then the excavators 
set about searching for evidence that man had visited the cave before 
the sloth. 

Eventually they found a patch of real charcoal, presumably from a 
campfire, under a layer of unbroken strata of the Pleistocene Era, in the 
top most of which was found remains of the Basket Makers. Other 
discoveries included numerous bones of the ground sloth, the tiny 
skeleton of a prehistoric horse, and scores of broken darts and points of 
obsidian and flint, parts of weapons used by primitive men of that time. 
At the bottom lay the remains of the campfire. 

This seeming link between man and sloth is regarded by many 
scientists as the most important proof of man’s antiquity in America yet 
brought to light. The sloth is known to have become an extinct mammal 
20,000 years ago. This pushes the probable time for America’s earliest 
man back thousands of years further than any reliable previous 
estimates. It places man in America, in fact, in glacial times. 


These finds in Gypsum Cave were forecast a few years ago by the 
discovery of a series of remarkable pictographs in Lee Canyon in 
Arizona. Samuel Hubbard, who discovered them said: 

“The pictographs included one of an elephant attacking a man, the 
first elephant drawing by prehistoric man ever found in the United 
States, as far as this writer knows. Another was of a group of animals, 
undoubtedly of the ibex, a two-horned antelope still found alive in the 
mountains of Asia, whose bones have been discovered in European 
caves but trace of which has never before appeared in the New World. 
The third, and most valuable, is a pictograph of an animal quite 
evidently intended to represent a dinosaur. 

“The elephant in America dates back at least 30,000 years. The 
dinosaur belongs to an even earlier tropical era going back millions of 
years before that. Yet, there in Lee Canyon are pictures of both the 
elephant and the dinosaur, chipped in the rock by prehistoric man.” 



There must have been great climatic changes in this thirsty land since 
these thousands of people lived here. Today there is not an ounce of 
water to be found anywhere—just a great burned up, heaved up, dried 
up waste. 

Such a great population must have had water and such a population 
could not have subsisted entirely on game, for certainly rainfall could 
not have supplied them with sufficient water, nor these mountains with 
enough game. It is my guess that far back in the past ages a great river 
flowed at the bottom of these cliffs, that rainfall was plenty, that the 
inhabitants were farmers, and that what appears to be a fort or reservoir 
on top of the cliffs was a storehouse for the community’s grain. 

In the ruins of southern Colorado I am told a great calamity befell the 
people and that the skeletons lie unburied, and the general confusion 
denoted a sudden end, but on the Puye ruins, there is absolutely no 
indication of where these thousands of people went, or how or why 
they went. 




Oxnard, California: Sailors and scientists at San Nicolas Island have 
dedicated their spare time to digging up samples of civilizations long 
past to break the monotony of the space age. Now on display at the 
Point Mugu administration building is a collection of primitive artifacts 
used by Indians who inhabited this land some 4,000 years ago. 

The collection is a gift to Capt. J. G. Smith, commanding officer of 
the Naval Air Station at Point Mugu, donated by two archeology- 
minded sailors who recently were transferred from the island. Captain 
Smith, also an amateur archeologist, is credited with the discovery of 
an Indian fresh water system on the island last April. 

San Nicolas Island has long been known as one of the prime 
archeological sites of the eight Channel Islands that skirt the California 
coasts. Since first excavations and studies were began in 1875, San 
Nicolas has yielded hundreds of artifacts from ancient Indian burial 


These discoveries have helped give archeologists a new insight into 
the ancient history of California. Most extensive studies of the island 
have been carried on during the past ten years by members of UCLA’s 
Department of Anthropology and Sociology and by other Southern 
California institutions. Last year, however, sailors who live and work at 
this small space-age island facility started a new excavation for artifacts 
during off hours from their regular duty watches in support of satellite 
and missile firings from nearby Point Mugu, Vandenberg Air Force 
Base and the Naval Missile Facility, Point Arguello. 

Early in 1962, two navy men were assigned to a group of 
archeologists from UCLA to assist in excavations on the island. James 
O. Casper, aviation boatswain 3rd class, and Kenneth H. Brittonn, 
commissary man 2nd class, soon found themselves not only assisting, 
but genuinely interested in digging for artifacts. 

San Nicolas Island is a windswept, almost barren plateau measuring 
nine miles in length and averaging three miles in width. It is the most 
remote of the Channel Islands and is located 78 miles west of Los 
Angeles and 55 miles southwest of the Point Mugu Naval Air Station. 
Navy and civilian personnel stationed on San Nicolas are virtually 
isolated from the mainland. Spare-time drags unless used to the best 
possible advantage. 

Consequently, the two sailors found themselves grubbing through 
sites even after the archeologists had gone. In time, Casper and Brittonn 
gathered an impressive collection of artifacts from prehistoric burial 
fields on the island’s sandy and dune-covered southern tip. Their 
collection included a small whistle made of black stone, shell heads, 
fish hooks fashioned from abalone shell, primitive knives and drills, 
arrowheads chipped from stone, and a length of rope woven from 
seaweed. All the artifacts were formed by hand from the only materials 
the Indians had—those which nature had provided. Radiation dating 
analysis on similar items indicated that the artifacts range in age from 
2,000 to 4,000 years. 




It is natural for human beings to link size and power with elevated 
status. In the legends of giants that have arisen in various parts of the 
world, giants are often depicted as gods and kings. So it is not 
surprising that the remains of giants found in America are accompanied 
by signs of royalty such as copper crowns and other regalia like pearl 
robes and mica ornaments, as well as being found in ritualistic burial 
patterns and settings. The kings are also often found buried standing up, 
surrounded by four megalithic slabs of stone. Sometimes kings and 
queens are buried in stone sarcophagi, and mummification dating to 
8000 BCE has also been scientifically confirmed. 


The Smithsonian is front and center in this account from 1884 of the 
discovery of a royal burial. 



Athens, Georgia: Mr. J. B. Toomer yesterday received a letter from Mr. 
Hazelton, who is on a visit to Cartersville. The letter contained several 
beads made of stone, and gave an interesting account of the opening of 
a large Indian mound near that town by a committee of scientists sent 
out from the Smithsonian Institution. After removing the dirt for some 
distance, a layer of large flag stones was found, which had evidently 
been dressed by hand, and showed that the men who quarried this rock 
understood their business. 

The stones were removed, when in a kind of vault beneath them, the 
skeleton of a giant, who measured seven feet two inches, was found. 

His hair was coarse and jet black and hung to his waist, the brow 


being ornamented with a copper crown. The skeleton was remarkably 
well-preserved and taken from the vault intact. Near this skeleton were 
found the bodies of several small children of various sizes. The remains 
of the latter were covered with beads, made of bone of some kind. 
Upon removing these, the bodies were found to be encased in a 
network made of straw or reed, and beneath this was the covering of an 
animal of some kind. 

In fact, the bodies had been prepared somewhat after the manner of 
mummies, and will doubtless throw new light on the history of the 
people who raised the mounds. 

Upon the stones that covered the vault were carved inscriptions, 
which, if deciphered, will probably lift the veil that has enshrouded the 
history of the race of giants that undoubtedly at one time inhabited the 



All the relics were carefully packed and sent to the Smithsonian 
Institution, and are said to be the most interesting collection ever found 
in America. 

The explorers are now at work on a mound in Barlow County, and 
before their return home will visit various sections of Georgia where 
antiquities are found. On the Oconee River, in Greene County, just 
above Powell’s Mills, are several mounds, one of them very tall and 


Ohio mound builder grave sites are notable for fabulous caches of 
freshwater pearls found in the burials. 



Surrounded by bushels of pearls, some of them as large as hickory nuts, 
skeletons, believed to be from a royal family of the prehistoric mound 
builders, have been dug out of the largest of the Great Seip group of 


mounds not far from Chillicothe, Ohio. That ancient mound is 680 feet 
long, 160 feet wide, and 28 feet high. 

Archaeologists have undertaken the task of exploring it by 
excavation. It is estimated that the skeletons may be anywhere from 
1,000 to 2,000 years old. Two of them wore copper helmets, and one of 
the skulls was provided with a copper nose. 

In what is now Ohio, long before Columbus discovered America, 
pearl fishing was an important industry. The streams of that region 
were full of pearl bearing mussels, and aboriginal chieftains of the 
Miami and Scioto Valleys possessed collections of pearls which might 
well have been envied by European princes and potentates. 


In one Ohio mound a few years ago were found enough pearls to fill a 
gallon measure, in size from a millet seed to two-thirds of an inch in 
diameter. There have been many such finds, one mound yielding two 
bushels of pearls. From another, 500,000 were obtained. Unfortunately 
these pearls have no present value. They were buried with the 
chieftains who owned them, or thrown into altar fires, so that they are 
either decayed or burned. In some instances they have been found 
cemented together in masses by water percolating through the soil. An 
occasional specimen of large size has been salvaged by peeling off the 
outer coats, a pearl being formed in layers like an onion. Evidence of 
the great antiquity of the Ohio mounds is afforded by the fact that they 
contain no buffalo bones. This seems to prove that at the time of their 
construction the buffalo had not yet extended its range as far east as 


At another Ohio site immense pearls were stuffed in the skeleton’s 
mouth and a bear’s tooth necklace was also adorned with pearls, both 
indications of royalty. As he was buried together with a woman, she is 
seen as his queen. 






Chillicothe, Ohio: Warren K. Morehead and Dr. Cresson, who have 
been prosecuting excavations here for the past two months in the 
interest of the World’s Fair, have just made one of the richest finds of 
the century in the way of prehistoric remains. 

Those gentlemen have confined their excavation to the Hopewell 
Farm, seven miles from here, upon which are located some twenty-odd 
Indian mounds. On Saturday, they were at work on a mound 500 feet 
long, 200 feet wide and 28 feet high. 

At the depth of 14 feet, near the center of the mound, they exhumed 
the massive skeleton of a man encased in copper armor. The head was 
covered in an oval-shaped copper cap, the jaws had copper mouldings, 
the arms were dressed in copper, while copper plates covered the chest 
and stomach and on each side of the head, on protruding sticks were 
wooden antlers ornamented with copper. 

The mouth was stuffed with genuine pearls of immense size, but 
much decayed. Around the neck was a necklace of bear’s teeth set with 

At the side of the male skeleton was also found a female skeleton, 
the two being supposed to be man and wife. Mr. Morehead and Mr. 
Cresson believe they have at last found the “King of the Mound 



In the United States perhaps the greatest interest was aroused by the 
discovery near Bainbridge, Ohio, of the remains of four bodies of the 
ancient mound builders, a race believed by some scientists to have 
preceded the Indians. ... In the graves were found fresh-water pearls in 
such numbers as to convince state archaeologists directing the 
excavations that the bodies had been wrapped in a covering of precious 


When the skeletons were lifted it was found that they had been 
resting on pearls. Fragments of tortoise shells etched with figures of 
birds and necklaces made of grizzly-bear claws were found. 


Mounds such as the ones uncovered in Ohio are not rarities to the 
scientist. They were known to the earliest settlers, but no Indian 
tradition has ever accounted for them. 

Fig. 4.1. This couple was buried holding hands, one of the common positions 
found in American mound burials. Others include man on top and woman on the 
bottom, as well as woman on top and man on the bottom. This particular image is 
of skeletons found in central-northern Italy, and the couple was buried holding 


hands some 1,500 years ago (Soprintendenza per I Beni Archeologici dell’Emilia- 

Romagna, Discovery News). 

Dr. William C. Mills, director of the Ohio State Archaeological and 
Historical Society, believes that the mound builders once had extensive 
communities throughout the central portion of North America. 

“There is little evidence they were a war-like people. On the 
contrary, they were a settled, agricultural, hunting and fishing race, 
given to intensive culture within the limits of their knowledge. They 
had more than a rudimentary knowledge of mathematics. 

“The square, the circle, the octagon, regular polygons, ellipses, 
exactly measured parallelograms and parallel lines laid out in a large 
scale were in common use. The bones excavated show that they were a 
capable people physically. They were fairly broad shouldered and their 
average height was slightly under six feet.” 

In 1926, more finds were discovered in Ohio. This time it was toys 
found with the skeleton of a boy about twelve years old. The discovery 
of children’s toys in the burial mounds is not at all unusual. At other 
sites small playhouses, toy animals, and game sets have been found. 
Another recurring theme in the burial mounds is the discovery of 
houses, temples, vaults, and other structures built inside the mounds. In 
this instance, the boy had his own cabin, but inside were a number of 
personal items, including marbles engraved with beautiful designs. 



Chillicothe, Ohio: The skeleton of a twelve-year-old boy, with a 
number of marbles, prized relics of childhood, was removed from the 
Bricer Mound of the Seip group, near Bainbridge, eighteen miles west 
of here, the other day. 

This is the second of a group of burials found near the rear of the 
mound, where last year “the great pearl burial” was unearthed and 
where this summer five cremated burials, with the usual finds of black, 
tan, and white wildcat jaws and marine tortoise shell combs were 

The boy’s body had been interred in a cabin-like structure and was 


covered by a canopy, the mold of which was found. The body had been 
clothed in a garment of woven fabric. The grave contained many 
unusual specimens, H. S. Shetrone, curator of the Ohio Museum, said. 
“We found a number of marbles made from chlorite, a fine, close- 
grained stone, which takes a very high polish, engraved in beautiful 
designs. They had been placed there reverently by loving hands. 

“We believe playing marbles was an honorable past-time even in the 
time of the mound builders,” Shetrone said. 


Besides the marbles there was found a stone carved in the shape of a 
turkey vulture; carefully cut down to the feather markings. Another 
stone was carved like a lizard, with a tail resembling the rattles of a 
rattlesnake; beads, green chlorite resembling turquoise; many well-cut 
mica designs, teeth of raccoon, fox, wolf, mountain lion, bear, and 
other wild animals, which roamed the forest, pierced so that they could 
be worn as ornaments; woven fabric, obsidian spear points, and a few 
bits of copper. 

Fig. 4.2. Lamantin or sea-cow, illustration from Ancient Monuments of the 
Mississippi Valley by Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis 


In many respects the West Virginia mounds are key to understanding 


the giants who once ruled America. Not only are the West Virginia 
mound sites in Charleston, Wheeling, and Moundsville some of the 
most significant in size and number in the United States, but in 1883, 
the Smithsonian dispatched a team of archaeologists to conduct an 
extensive dig of the fifty mounds they found there and issue a detailed 

The team, led by Col. P. W. Norris and Professor Cyrus Thomas, 
prepared the detailed report of the work (Smithsonian Field Report 
1883), which shows quite clearly that they uncovered numerous giants, 
one of which was decorated with heavy copper bracelets. 

As we catalogue the unusual burial practices associated with the 
mound builders, the sun circle burial arrangement is one of the 
most dramatic. In this case ten skeletons were found all buried with 
their feet facing inwards surrounding a central skeleton, 
presumably that of a King or a high-ranking spiritual or military 

In burial mound number 7, a giant seven feet tall was found with 
his head pointing west. Lying in a circle just above the hips were 
sixty circular pieces of white perforated shell, each about one inch 
in diameter and about an eighth of an inch thick. His arm was 
found to be reaching out towards an oven-shaped vault containing 
two bushels of corn. 

In this burial a covering of flat stones with cup-shaped markings 
covered the upper layer of the burial. Cup-shaped markings on 
stones have been found in Europe as well as South America. In this 
case, further digging revealed a stone slab coffin with a skeleton 
laid out facing to the east. 

Mound 23 was found to be of a hardened pyramidal shape. 
Digging was difficult, as the mound seemed to be reinforced with a 
hard cement-like substance. Digs at other mounds across the U.S. 
have also uncovered similar cement substances, which researchers 
have likened to a type of Portland cement. 

In many of the more elaborate mound burials, actual huts, houses 
and temples have been uncovered under the mounds. In this case, 
what had once been a circular or polygonal timbered and conical- 
roofed vault was found with a number of burials contained inside. 


One of the most iconic and unusual of the mound builder burial 
practices involved the burial of adult couples in romantic embrace, 
sometimes even kissing. Similar burials have been found recently 
in Europe [see Fig. 4.5. 1. Further down in this burial mound, 
another couple was found in a sitting posture with their legs 
interlocked to the knees. 

Fig. 4.3. Grave Creek Mound (courtesy of Tim Kiser) 



Extending along the terrace about five miles over-looking the Kanawha 
River west of Charleston, above flood level were found about 50 
mounds. They range in height from 5 to 35 feet. The principal one is 
known as the South Charleston Mound, which is 175 feet in diameter at 
the base and 35 feet high. 

In all it is estimated that there are at least 100,000 mounds in the 
Eastern portion of the United States. These represent the work of 
millions of people, many nations and tribes, and they were constructed 
over a long period of time. 



The leading industry was the quarrying of flint and the manufacture of 
instruments from this hard quartz-like substance. Many quarries have 
been discovered where large piles of chipped flint are found. Some 
copper tools have been found but they are rare. They seem to have been 
hammered out of bits of the metal that were found in the crevices of the 
rock. . . . Beads in great number have been found. They consisted of 
pearls, shells, copper, bones, and mica. Copper finger rings and 
bracelets have been unearthed in great numbers. 

Many skeletons have been found with their arms covered in 


The excavation of this mound was made by sinking a shaft from the 
top, reports the Smithsonian in their 1883 field report. After removing 
some large stones, a vault was found in which was a decayed skeleton, 
minus a head. At a depth of six feet another skeleton was found, and 
three feet deeper, a third one was discovered. The real find was 19 feet 
from the top. Here a large vault 12 feet square, and 7 or 8 feet high, was 
discovered. Upright timbers had been placed around the sides to hold 
up the roof, but they had decayed, and dirt and rocks had fallen into the 


Fig. 4.4. Carvings of human faces illustration from Ancient Monuments of the 
Mississippi Valley by Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis 

In this vault were five skeletons, four of whom had been placed in 
each corner in an erect position, and the fifth was lying flat on the floor. 
The four seemed to be standing guard over a chief or important person. 
This man was a giant, seven feet, six inches tall, and measured nineteen 
inches between his shoulder sockets. He had been buried in a bark 
coffin, placed on his back with arms at his side and legs together. 

There were six heavy bracelets on each wrist and four others under 
his head. On the breast was a copper gorget (piece of armor). Three 
spear heads were found in each hand and others were scattered about 
the floor of the vault. On the shoulder were three large plates of mica 
and around the shoulders were many small ornamental shells. While the 
dirt was being put back a smoking pipe, which had been carved out of 
gray steatite (soapstone), was found. It was highly polished and similar 
to others found in mounds in Ohio. 

The exploration was made by sinking a shaft 12 feet square at the top 
and narrowing gradually to six feet square at the bottom, down through 
the center of the structure to the original surface of the ground and a 
short distance below it. After removing a slight covering of earth, an 
irregular mass of large rough, f lat sandstones, evidently brought from 
the bluffs half a mile distant was encountered. Some of these 
sandstones were a load for two ordinary men. 


Other mounds were excavated and records made, writes the 
Smithsonian in 1883. In one a large skeleton was found surrounded by 
ten other skeletons. An “altar mound” was excavated. In the center of it 
were found two skeletons seated, apparently holding, between them and 
above their heads, a large stone. 



Many of these mounds were, however, opened and investigated some 
65 years ago by Professors Thomas and Col. Norris of the Smithsonian 
Institution Washington. Their interesting discoveries including 
skeletons seven foot six inches tall, underground vaults (ornaments and 
religious items), and spear heads are preserved in a report in the 
possession of C. E. Krebs, archaeologist, who by the very nature of his 
work, is very much interested himself in the mounds of the Kanawha 

The reporter then goes on to reconstruct the story of the mounds as 
was reported in the now impossible-to-find 1883 Smithsonian report 
and adds scientific information from the then-recent discoveries made 
at the mounds in 1923. 


At this point in his downward progress Col. Norris began to encounter 
the remains of what further excavations showed to be a timber vault 
about twelve feet square and seven or eight feet high. From the 
condition in which the remains of the cover were found, he concluded 
that this must have been roof-shaped and, having become decayed, had 
been crushed by the weight of the addition made to the mound. Some 
of the walnut timbers of this vault were twelve inches in diameter. 

In this vault were found five skeletons, one lying prostrate on the 
floor at the depth of 19 feet from the top of the mound and four others, 
which, from the positions in which they were found were supposed to 
be standing in the four corners. 


The first of these was found standing at the depth of 14 feet, amid a 
comingled mass of earth and decaying bark and timbers, nearly erect 
and leaning against the wall and surrounded by the remains of a bark 
coffin. All the bones except those of the left forearm were too far 
decayed to be saved; these were preserved by two heavy copper 
bracelets, which yet surrounded them. 

The skeleton found in the middle of the floor of the vault was of 
unusually large size “measuring seven feet six inches in length and 
nineteen inches between the shoulder sockets.” It had also been 
enclosed in a wrapping or coffin of bark, the remains of which were 
still distinctly visible. It lay upon the back, head east, legs together, and 
arms at the sides. There were six heavy bracelets on each wrist, four 
others were found under the head, which together with a spear point of 
black flint, were encased in a mass of mortar-like substance, which 
evidently had been wrapped in some textile fabric. On the breast was a 
copper gorget. 

In each hand were three spear heads of black flint, and others were 
about the head, knees, and feet. Near the right hand were hematite celts 
(ax heads) and on the shoulder were three large and thick plates. About 
the shoulders, waist, and thighs were numerous minute perforated 
shells and shell beads. 


The large mound in South Charleston is conical in form, 173 feet in 
diameter, and 33 feet high. It is slightly truncated, the top having been 
leveled off some 97 years ago for the purpose of building a judge’s 
stand in connection with a race course that was laid out around the 

A shaft twelve feet square at the top and six feet at the bottom was 
used to excavate the center shaft in an identical manner to mound one 
in the report. At a depth of four feet, in a very hard mix of earth and 
ash, were found two much decayed human skeletons both stretched 
horizontally on their back, heads south, and near their heads several 
stone implements. 

At a depth of 31 feet there was a human skeleton lying prostrate, 
head north, which had evidently been enclosed in a coffin or wrapping 
of elm bark. In contact with the head was a thin sheet of hammered 


native copper (a crown?). 

By enlarging the base of the shaft to sixteen feet it made the 
character and content of burial more fully ascertained. This brought to 
light the fact that the builders, after having first smoothed, leveled, and 
picked the natural surface, carefully spread upon the floor a layer of 
bark (chiefly elm), the inner side up, and upon this a layer of fine white 
ashes, clear of charcoal, to a depth probably of five or six inches, 
though pressed at the time of exploration to little more than one inch. 
On this the bodies were properly laid and presumably covered with 

The enlargement of the shaft also brought to view ten other skeletons 
all apparently adults, five on one side and five on the other side of the 
central skeleton, and like it, extended horizontally, with the feet 
pointing towards the central one, though not quite touching it. Like the 
first, they all had been buried in bark coffins or wrappings. 

Below the center of the No. 7 Charleston mound, sunk into the 
original earth, was a vault about eight feet long, three feet wide, and 
three feet deep. Lying extended on the back, in the bottom of this, amid 
the rotten fragments of a bark coffin, was a decayed human skeleton, 
fully seven feet tall, with head west. No evidence of fire was to be seen, 
nor were any stone implements discovered, but lying in a circle just 
above the hips were sixty circular pieces of white perforated shell, each 
about one inch in diameter and about an eighth of an inch thick. 

The bones of the left arm lay by the side of the body, but those of the 
right arm, as in one of the mounds heretofore mentioned, were 
stretched at a right angle to the body, reaching out to a small oven¬ 
shaped vault, the mortar or cement roof of which was still unbroken. 
The capacity of this small circular vault was probably two bushels, and 
the peculiar appearance of the dark-colored deposits therein, and other 
indications, led to the belief that it had been filled with corn maize, in 
the ear. 

The absence of weapons would indicate that the individual buried 
here was not a warrior, though a person of some importance. 

One mound, twenty feet in diameter and seven feet high with a beech 
tree 30 inches in diameter growing on it, was opened by running a 
trench through it. The material of which it was composed was yellow 


clay evidently from an extraction in the hillside near it. 

Stretched horizontally on the natural surface of the ground, faces up 
and heads south, were seven skeletons: six adult and one child, all 
charred. They were covered several inches thick with ashes, charcoal, 
and firebrands, evidently the remains of a very heavy fire that must 
have been smothered before it was fully burned out. Three coarse lance 
heads were found among the bones of the adults and around the back of 
the child three copper beads, of apparently hammered native copper. 

Another mound 50 feet diameter and five feet high, standing guard 
as it were, at the entrance of an enclosure, was opened revealing the 
following particulars. The top was strewn with fragments of flat rock, 
most of which were marked by one or more small, artificial, cup¬ 
shaped depressions. Below these, to a depth of two or three feet, the 
hard yellow clay was mixed throughout with similar stones, charcoal, 
ashes, stone chips and fragments of rude pottery. 

Near the center and about three feet from the top of the mound were 
the decayed remains of a human skeleton, lying on its back in a very 
rude stone slab coffin. Beneath were other flat stones, and under them 
charcoal, ashes and baked earth, covering the decayed bones of some 
three or four skeletons, which lay upon the original surface of the 
ground. As far as could be ascertained, the skeletons in the mound lay 
with their heads to the east. No relics of any kind worthy of notice were 
found with them. 

Mound 23 of this group shows some peculiarities worthy of notice. It 
is 312 feet in circumference at the base, and 25 feet high, covered with 
a second growth of timber. It is unusually sharp and symmetrical. From 
the top down the material was found to be a light gray and apparently 
mixed earth, so hard as to require the vigorous use of a pick to 
penetrate it. At a depth of 15 feet, the explorers began to find the casts 
and fragments of poles or round timbers less than a foot in diameter. 
These casts and rotten remains of wood and bark increased in 
abundance from this point until the original surface of the ground was 

By enlarging the lower end of the shaft to 14 feet in diameter, it was 
ascertained that this rotten wood and bark were the remains of what had 
once been a circular or polygonal timbered and conical-roofed vault. 
Many of the timbers of the sides and roof had been allowed to extend 


past the points of support, often 8 or 10 feet, those on the sides beyond 
the crossing, and thereof the roof downward beyond the wall. On the 
floor and amid the remains of the timbers, were numerous human bones 
and two human skeletons, the latter though slightly decayed badly 
crushed by the weight pressing upon them, but unaccompanied by any 
ornament of any kind. 

A further excavation of about four feet below the floor, or what was 
supposed to be the floor of this vault, and below the original surface of 
the ground, brought to light six circular oven-shaped vaults, each about 
three feet in diameter and the same in depth. 

As these six were placed as to form a semi-circle, it was presumed 
that there are many others under that portion of the mound not reached 
by the excavation. All were filled with dry, dark dust (presumably 
cremated remains), or decayed substances, supposed to be the remains 
of Indian corn in the ear as it was similar to that heretofore mentioned. 

In the center of the circle indicated by the position of these minor 
vaults, and the supposed center of the base of the mound (the shaft not 
being exactly central), and about two feet below the floor of the main 
vault, and in a fine mortar or cement, were found two cavities 
resembling in form the bottom of gourd-shaped vessels so frequently 
met with in the mounds of eastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas. 

Mound 32 of this group seems to furnish a connecting link between 
the West Virginia and Ohio mounds. ... It is sharp in outline and has a 
deep slope, and is flattened at the top; it is 315 feet in circumference at 
the base and about 25 feet high. It was opened by sinking a shaft 10 
feet in diameter from the center of the top of the base. After passing 
through the top layer of surface soil, some two feet thick, a layer of 
clay and ashes one foot thick was encountered. 

Here, near the center of the shaft, skeletons were lying horizontally, 
one immediately over the other, the upper or larger one with the face 
down and the lower one with face up. There were no indications of fire 
about them. Immediately over the heads were one celt (ax head) and 
three lance heads. ... 

At the depth of thirteen feet and a little north of the center of the 
mound, were two very large skeletons in a sitting posture, with their 
extended legs interlocked to the knees. Their arms were extended and 


the hands slightly elevated, as if together holding up a sandstone mortar 
which was between their faces. 

This stone is somewhat hemispherical, about two feet in diameter 
across the top, which is hollowed in the shape of a shallow basin or 
mortar. It had been subjected to the act of fire until bright red. The 
cavity was filled with white ashes containing small fragments of bone 
burned to cinders. 

Fig. 4.5. One of the distinguishing characteristics of mound builder burial practices 
is the paired burial. The interlocked skeletons described by the Charleston Daily 
Mall in 1923 are very similar to these two interlocked Stone Age skeletons—with 
their “eternal embrace” intact. Discovered near Verona, Italy, the setting of Romeo 
and Juliet, the roughly 5,000-year-old couple has already become an icon of 
enduring love to many (photo from the Archaeological Society). 


Immediately over this, and of a sufficient size to cover it, was a slab 
of bluish-gray limestone about three inches thick, which had small cup¬ 
shaped excavations on the underside. This bore no marks of fire. Near 
the hands of the eastern skeleton were a small hematite celt and a lance 
head and upon the left wrist of the other two copper bracelets. 

At the depths of 25 feet and on the natural surface was found what in 
an Ohio Mound would be called an “altar.” This was not thoroughly 
traced throughout, but was about twelve feet long and over eight feet 

Fig. 4.6. Toucan illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley by 

Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis 





In looking at the history of the South Charleston Mound, it turns out 
our best source is A. R. Sines, grandfather of Dr. F. A. Sines, 
Charleston dentist. Mr. Sines, who died in 1937, had a written account 
of his part in the mound opening published in the 1920s. 

No doubt among the thousands of people who daily pass the large 
mound at South Charleston, many have often wondered if there is 
anyone living who can tell what is lying, or once lay, at the bottom 


of that pile of earth. I am probably the only man now living who 
stood at the bottom of this mound and assisted with a thorough 
examination of every foot of its interior from top to bottom in 
November of 1883. 


To help in the excavation by Col. P. W. Norris, an old Indian scout who 
was then in the employ of the Smithsonian Institution of Washington. 
Colonel Norris, former superintendent of the Yellowstone National 
Park, was investigating all mounds of West Virginia, Ohio, and nearby 
states at that time. 

In opening the mound, the men under Col. Norris’ supervision first 
leveled off the top, then dug a round hole ten feet in diameter 
downward. As they progressed towards the bottom, they dug out a 
series of shelves around the sides to have a place to throw the dirt. 

Four feet from the bottom we made our first discovery. We came 
upon a large bed of charred wood, something resembling charred 
bones, and many small pieces which were more intact resembling 
burnt teeth. This had, beyond a doubt, once been a funeral pyre. 

The decayed bones belonged to what once had been a most 
powerful man. There was but little left, but the distance from the 
spot where the heel bone was found to what was left of the skull 
was 6 feet 8 3 A inches. 

The shoulder bones were considerably broader than those of 
men of our present race, although the skull bone was not so large. 
The teeth were larger than those we have today. The front part of 
the skull was nearly double the thickness of a human skull today. 


Sines and Colonel Norris found a copper band around the forehead of 
this buried giant, and similar copper bands around the wrists and 
ankles. With no copper nearer than Tennessee, they assumed it had 
been carried here by these mound builders thousands of years ago. 

They also found axe-shaped stones grooved in the middle. Sines 
related that this stone was not familiar to this country and so hard that 
steel would not make a dent. 


“Two miles down near where Sunset Memorial Park is today,” Sines 
related, “they opened a smaller mound and located the bones of what 
appeared to be the remnants of a woman. There were copper bands on 
the ankle and wrist bones and larger pieces of copper on each breast.” 

Fig. 4.7. A sacramental pipe in the shape of a human, illustration from Ancient 
Monuments of the Mississippi Valley by Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis 


The best-known mound and the largest in the Ohio Valley region is the 
Grave Creek Mound at Moundsville. This mound was purchased by the 
state in 1908. Part of the necessary funds was raised by school children. 
It is now a public park and is maintained by prisoners of the 
penitentiary. It is located directly opposite the walls of the state prison. 

It was discovered by Joseph Tomlinson in 1772. Two years prior, 
this pioneer had built his cabin near the site of the now-famous burial 
ground. Around it he noted a number of smaller mounds. The largest of 
the group was sixty-nine feet in height and about nine hundred feet in 
circumference at the base. On it were huge oak trees that indicated that 
the mound had been built many years before it was discovered by white 



The largest of the prehistoric remains in this state is the Grave Creek 


Mound at Moundsville in Marshall County. It looks about 900 feet 
around at the base and is 69 feet high. When the mound was opened in 
1883 by inexperienced workmen, a burial vault was discovered. It 
contained two compartments: one in the center of the mound on a level 
with the surrounding land and the other about half way to the top. 

In each compartment were found skeletons, two in the lower and one 
in the upper. Each skeleton was surrounded by ivory beads and other 
ornaments of various kinds. One skeleton was covered by thin pieces of 
mica. It was claimed there was also found a stone tablet near the upper 
compartment, on which were inscribed characters that resembled 
ancient hieroglyphics. 

The second largest mound in the state is in the center of South 
Charleston. When it was excavated in 1883 by scientists from the 
Smithsonian Institution, a giant skeleton, about seven feet tall, was 
found in what appeared to be a vault in the center of the mound. 

Around this skeleton were numerous ornaments. Pieces of mica on 
the shoulders appeared to be epaulets, and a large piece of copper on 
the chest seemed to be a shield. At each of the four corners of this vault 
were skeletons. 



June 14: Excavation of two mounds near Morganville, in Doddridge 
County, about 11 miles west of here revealed what Prof. Ernest Sutton, 
head of the history department of Salem College, believes is valuable 
evidence of a race of giants who inhabited this section of West Virginia 
more than 1,000 years ago. 

Prof. Sutton revealed tonight that he had been excavating the two 
mounds for the past several months. Skeletons of four mound builders 
indicating they were from seven to nine feet tall have been uncovered. 
Professor Sutton believes they were members of a race known in 
anthropology as Siouan Indians. 

The best preserved skeleton was found enclosed in a casting of clay. 


All the vertebrae and other bones excepting the skull were intact. 
Careful measurement of this specimen indicated it was a man seven and 
a half feet tall. 


The largest mound was excavated in 1883 by A. B. Tomlinson. A 
tunnel ten feet high and seven feet wide, was driven on the level of the 
ground toward the center. At a distance of 111 feet, the work men 
discovered a vault 12 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 7 feet deep. It had 
been sunk in the earth before the mound was erected. The vault had 
been erected by placing upright timbers along each side, and along the 
ends which supported timbers that formed the ceiling. The top of the 
vault was then covered with rough stones. With the decay of the 
timbers, the stones and dirt had fallen into the vault. 

Fig. 4.8. This find of a nine-foot skeleton in Indianna was shipped to the 
Smithsonian, where it immediately went into the “memory hole.” 

When the stones were removed, two skeletons were found. 
Surrounding one of them were 656 ivory beads and nearby was an 
ivory ornament about six inches long. There were no ornaments on the 
other skeleton. 





Then an excavation was done from the top of the mound to connect 
with the tunnel. About the center of the shaft another vault was 
discovered that contained a single skeleton. This person must have been 
one of great importance because he was surrounded by many 
ornaments: 1,700 ivory beads, 500 sea shells, about 150 pieces of 
obsidian glass and 5 copper bracelets on the wrists. 


In the second vault, about two feet from the skeleton, was found the 
famous stone that has been the subject of controversy on the part of 
many antiquarians. Some claim it was a hoax. 

On it were certain characters, sort of hieroglyphs, and it was hoped by 
some that it would prove to be a sort of Rosetta Stone with a message 
from an ancient race. 


Fig. 4.9. The beautiful eight-foot queen in all her glory 



The mound was excavated exactly 100 years ago, the work having been 
begun on March 19, 1838. The owner and interested neighbor, none of 
whom were trained antiquarians, did the work. It is possible they over 
looked many things, that would have thrown light on the life and habits 
of the mound builders. 




Another prehistoric ruin that has been attributed to the mound builders 
is a stone wall on the hill top above Mount Carbon, about four miles 
east of Montgomery, overlooking the Kanawha River. It was 
constructed around the brow of the mountain about three hundred feet 
from the summit. It is broken in places, but it is at least eight miles 
long. At intervals there are large piles of stones that indicate that towers 
or gates were constructed at these points. 


The stones, which were loosely placed together without mortar or 
cement, are similar to those found at the bottom of the mountain. It was 
evidently a great task to carry them up the steep hillside. One naturally 
asks why these walls were constructed: hardly for defense, because 
there is no evidence of a habitation. No water is to be found on the 
mountain top. The walls are built on the highest mountain in the 
vicinity and they have been for temples of worship. 


The most important and the most interesting group of mounds erected 
in West Virginia is found in the vicinity of Charleston. They are 
distinctive, although they have characteristics similar to the mounds 
found in Ohio and have been classified with the latter. The ancient 
people who lived near Charleston were undoubtedly related to those 
who lived in Ohio. 




This summer witnessed the unearthing of a skeleton of a prehistoric 
Texas man, which has been identified as being from the period of the 
mound builders. The remains found are estimated to be about 4,000 
years old and were located by an expedition from the Department of 
Anthropology of the University of Texas. The skeleton was found on 
the Old Blanco Road, at a point near Klappenbach Hill, just south of 


New Braunfels. 

The burial is evidently that of a chieftain or minor king of the 
moundbuilder race. Regal artifacts were found near the skeleton to 
substantiate the theory that this person was of royal birth. 


Throughout my research I ran into reports describing skeletons with 
“deformed,” “elongated,” or “flattened” skulls. In almost all the cases 
where there was more than a cursory description, it turns out that what 
is being described are what have recently been called “coneheads” (in a 
humorous reference to a famous Saturday Night Live sketch and 
movie), a condition most clearly seen in the famous statue of Queen 

Traditionally this has been attributed to hydrocephalic deformation 
or artificial skull-boarding techniques, but as the number of these skulls 
that have been found and studied increases, it is obvious to researchers 
that certain skulls are naturally oversized and have increased cranial 
capacities that are not the result of disease or artificial manipulation. 

Fig. 4.10. Egyptian princess Meritaten (daughter of Nefertiti and Akhenaten) with 

typical elongated skull 




The removal of a wagonload or so of these stones brought to light a 
stone vault seven feet long and four feet deep in the bottom of which 
was found a large and much-decayed human skeleton but wanting the 
head, which the most careful investigation failed to discover. A single 
rough spearhead was the only accompanying object found in this vault. 

At the depth of six feet, in earth similar to that around the base of the 
mound, was found a second skeleton also much decayed of an adult of 
normal size. At nine feet a third skeleton was discovered, in a mass of 
loose dry earth, surrounded by the remains of a bark coffin. This was in 
a much better state of preservation than the other two. The skull, which 
was preserved, was of the compressed or “flat head” type. 

In other words, this skeleton exhibited head characteristics similar to 
those found in South America and Egypt. As digs progressed in other 
parts of the state, archaeologists in Wheeling, WV found another 
grouping of giants ranging in height from 67" to 7'6" and also 
displaying unusual skull formations with low foreheads that sloped 
back gradually. 


Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 

Prof. E. L. Lively and J. L. Williamson of Friendly have made an 
examination of the giant skeletons found by children playing near 
the town. The femurs and vertebrae were found to be in a 
remarkable state of preservation and showed the persons to be of 
enormous stature. The skeletons ranged in height from 7'6" down 
to 67" inches. The skulls found are of peculiar formation. The 
forehead is low and slopes back gradually, while the back part of 
the head is very prominent, much more so than the skulls of people 
living today. The legs are exceedingly long and the bones 
unusually large. The finding of the skeletons has created a great 
deal of interest and the general impression is that the bones are the 
remains of the people who built the mounds, the largest in the 
country being located at Moundsville in Marshall County. 


History of Indiana County, 1880 

One child of five or six years had been buried in a stone-lined 
grave along with two infants. They had possibly been victims of an 
epidemic. All adults were of medium stature. All but one had head 
deformities of a lesser or greater degree. The most interesting 
burials were of a woman under thirty, and a child of eight, to ten 
years, in the same grave. Around the neck of the woman were 
several tiny drilled Gulf of Mexico shells, once part of a necklace. 
The shells are an indication of contact with distant tribes. At the 
center of her back was found a highly-polished bone tube having 
worn areas near each end where strings or thongs had probably 
been placed. This bone, possibly from a swan, could have been a 
hair ornament. 

Around the woman’s leg bones were found 1,458 tubular beads 
cut from birds’ long bones. It is surmised that these were fastened 
to the hem of her skirt. At the foot of the grave was an unusual 
compound pottery vessel in such good condition that it was easily 
repaired. It was also found that an intense fire, perhaps of religious 
significance, had been built directly over the grave. 



Sayre is a borough in Bradford County, Pennsylvania, fifty-nine miles 
northwest of Scranton. The exact year is not clear, but during the 1880s 
a large burial mound was discovered in Sayre. It was reported that a 
group of Americans uncovered several strange human skulls and bones. 
The skeletons belonged to anatomically normal men with the exception 
of bony projections located about two inches above the eyebrows. It 
appeared that the skulls had horns. The bones were characterized as 
giant, as they were representative of people over seven feet tall. 
Scientists estimated that the bodies had been buried around 1200 CE. 
The archeological discovery was made by a reputable group of 
antiquarians, including Dr. G. P. Donehoo, the Pennsylvania state 
dignitary of the Presbyterian Church; A. B. Skinner, of the American 
Investigating Museum; and W. K. Morehead, of Phillips Academy, 
Andover, Massachusetts. 


Fig. 4.11. According to historical accounts, the Sayre “Horned Giant” bones were 
sent to the American Investigating Museum in Philadelphia. The artifacts were 

later reported missing. 

This was not the first time that gigantic horned skulls were unearthed 
in North America. During the nineteenth century, similar skulls were 
discovered near Wellsville, New York, and in a mining village close to 
El Paso, Texas. At one time in history, human horns were used as signs 
of kingship. Alexander the Great was depicted with horns on some of 
his coins. In Moses’s time, horns were a symbol of authority and 
power. Apparent pictures of the skulls do exist, but many people claim 
the discovery to be a hoax. Conversely, many websites suggest that the 
objects are of extraterrestrial origin. 


Fig. 4.12. Evidence of horns. The Vatican Museum possesses Michelangelo’s 

famous statue of Moses. 



Sophisticated Cultures of the Ancient 





At the turn of the twentieth century there was a national awareness of 
the mound builders and their extensive earthworks that far exceeded 
contemporary consciousness on the subject. Since the majority of the 
country still lived an agrarian lifestyle, awareness of the mounds was 
reinforced by daily contact with the actual sites themselves. Current 
estimates put the number of known American mounds at well over one 
hundred thousand. They ranged in shape from the great pyramids of 
Illinois to the fantastic pictorial mounds of Wisconsin. It seemed to be 
common knowledge that giants were found buried in many of these 
mounds and that these giants were not related to the present-day 
American Indians living in the region. 


One of the largest of the mound builder sites in North America is 
located in southwestern Illinois, near Collinsville. It is commonly 
called the Cahokia site. The Cahokia mound complex has been 
compared in scope and grandeur to the Great Pyramid. The site is 
located at the confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois 
Rivers, directly across the Mississippi River from present-day St. 
Louis. During the Middle Ages, Cahokia was a larger city than London, 
with an estimated population of forty to fifty thousand, yet today it is 
an abandoned place about which we know almost nothing. Centuries 
ago, there were more than 120 mounds at the Cahokia site, though the 
locations of only 106 have been recorded. Many of them have been 
destroyed or altered because of modern farming and construction, 
although sixty-eight have been preserved inside of the boundaries of 
the Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site. 

Lawyer and writer H. M. Brackenridge captured the awe of seeing 
the Cahokia complex in 1811. He crossed the Mississippi at St. Louis 
and after making his way through the woods along the Cahokia Creek, 


passed over the plain to the mounds. He referred to them as 
“resembling enormous haystacks scattered through a meadow.” 

Journal of a Voyage up the Mississippi River in 1811 
By Henri Marie Brackenridge 

When I reached the foot of the principle mound, I was struck with 
a degree of astonishment not unlike that which is experienced in 
contemplating the Egyptian Pyramids. What a stupendous pile of 
earth! To heap up such a mass must have required years, and 
labors of thousands. 

Pursuing my walk along the bank of the Cahokia, I passed eight 
other mounds, in the distance of three miles, before I arrived at the 
largest assemblage. When I reached the foot of the principle 
mound, I was struck with a degree of astonishment not unlike that 
which is experienced in contemplating the Egyptian Pyramids. 
What a stupendous pile of earth! To heap up such a mass must 
have required years, and labors of thousands. It stands immediately 
on the banks of the Cahokia, and on the side next to it is covered 
with lofty trees. Were it not for the regularity and design it 
manifests, the circumstances of it being on alluvial ground, and the 
other mounds scattered around it, we would scarcely believe it be 
the work of human hands. 

The site is named after a tribe of Illiniwek Indians, the Cahokia, who 
lived in the area when the French arrived in the late 1600s. What the 
actual name of the city may have been in ancient times is unknown. 
The modern archaeological site is believed to have existed from AD 
700 until its decline in 1300. By 1500, it is thought to have been 
completely abandoned. 

As is the case with many of the ancient mound builder sites, a true 
accounting of the ancient history of the mounds is almost impossible 
due to the destruction of over half the mounds at the site, coupled with 
the lack of any modern excavation work that could dig down to the 
earlier construction at Cahokia, which may be thousands of years 
earlier than the dates currently assigned by conventional archaeology. 



The largest earthwork in the Cahokia complex is a stepped pyramid, 
which covers about 16 acres. It is often called Monks Mound after 
Trappist monks who farmed the terraces in the early 1800s. It was 
apparently rebuilt several times in the distant past. At the summit of the 
mound are the buried remains of some sort of temple, further adding to 
the mystery of the site. Monks Mound measures 100 feet tall, with an 
original base of 1,000 feet. These even measurements in feet have 
raised the interest of alternative historians, as well as its numerous 
astronomical alignments that show great similarities to alignments at 
Stonehenge and Teotihuacan, among numerous significant ancient 

Fig. 5.1. Monks Mound, built circa 950-1100 CE and located at the Cahokia 
Mounds State Historic Site, near Collinsville, Illinois. Image courtesy of 



In addition, during the excavation of Mound 72, a ridge-top burial 
mound south of Monks Mound, archaeologists found the remains of a 
man in his forties buried on a bed of more than twenty thousand 
marine-shell disc beads arranged in the shape of a falcon, with the 
bird’s head appearing beneath and beside the man’s head, and its wings 
and tail beneath his arms and legs. Archaeologists also recovered more 


than 250 other skeletons from Mound 72. Scholars believe almost 62 
percent of these were sacrificial victims, based on signs of ritual 
execution and method of burial. 



Some archaeologists believe the last survivors of the mound builders 
were the Natchez Indians of the Lower Mississippi Valley. These 
Indians were known for being devout worshippers of the sun, which 
may explain the uses of the mounds at Cahokia and the so-called 
“Woodhenge” at the site. These forty-eight wooden posts make up a 
410-foot-diameter circle, and by lining up the central observation posts 
with specific perimeter posts at sunrise, the exact date of all four 
equinoxes can be determined. Entire books have been written about the 
many geological and astral alignments associated with the Cahokia 
complex. Although these studies are dismissed by conventional 
archaeologists as the wishful thinking of wild-eyed amateurs, what 
cannot be denied is the amazing similarity between the Woodhenge 
construction found at Cahokia and the similarly constructed 
Woodhenge found next to Stonehenge in England. 

Although these were the finds revealed to the public after the official 
1922 excavation, a previous, unofficial dig at the site uncovered 
hundreds more skeletons, some giant in nature, which have all 
disappeared from the historical record. 


The wholesale destruction of the Cahokia complex is one of the 
greatest tragedies in the history of modern archaeology in the United 
States. Although the site was recognized as highly important as early as 
the seventeenth century, no official efforts were made to preserve and 
study the site. As a result, well over half the site was destroyed by 
farmers and city planners from St. Louis. Despite national efforts to 
preserve the site at the turn of the century, Cahokia was not given 
National Historic Landmark status until the 1960s. 





“Racism and prejudice said The lazy Indian’ couldn’t have made the 
mounds,” says archaeologist James Anderson. “That meant excavation 
of the site—about ten miles east of St. Louis and named Cahokia after a 
group of Indians that lived in the area in the seventeenth century—was 
slow in starting, in part, because early ‘experts’ refused to believe that 
Indians had built the majestic earthen pyramids that still stand today.” 


Covering some 6.5 square miles, Cahokia boasted streets, warehouses, 
man-made lakes, docks, crude but workable astronomical 
observatories, walled fortifications, and scores of earthen mounds as 
tall as 10 stories. Flourishing between 900 and 1300 CE, the city 
dominated the American Bottoms, a fertile 175-square-mile valley near 
the confluences of the Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers. 

“We know it was a great city,” said Anderson, director of the 
Cahokia Mounds Museum. “But we may be short-changing it. It may 
have been an empire.” 

Excavations have revealed that Cahokian commerce reached from 
the Great Lakes to the Gulf Coast and from the Western plains to the 
Appalachian Mountains, and controlled such raw materials as copper, 
mica, sea shells, and flint. 


Monks Mound, a flat-topped pyramid named for Trappist monks who 
lived nearby in the nineteenth century, has a base covering some 
fourteen acres, rises in four terraces to a height of a hundred feet and is 
estimated to contain some 22 million cubic feet of earth. 

It is thought to have supported a building at least fifty feet high that 
was the residence of a leader who held both political and religious 
power in Cahokia. 


While Monks Mound dominated the city center, which was enclosed by 
a 15-foot-high wooden stockade almost three miles long, other mounds 
—conical, ridge- and flat-topped—dotted the countryside. The 


functions of the mounds are not known but there is evidence they were 
used for burials and as boundary markers. 


“The excavation of one ridge-topped mound revealed some three 
hundred ceremonial and sacrificial burials, mostly young women in 
mass graves, and the body of what appears to be a male ruler, about 
forty-five years old on a blanket of more than twenty thousand seashell 
beads, and surrounded by the bodies of attendants. The extensive public 
works and human sacrifices are evidence of a class society in which 
rulers held sway over life and death and labor,” explained Anderson. 

Outside the city center were four circular sun calendars of large, 
evenly-spaced log posts, called “Woodhenges” because of their 
similarity to Stonehenge in Britain. Probably used to predict the 
changing of the seasons, they are the most advanced scientific 
achievement found at Cahokia. 

“Of some 120 mounds built at Cahokia—the Indians carried earth in 
60-pound basket loads from pits as far as a mile away—only 40 are 
preserved within a 750-acre state park. The rest are on private lands and 
have been mostly plowed over by farmers or covered with asphalt in 
the name of progress,” said Anderson, bitterly observing a growing 
urban sprawl at the foot of the most spectacular of the earthen 
pyramids. Monks Mound. 


In 1905, Congress was petitioned to save the mound builder sites from 
destruction. Although Congress made noises about saving these mound 
sites from further destruction, funds were not forthcoming. In the case 
of Cahokia, it took until 1964 for that complex to receive official 
protection as a National Historic Landmark. Similar tales were told 
across the nation, since the majority of these sites were on private lands 
and the government offered no compensation for preservation of the 
mounds. To compound matters, the mound builders still have no 
official standing as an indigenous Native American people, as no 
official descendants of the mound builders have ever been recognized 


by the courts of the United States. 



A bill now before Congress, having for its objective the preserving and 
protecting from despoliation, the historic and prehistoric ruins or 
monuments on the public lands of the United States, especially 
Colorado and Utah, where the cliff-dweller once dwelt and placing 
them under the care and custody of the Secretary of the Interior, has 
served somewhat to revive popular interest in a subject that has been, 
heretofore, largely dormant except among scientists. While the bill in 
question applies only to the preservation of monuments on Public Land 
and particularly to the ruins scattered over the semi-arid regions of 
Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado that have left many 
evidences of their occupancy of the so-called Pueblo region, it is 
conceivable that the movement may soon extend and take the form of 
legislative action looking to similar enclosures with reference to the 
numerous prehistoric remains of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys. 


These mound builder sites are located almost invariably on private 
lands, and though it is true in some few cases the owners have for 
sentimental reasons maintained the integrity of the mounds and 
earthworks allotted on their property, in the vast majority of cases the 
commercial instinct has prevailed, and the original outlines are fast 
obliterated by time and the abrading wear of the white man’s plow. 
Archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, indeed patriotic Americans 
of every class, have interest in preserving these relics of bygone days. 

Every state in the Union from Wisconsin to the Gulf and from 
Virginia to Nebraska has more or fewer of the mounds and earthworks, 
which were built hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years ago. In 
Mississippi and elsewhere they can be seen from the car windows of 
railroad trains or from carriages on the highways. These mounds are 
mostly terraced and truncated pyramids, in shape usually square or 
rectangular, but sometimes hexagonal or octagonal. They differ greatly 


in size. One in West Virginia is 70 feet high and 1,000 feet in 

The Cahokia Mound, in Illinois, opposite the northern section of the 
city of St. Louis, is the largest of them all, rising in terraces from a base 
of 1,150 feet by 700 feet to a height of 100 feet and covering an area 
larger than that occupied by the Great Pyramid of Egypt. In Ohio and 
other states there are mounds approaching these in magnitude, but 
generally they range from six to thirty feet in height. 

The Fort Ancient earthwork on the Little Miami River, in the contour 
roughly of a Figure 8, and about 22 feet above the surface at its highest, 
is now enthroned by a public park and watched over by the Ohio 
Historical Society. 

Cahokia was once one of the grandest capitals of this extremely 
ancient mound-building culture and the artistry of the site alone should 
have given it supreme protection, but as will be seen in the following 
shocking expose of criminal neglect on the part of the Smithsonian and 
the Parks Division, as early as 1828, these ancient mound sites were 
already in peril of total destruction. 

The following story appeared as a lavishly illustrated Sunday feature 
in the Frederick News Post in Virginia, but this article was also 
nationally syndicated. Again, the following are the actual headlines and 
in-depth quotes from this very provocative piece of historical 
muckraking on behalf of protecting these mound sites from eventual 
sure destruction. 







The largest and most impressive memorial of the prehistoric mound 
builders is in danger of destruction, and the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology 
is anxious that it be declared a National monument and thereby 

It is the great Cahokia Mound, across the river from St. Louis, in 
Illinois. Rising in the midst of a level plain, and rectangular in shape, it 
is ninety-nine feet high and 998 feet long (100 feet by 1000 feet more 
likely), an artificial hill that may be seen from the railroad approaching 
St. Louis from the east. 


Students of antiquity regard it as comparable in archaeological interest 
to the pyramids of Egypt. It is believed to have been, in pre-historic 
times, the site of a temple, which may have been comparable in size 
and grandeur to the ancient Sun Temple whose ruins were recently 
discovered in the far southwest. That structure built of cut stone was 
400 feet long. It had only one narrow door and a curious detail that has 
been preserved is a peephole through which a watcher could inspect 
persons wishing to enter. 


Here is another of the many public pleas to save the mounds from 
destruction. In this case from the 1960s, it is a large mound complex 
located in Whitewater that was scheduled for a suburban subdivision. 



The mounds, covering about 6 Vi acres of land, range in height from 
about lVi to five feet. All have holes or pits on their tops and sides. 
Lormerly situated in lands comprising the Town of Whitewater, the 
mounds, came under City of Whitewater jurisdiction in 1964 with the 
annexation of former Tratt Larm property, purchased by Buckingham 
Developers. Dr. Cummings has urged local acquisition of this land 
from the Buckingham firm, which presently “owes” the city space in 
the subdivision equivalent to two lots, having agreed to a planning 
commission proposal whereby developers of new sub-divisions within 


the city would allocate a certain amount of space to playground usage. 
Numerous other groups have sent letters either to Dr. Cummings or 
City Manager Ronald DeMaad to save the mounds as a historical park 


This report from Cahokia is indicative of the poor quality of the official 
reports from excavations at the site. As opposed to the detailed 
descriptions of copper armor found elsewhere in this book (see Many 
Skeletons of an... . Indiana’s Eight-Foot... !, this “official” description 
merely notes that helmeted and cop-per-armored men were found, with 
no description of the finds under discussion. 


In this report it is noted that seventy mounds that once surrounded a 
great mound were destroyed in the construction of the city of St. Louis. 
With this kind of rampant, wholesale destruction, it is easy to 
understand why the true history of this site remains obscured to the 
present day. 


A true accounting of the number of skeletons found at Cahokia is also 
shrouded in the same mystery as the destroyed mounds at the site. 
Officially, there is almost no discussion of the hundreds of skeletons 
exhumed from this site. 

The details and physical descriptions of the finds made during the 
1922 dig led by archaeologist Warren K. Morehead of Phillips 
Academy, in Andover, Massachusetts, are not very detailed and are 
downright evasive when it comes to the skeletons unearthed during his 
dig. One might even go so far as to say that Morehead was there to 
bury evidence, not uncover it. 



W. H. Scoville of Allegheny, and his brother-in-law from Connecticut, 
while hunting squirrels in the woods towards Irish settlement, found a 


pyramidal mound 18 or 20 feet long, walled at the base with stone. 
Growing on it were several trees, some of which were six inches 
through. Mr. Scoville, and son Esca, exhumed two skeletons, one of a 
dog and one of a tall man, about 8 feet in length. Most of the bones 
perished away when exposed to the air and handled, but the jaw bone 
as yet is in Mr. Scoville’s possession and is large enough to fit outside 
his own. 

Within the last few months excavations made in the Cahokia Mound 
have brought to light a number of objects made of sheet copper and 
representing helmeted and armored men. They were presumably used 
for some ceremonial purpose and, fashioned very artistically. . . . 

The great mound was formerly surrounded by about seventy lesser 
mounds, some of them forty feet high, which have been destroyed by 
the plow. . .. 

There was a GIGANTIC EARTHWORK of the kind, 319 feet long 
and 158 feet wide, close to St. Louis, but in the later sixties [i.e., 1860s] 
the city grew over it and wiped it out. 

Digging at the time of the destruction, disclosed inside of it a huge 
burial chamber seventy feet long, built of logs, which contained 




Appleton, Wisconsin: Large earthworks, constructed by the mound 
builders in the prehistoric past, rise conspicuously in the Illinois 
lowlands, about ten miles from St. Louis. In several groups, there are 
about 150 mounds, the largest known as Cahokia Mound, being 1080 
feet long, 702 feet wide, and 102 feet high, containing 107,000 cubic 
yards of earth. The background to these structures built by an unknown 
race, in the unknown long ago, is a high and sweeping limestone ridge. 

Scientists are now opening the smaller mounds in an endeavor to 
learn of the people who formed them. Of all the prehistoric remnants in 
North America, the mounds of these groups are the largest, and it is 
believed, the oldest. As the earthworks seem to have been undisturbed 


by the Indians, French, Spaniards, and Americans, the scientists hope to 
dig up skeletons, utensils, and relics that will identify the race that 
inhabited parts of America before the Redskins. 

The exploration of one of the smallest mounds has uncovered what 
may have been a burial place. Several skeletons have been found in it; 
next to them red pottery of the mound builders’ period. Dr. Warren K. 
Morehead, of Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., who is in charge of 
the research, expects to dig up a complete skeleton. 



Despite the fact that one of the main St. Louis mounds, with more than 
one hundred human skeletons, was publicly destroyed and desecrated, 
we are asked to believe that no one has ever made any examination of 
the nation’s largest mound, which has been compared in size to the 
Great Pyramid. This is despite the fact that every other main mound in 
the country seems to have been breached at one time or the other in the 



No extensive explorations have been made into the mound at Cahokia. 
Some years ago members of the Ramey family, former owners, dug a 
tunnel 90 feet toward the center of the mound. A piece of lead ore was 
the only article of interest found. Since the entire area has been 
converted into a state park, there is little probability that any future 
explorations will be made in any of the mounds. 


The next largest mounds at Honeywell, Ohio, were excavated about 
thirty years ago. Relics taken from the Cahokia group, at the city limits 
of East St. Louis, indicated that the Ohio residents traded with those of 
Illinois. Much interest attaches to the present investigation, as there is a 
prospect that things of great historic significance will be unearthed. It is 
proposed to preserve the largest mounds in a state or national park. 



Monks Mound with the exception of several smaller ones, is the 
farthest north of a group of 72 (a very significant number). Years ago 
the mound was given the name Cahokia Mound. It was named for a 
tribe of Indians encountered by La Salle, a Frenchman, in his early 

On the southern side of the mound, is a terrace, about 30 feet above 
the base. The terrace contains an area of over two acres. This is the 
plateau which may have been used for religious purposes. 

Monks Mound is a parallelogram, the longer dimensions extending 
north and south. The other mounds in the group are of various 
formations. The bottom of one is circular while another is almost 
perfectly square. A third along the highway has the longer dimensions 
extending from east and west. 



Many objects of strange form, of undoubted aboriginal manufacture, 
have been found in the mounds. For instance, a hollow metal bird with 
many perforations, and small vessels of odd shapes with numerous 
holes bored through them. For what purpose could such things be 
meant? From a mound near Chillicothe came a carving in soft 
serpentine representing in really exquisite detail a duck riding on a fish. 
This, however, was a pipe. The pre-Columbian Indians were all of them 
smokers of tobacco and the mounds yield great numbers of pipes. 

In one group of mounds were found hundreds of jaw bones of human 
beings, bears, and other animals, cut in a most curious way, so as to 
leave in each case a thin slice of the alveolar structure holding a row of 
teeth. The work must have been done with a saw so exceedingly thin 
and sharp that it is a puzzle to know how the Indians could have 
obtained such a tool. But a more important question is, why should the 
jaws have been cut that way? 

The United States Geological Survey has made a map of the eastern 
half of the United States showing the entire area sprinkled with red 


dots, each one standing for an ancient mound or group of mounds. Such 
mounds are found all over the country, from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
and from the Canadian border to the Gulf. About 10 percent of them 
have been more or less excavated, yielding numerous articles of white 
manufacture, such as knives, brass kettles, beads, and so forth. Nearly 
all of the other objects unearthed are similar to those in use by the 
Indians today. 

Some of the mounds were domiciliary; the old-time Indians lived on 
top of them because the elevation was an advantage for defense. Thus, 
a large mound might be a village site. Others were used for purposes of 
religious ceremonies, yet others were cemeteries. A dead man was 
buried in a small tumulus, usually in a sitting posture. When another 
died he was interred in the same place, more earth being added. At 
every interment the mound grew bigger, and thus in the course of 
centuries it attained huge size. The usual form of a mound was that of a 
broad, low-topped cone, which might be eighty or ninety feet high and 
three hundred feet in diameter at the base. Others were rectangular. Yet 
others were built like walls, twenty to forty feet wide. The purpose of 
these last is a mystery; they were not used for burial, and the use to 
which they were put is likely to remain forever unknown. 


Although the Cahokia complex stands out because of its size, many 
other finds of mounds and their contents that are no less fascinating 
have been made around the United States. Perhaps the most intriguing 
are the many mounds built in the shape of animals. 




Archeological interest in the Alton vicinity is being revived since 


excavations on the Charles Oerson farm, located on the Newbern road 
west of the Alton-Jerseyville road have indicated that the several 
mounds located there are ruins of that race of pre-American Indian 
dwellers on this continent the mound builders. 



It was the curiosity of Charles Gerson and Ray Smith that led to the 
investigation of the dirt formations. Tuesday and Wednesday of this 
week their curiosity was appeased when a skeleton was unearthed 
several feet from the surface. Digging deeper more bones and pottery 
were found. The most interesting, and perhaps the most valuable, of the 
relics found by two men was a large collection of mussel shells, placed 
one upon the other to the thickness of a foot. The shells crumbled when 
exposed to the air, but the fact that they did so may be the factor to 
determine the antiquity of the mounds as they have been in previous 



Should the mounds prove to be as ancient as the mussel shells indicate 
there would be a possibility that from the ruins on the Gerson farm aid 
would be derived to establish the antiquity of the time-honored and be- 
legended Plasa devil bird painting that for centuries graced the Alton 

Paleolithic ruins are the most ancient to be found in America and 
come from the early glacial period. Even at this time the trace of the 
mongoloid type is found, giving rise to the theory of the immigrations 
to America over the land bridge that existed between Europe and 
America and, Alaska and Siberia. Then centuries or perhaps ages later 
came the mound builders who were neither a Neolithic race nor 
American Indians. 


Mound Builders were also builders of shell-heaps. The Great Fraser 
Midden in British Columbia is the greatest known discovery of the 
shell-heap builders; it is built on the glacial gravel before the post- 


glacial vegetation had started, and when discovered was covered by a 
forest from 680 to 700 years old. The shells found crumbled when 
exposed, but the later mound builders also left mussel shells behind, 
showing there was a connection between them. 


There were five distinct types of mounds built; the effigy or animal¬ 
shaped ones, burial and ground work ones combined, burial mounds for 
that purpose alone, the stockade type, and the pyramidal type, of which 
the Cahokia mound at East St. Louis is the best known example. 

This newly found group of mounds might be of the latter type. But 
before a label is put on this discovery there is the possibility that it is a 
burial place of the roving men who succeeded the Mound Builders in 
this territory. Though no great importance may be placed on the 
excavation near Alton should it be proved to belong to the American 
Indian burial ground division, the wealth and beauty of the American 
Indian relics taken from this vicinity prior to this time will be 


On the other hand, should the discovery be found to correspond with 
Cahokia and be of the same class, all theories and the romances 
connected with East St. Louis will be extended to here. Between 
Cahokia and the early pyramid builders of Central America there is a 
connecting link. Should the Alton findings be found to be cousins to the 
Cahokia cluster, it may become a link in the pre-history record of the 
American continent, a chain of records that stretches from Asia to 
Alaska, British Columbia, Rio Grande, Guatemala, Yucatan, Florida, 
and is as near to us as East St. Louis, and has relics ranging from 
mussel shell heaps to the casa grandes and pueblos of the southwest, 
down to the more modern calendars and sculptures of the Mayas, and 
the heavy gold and earth-work of the Itzas, Quiches, and Aztecs. It all 
depends upon the importance of the slim stratum of mussel shells. To 
date, mussel shells have not figured as relics found in the graves of the 
red American Indian, but are a characteristic of the mound builders. 

The account that follows describes a particularly stunning serpent 


mound found in Quincy, Illinois. Inside the mound skeletons were 
found buried with the skeleton of a snake covering them. 



A huge serpent mound was recently discovered near Quincy, Illinois, in 
Adams County. This mound was built by a class of pre-historic people 
now known as the serpent worshippers. In the mound were found 
skeletons upon which the bones of a snake reposed. 




The Great Serpent Mound of Ohio, appeals peculiarly to the 
imagination. It measures from the upper jaw to the tip of the tail 1254 
feet, rising at the head to a height of five feet from the surface and 
extending in graceful and perfect convolutions, but with receding 
height to the tail. 

The serpent’s mouth is open and within the arc of the jaws is a 
monumental earthwork shaped like an egg, as if about to be swallowed. 
This striking example of the mound builders’ art about which the fancy 
of the twentieth century weaves traditions of serpent worship in a 
forgotten civilization is fortunate to be preserved from the ravages of 
time and vandalism. This is as reported in a feature story about a bill 
introduced in 1905 to save the mounds from immediate destruction. 

As is the case with Michigan’s copper mines, the most stunning 
aspect of Wisconsin’s mound building culture is not the plethora of 
giants unearthed in the area, but the amazing animal effigy mounds that 
covered the state like a blanket of woodland imagery. It has been 
estimated that in one county alone in Wisconsin, there were originally 
over ten thousand effigy mounds. It is no exaggeration to say that 
Wisconsin was an ancient version of the Nazca plateau in South 
America, which is famous worldwide for the thousands of animal 
images cut into the bedrock there. The images that covered Wisconsin 
were endless and ran the gamut from human forms to snakes, lizards, 


foxes, rabbits, fish, and mammoths. Unfortunately no official attempt 
has ever been made to save these mounds from destruction, and at this 
point in time the vast majority of mounds that once blanketed the state 
have been destroyed. 

In one notable case, it was reported that an eight-foot-tall giant was 
unearthed near Pelican Lake, while in another report from Westport, 
giant burials were found in association with ten-pound axes and an 
eight-foot-high wall, which was fifteen-feet thick and ran along a river 
embankment for 1,500 feet. It was noted that the wall was made from 
hard red bricks, some of an immense size. In the woods near the shore, 
a mound was opened that contained a giant buried with several rolls of 
textiles and a finely finished grooved stone ax. 



The so-called “effigy mounds” are confined almost wholly to 
Wisconsin and a small part of Iowa. The entire valley of Prairie du 
Chien Township is dotted with these mounds, shaped to represent 
bears, deer, rabbits, antlered elks, and other animals. They form 
veritable droves, all headed, like the river, to the southwest. The 
existence of these mounds in such numbers and of so great a magnitude 
proves that there must formerly have been in that region a large 
population permanently resident and settled. 

They doubtless depended for a livelihood chiefly on farming, as did 
the eastern tribes until the whites disturbed them. It is worth 
mentioning that some of their mounds, representing birds, have a 
spread of 250 feet from wing tip to wing tip, and a remarkable feature 
of most of them is the imitative curving and rounding of the bodies of 
the sculptured animals. There are hundreds of these effigy mounds 
overlooking the Mississippi River, located on bluffs, and hundreds 
more across the river in Iowa. They are thought to represent the 
heraldic “totems” of various clans. Thus the Bear clan built mounds in 
the shape of a bear, the Lizard clan in the form of a lizard, the Snake 
clan in the likeness of a serpent, and so on. 



Around the mound sites in various parts of La Crosse County, 
archaeologists and parties of Boy Scouts have found many arrow heads 
of strange design. These points range from the battle or war points to 
slender points, evidently used for the purpose of shooting small game. 
Some of the points, which had been found in the area of West Salem, 
are of obsidian while others found south of La Crosse near the junction 
of highways 35 and 14, are of flint. While some are of Indian 
manufacture, others have been identified as being of mound builder 
construction, and a study of the symmetry and design of both works 
immediately shows the superiority of the mound builders in 
manufacturing these artifacts. Scrapers, axes, and pottery have also 
been found, together with occasional skeleton remains. Beaded ware 
and middens (refuse from food stuffs) have also been found in La 
Crosse County. 




That human beings of enormous size inhabited this section of this 
country ages ago was proven last Sunday, when the massive skeleton of 
an Indian was unearthed near Pelican Lake. The interesting discovery 
was made by George Patton and L. H. Eaton, two Chicago tourists, 
who are spending the summer there. 

For several days the men noticed a mound on their travels through 
the woods, and, at last led by curiosity, decided to excavate it. 
Procuring spades they fell to work and after digging down to a depth of 
about four feet were surprised to find the bones of a large human foot 
protruding through the earth. 

Digging further, they gradually uncovered the perfect form of a 
giant. The skeleton was nearly 8 feet in height and the arms extended 
several inches below the hips. Buried with the bones were numerous 


stone weapons and trinkets. Among these were a curious stone hatchet, 
a copper knife, several strange copper rings, and a necklace made of the 
tusks of some prehistoric animal. 

The skeleton is no doubt that of an Indian who was one of a tribe of 
giants who roamed this part of the state over one thousand years ago. 




A few days ago the men engaged in building the road bed of the Green 
Bay and Winona railroad, struck an Indian mound near Arcadia. It had 
been in view for some days, and no little speculation was indulged in as 
to what the excavation would develop from this cemetery of the red 

The discovery exceeded all anticipations. The skeleton of an Indian 
was found of such dimensions as to indicate that the frame must have 
been that of a giant. The jaw bone easily enclosed the face of the largest 
laborer to be found on the work. The thigh bones were more like those 
of a horse than a man, hair heavy and remarkably well-preserved. 

Pieces of blanket in which the body had been wrapped were taken 
out in a tolerable state of preservation. A number of Mexican coins 
were also found. 

The unusual size of the skeleton has excited considerable interest, 
and the curiosities will be carefully preserved for exhibition. 




Destruction of this was threatened by the street car companies, but the 
various women’s clubs rallied to the rescue with a fund which has 
ensured the preservation of the prehistoric relic. 



On Doty Island, near Menasha, several mounds have been found of 
well-defined animal shapes, while in Crawford County are 500 of these 
tumuli, 100 of which are located in Prairie du Chien and Wauzeka. 

The recent discovery in Portage County, by W. A. Titus of the 
Wisconsin Archaeology Society, of a number of Indian mounds, which 
have yielded a number of interesting relics, has called to the minds of 
the members of the state society a large number of tumuli in effigy 
shape that have been placed on official record in late years. It is of 
interest to note that, as of now, all known effigy mounds are within the 
boundaries of Wisconsin. 


In seven townships lying about Devil’s Lake there are 734 mounds. 
Best known of these is a bird with outstretched wings, extending 150 
feet, tail forked, and wings bent near the tip. The bird seems to be 
flying toward the lake, the shore of which is but a few rods distant. The 
head, breast, and body are several feet in height. 



According to Dr. Cummings, “at one time, probably 20,000 mounds 
existed in the north-central. Midwest area” and of all effigies 
constructed, about 95 per cent were built in the territorial limits of 
Wisconsin, making the state the “effigy mounds capital of the world.” 
Cummings estimated the mounds in Whitewater were built between 
AD 200 and 1200 and were different from Aztalan mounds in that the 
local mounds are burial mounds, lacking deposits of artifacts of any 


Here is an inventory of the largest effigy and shaped mounds found in 
Wisconsin. They are in the shapes of a mink, panther, turtle, several 
massive birds, and several geometric figures. 


The earthwork mounds resemble various shapes of varying sizes: 
mink, 348 long; panther, 120 feet long; bird, body, 57 feet wide, and 
wings, 69 feet long; conical, 32 feet wide; oval, 32 by 90 feet; conical, 
38 feet wide; bird, body, 60 feet wide, 94 feet long; turtle, 143 feet 
wide, 100 feet long; tapering, 145 feet long; oval, 37 by 60 feet; and 
tapering, 195 feet long. 

In the area around the Dells in Kilbourn, Wisconsin, the discovery of 
a two-hundred-foot-long giant lizard mound was reported. At an 
adjacent mound complex consisting of eight to twelve conical mounds 
as tall as twelve feet, another effigy mound in the shape of a deer was 

Mounds Depict Deer and Lizards 

One of the mounds at the Dells, near Kilbourn, represents a giant 
lizard, 200 feet long, the head pointing to the west. 

A few miles from the city is a curious group. It occupies a plot of 
ground five rods wide and 18 rods long. Near the southwest corner 
is the figure of a deer. To the north is a lizard, several rods long; 
while around its head are a series of eight or ten conical mounds, 
some 12 feet in height. 


It is evident that the handiwork of the builders of these mounds dates 
far back into the history of the west, as the Sioux Indians have known 
the soil for 300 years, and they have no traditions concerning mound 
building within that range of time. 


The Ross Lake mound group in Wisconsin was the most northwestern 
site in the continental United States at the time it was investigated and 
reported in 1935, but since then numerous other mounds have been 
found farther north in the western United States and Canada. 


The researchers at the Ross Lake site noted that extremely ancient 
pottery of superior workmanship was found in association with the later 
and much cruder pottery of the modern American Indian tribes in the 


area. The earliest form of cord-design pottery can be traced to the 
Jomon culture in Japan and has been dated as early as 14,000 to 10,000 
BCE. The Caucasian origin of the Jomon people is still under debate, 
but cord-design pottery has been discovered in Wales as well as in the 
United States, and the swirling design patterns on early Jomon jars 
resemble the spirals found in later Celtic designs. 


Not only have mammoth and mastodon remains been found in 
Wisconsin, but bones, tusks, and teeth have been found in association 
with mound builder burials. In Minnesota, an effigy mound in the shape 
of an elephant or mastodon has also been reported. 


LAKE IN 1931 



During excavations recently conducted by Philleo Nash at the site of 
the Indian Mounds at Ross Lake, three miles south of Nekoosha, many 
illuminating evidences of fact concerning early Indian life in this area 
were discovered. 

An excellent group of mounds, built by the ancient forebears of the 
teepee-builders, may be seen in a fine state of preservation on the 
shores of Ross Lake, three miles south of the city of Nekoosha and 
about one mile back from the eastern bank of the Wisconsin River. Mr. 
Nash was majoring in social anthropology at the University of 
Wisconsin when, in the summer of 1931, he spent four weeks 
excavating some of these mounds as work preliminary to writing a 
university thesis in which he hoped to classify the group in its proper 
anthropological category. 



As a boy he had seen and wondered about these same Ross Lake 
Mounds, and he knew that, while most mounds found in groups in 


southeastern Wisconsin rise above the general contour of the earth to a 
height of little more than 2 feet as an average, their shape and 
distribution is of historical import. 

The mounds at Ross Lake, classified by Mr. Nash as effigy mounds 
because of the presence of one mound outlined in the shape of an 
animal, possibly a beaver, were of special interest to him as a student of 
early Indian mound building because of the presence in the 
neighborhood of this effigy, of a number of more or less circular and 
conical mounds averaging 25 inches high by 18 feet in diameter. In the 
part of the mound area at Ross Lake, still untouched by the plow, or by 
the spades of marauders, he found 28 such round-topped mounds and 
three others of various types. 

Furthermore, the effigy mound proved to be of special interest to Mr. 
Nash when he found that it had not been entered and that, as an original 
deposit of earth over 95 feet long and 33 feet thick through from the 
haunch-part to the tail, it was as fine an example of the effigy-type 
mound as could be found in Wisconsin. 


Mr. Nash ascertained that the 31 mounds extant in the group today are 
but part of the original work of the mound builders on this site. Crops 
under cultivation for the last 70 years have doubtless made erosions 
through the southern part of the original group, obliterating a large 
number of mounds. 

The 31 extant mounds are protected against erosion by a good stand 
of small timber that has overgrown the mound site, preventing the 
heavy rains from doing damage to their contours. Being in this dense 
corner of wooded land, the mounds are hardly visible to the untrained 
eye. Stretching but a few inches over 2 feet above the sod line of the 
lake shore at most points, these hummocks of earth have become 
covered with a dense growth of grass, and that has contributed to hiding 
the mound builder’s work from random relic hunters. 

Another characteristic of the group at Ross Lake was made by Mr. 
Nash on the basis of the external appearance of the mound number 23, 
called the pointed lineal. This mound, the largest at Ross Lake, over 
495 feet long and with an ovoid head, has the characteristics of many 
other smaller mounds in Wisconsin, but in size it is matched by only 


one other mound in the United States, the Great Serpent Mound in 

In a map that he made of the Ross Lake shoreline showing the shape 
of the 31 mounds, Mr. Nash shows that the most outstanding mound of 
the group is the long needle-like mound numbered 23, having a bulbous 
head end fully 25 feet in diameter, and a body that tapers off gradually 
into the surrounding sod floor to a length of 495 feet. 

Using the most approved methods and exercising every care, Mr. 
Nash found during his excavation of 16,000 cubic feet of earth, that the 
material used in constructing the mounds was in some cases a kind of 
red-black sand of a type similar to the subsoil strata of earth found in 
this vicinity, indicating that the builders had in some cases gone to a 
considerable depth to find mound material that suited their work. 

The most consistently general characteristic of the Ross Lake Mound 
Group, according to Mr. Nash, is the presence of colored sand in 
saucer-like pits in almost all of the entrances. Often he found this sand 
surrounding some bone deposit, although no human bone was 
unearthed in any of the mounds at the Ross Lake mounds. 

It became known through the Nash investigation that the Ross Lake 
Mound Group locates the point of farthest northwest dispersion of the 
culture type of the mound-building predecessors of the teepee-building 

Mr. Nash also discovered fragments of a type of native pottery that 
offered interesting possibilities for exhaustive study. It is well known 
that the ordinary clay pottery-work done by the teepee-dwellers at the 
time of the white man’s coming was always crude and rarely if ever 

In the Ross Lake Mounds, however, Mr. Nash discovered a type of 
pottery far superior to the usual run of later Indian clay products. 

To begin with it is evident that upon examining the fragments, that 
the mound builders were careful in the mixing and molding of their 
materials. Probably using wooden paddles, wound about with wood or 
grass, the pottery makers produced strange “cord-imprint” designs on 
their baked-clay products. 

This cord-imprint effect is found only in rare cases in Indian pottery 
work. On one broken piece of pottery, these strange cord imprints were 


found to be present both on the inside and outside surfaces, revealing a 
great amount of skill and patience in the men who made the pottery. 
Mr. Nash’s discovery of cord-imprint pottery at the Ross Lake Mounds 
sets off the mound builders of that locality as craftsmen far superior to 
the pottery-making mound builders of the southeastern Wisconsin 

After the discoveries so far mentioned, Mr. Nash made a study of the 
mound builders from another angle. He began by making 
classifications of the mound builders’ habits on the basis of the shapes 
of the various mounds and the relation of those shapes to the shapes of 
similar mounds found in other areas. 

By this method the mound marked number 3 and classified as an 
effigy mound, was found to be related in general type of contour and 
surface appearance of burial pits within the mound, to other groups of 
mounds of the effigy type in the Shawno, Oconto, and Kraniz Creek 
areas of Wisconsin. 

As the evidence, which has been found in the gravel deposits of La 
Crosse county, shows in the form of teeth, portions of ivory tusks, etc., 
large herds of hairy mammoths, which we will call scientifically 
“Elphius Americanum Wisconsinatis,” roamed what is today La Crosse 
county. These giant mammals were about nine to ten feet in height and 
possessed enormous curved tusks, which were very formidable 
weapons of offense or defense, whatever the case might have been. 
Teeth are usually well-preserved, and from studies made on teeth, 
which have been found in different parts of Wisconsin, including La 
Crosse county, it appears that moss and lichen composed the diet of 
these long-vanished brutes. Dental trouble was no doubt unknown 
among the hairy mammoths and their teeth are in a most excellent state 
of preservation. 


Here is a report of mammoth-shaped mounds being found along the 
Mississippi River in Wabasha, Minnesota. 





While several pictoglyphs evidently left by the mound builders have 
been found farther up the Mississippi river in the Wabasha, Minnesota 
area, showing images of the mammoths, yet, it can hardly be assumed 
on this basis, that the mammoths were still here when man came. This 
of course is open to debate. 

Erroneously “dubbed” as Indian mounds, several artificial earth 
tumuli in the form of burial, effigy, fortification, and ceremonial 
mounds, are to be found in La Crosse county. These mounds appear in 
the topographical plane in such areas as La Crosse, Onalaska, and West 
Salem, and only the trained eye of the archaeologist is able to 
distinguish these mounds from ordinary uplifts of earth and rock. 


Here is an account of the rare opening of one of Wisconsin’s main altar 
mound complexes, which has earthworks of animal-shaped mounds 
surrounding it. 



Some 30 miles west of Milwaukee, on the banks of the Fox River, are 
interesting earth works. The high bluffs on the banks of the river offer 
excellent views of the surrounding country for miles around. At the site 
of an ancient village, a long neck of land extends into a marsh 
containing vast quantities of wild rice. Along this high neck of land are 
found many observation and sacrificial mounds, also a few effigy 

One of the most prominent and imposing of the effigy mounds 
represents a panther. Near the head of this mound a number of quite 
remarkable depressions were discovered, having evidently been used 
for the purpose of storing away whatever valuables the inhabitants of 
this village may have possessed in case of any threatened danger. 

On the summit of one of the high hills overlooking this ancient 
valley is an altar mound surrounded by groups of effigies. One of its 
peculiarities is that it is composed of two large burial mounds 


connected by an oblong mound. Two massive burial mounds by the 
lowlands nearby, upon being excavated, yielded up large quantities of 
bones and numerous fragments of rudely ornamented pottery. 


The skeleton was nearly eight feet in height, and the arms extended 
several inches below the hips. The skeleton is no doubt that of an 
Indian who was one of a tribe of giants who roamed this part of the 
state over one thousand years ago. 

The Chippewa Indians of our present day tell many legends 
regarding the prowess and strength of the members of their tribe moons 
back. One tale was of a giant warrior, who was over ten arrow lengths 
high and had sufficient strength to uplift tall trees by the roots and hurl 
huge boulders through the air. 


A number of long narrow mounds are placed in such a position as to 
enclose a large area of land, and this enclosure, it would seem, was 
used as a game drive. The game was driven from the plateau, down 
between the lines of the two long mounds, and into this enclosure, 
where it became an easy prey for the hunter. 

The mounds at that distant date were quite high, and the opening 
between them may have been palisaded. Thus the inhabitants of this 
village were amply supplied with food from the forest, the prairie, and 
the river. 


Near the city of Waukeesha, another village has been identified by the 
late Dr. Lapham, and this place was next visited. 

It is situated on the high bluffs overlooking a giant swamp. The 
swamp is even in the present day almost completely over grown with 
wild rice. It is worthy of note that a tribe of Indians is encamped upon 
the site of this ancient village at the present time, thus showing the 
desirability of the location. 

The place is guarded by observation and effigy mounds. At the 
southern extremity of the line of artwork, is an interesting effigy mound 
of imposing appearance, evidently intended to represent a bird with the 


wings spread in the act of flying. The head is directed to the south. The 
wings are long and narrow, and measure 112 feet each way from the 
body to the extremities. The body and neck are small and the length of 
the tail is 72 feet. [For other significant instances of the number 72, see 
the sections about the Monks Mound , and Mound 72 .1 It is quite a large 
and well-formed effigy, and is different from the other bird mounds in 
having an angle in the wings. 


On the high bluffs many beautiful effigies were discovered, a large 
majority of them being in the shape of squirrels. The squirrels, some of 
them large of size, were in every conceivable attitude. One interesting 
effigy mound represented a fox running, with his head turned around 
and looking behind him. 

The groups on the bottom lands and bluffs adjoining seem to form 
connecting links. There are three or four lines of effigies on the bluffs, 
and three or four groups of parallel mounds on the bottom lands. They 
were arranged in a large circle enclosing an area of some twenty or 
thirty acres. 


In the town of Westport a strange departure from the usual method of 
building mounds was noticed. The mounds referred to are of the usual 
conical or “sugar-loaf” form. They are six in number and are situated 
on the level prairie surrounded by the river and marshes. At the base of 
each a large perfectly circular pit was excavated and the soil thus 
obtained was used in the construction of the mound next to it. It was 
noticeable that great care had been taken to have the base of the 
mounds of the same size as the circular pits. 

Upon excavating one of these mounds the remains of a skeleton that 
had apparently been cremated was discovered. All the bones, which 
had not been burned by the fire, had kept their original position 
standing upright and apparently quite undisturbed in a kind of grayish- 
colored clay, whereas those portions, which had extended above the 
clay, had been consumed by the fire, and the surface of the clay was, as 
far as the fire had extended, covered by a layer of wood ashes, mingled 


with a layer of small pieces of charred wood and burned bones, 
together with bones belonging to the spine, ribs, and other parts of the 
body that had been more or less injured by the fire. 


A short distance to the north a very peculiar mound covered with flat 
lime stones was discovered. The stones had evidently been placed over 
the mound for the purpose of preventing the wild beasts from 
penetrating it. Upon excavating this mound it was found to contain a 
number of charred bones, finely-ornamented pottery, and several 
implements of stone, very unique and cunning in their design. 

Several axes of stone were found, varying in weight from four 
ounces to ten pounds, with grooves to admit the width for a handle. 
Also wedges ten inches in length, a double-bitted curved bark peeler, 
flint flakes for removing dirt, from 5 to 15 inches in length, stone 
hammers without grooves, perforated ceremonial stones of different 
sizes, and different types of arrow heads for shooting game in a tree, 
and those of a keener point for animals of a tougher skin and the small, 
keen, unextractable ones for war purposes only. 


Some of the arrow points were evidently manufactured for the purpose 
of shooting fish. These points show great ingenuity in their construction 
and are finely finished. They are barbed, and from a straight base the 
point inclines at an angle of exactly 45 degrees, which angle would, 
when the point was shot in the ordinary manner, cause it to deviate the 
distance required to strike any object under the water. 


About one mile up the river from this place we discovered what 
appeared to be the remains of an entrenched camp on the west bank of 
the stream. The northern or upper portion is at the present time in the 
best state of preservation. It also lies higher, the ground sloping both 
eastward toward the river bank, which forms the fourth side of the 
camp and toward the south. The north embankment, starting from the 
river, at a distance of 600 feet, reaches the end of the western 


embankment, which has a length of 1500 feet and, at its southern 
extremity, meets another embankment that runs another 700 feet to the 
river. The enclosure has no wall on the water side, as the river is a 
sufficient protection. 

The bank is steep and rises at once 20 to 30 feet. The observations, 
or look-out towers, are thirty-six in number. The area of this enclosure 
is nearly twenty acres. The thickness of the wall is about fifteen feet, 
and its height varies from three to eight feet but has been plowed down 
in many places. A large number of mounds are found without the walls, 
and residents of the neighborhood say that many within have been 
plowed down. 


One curious feature is that the walls are made of a kind of brick. After 
building and shaping the walls of clay, they were then burned into brick 
by means of wood piled up on each side of the structures. 

These bricks are of a red color and are quite hard and of irregular 
forms. The soil is still full of brick fragments, many of them of large 
size. In the middle of one was a stick one inch thick burned to charcoal. 
In nearly all of them were holes where the sedge from the river bank 
had been mixed with the clay and the shape of each stalk and blade was 
plainly visible. It seemed clear that the soil, a kind of loam, had been 
thrown up into a rampart and that the whole was treated with clay, 
matted and massed together with bushes and sedge, that all over was 
heaped a vast quantity of prairie grass, with perhaps huge trees, and the 
whole set on fire. Yet it would not have been necessary to burn trees for 
turning clay to brick. That transformation is wrought in Nebraska, 
where wood is scarce, with prairie grass alone. 



In the tangled woods near the shore was discovered a mound, which, 
though small, gave evidence from its great age for across the center lay 
a giant of the forest, prostrated by the elements that for ages it had 

The work in question was conical in shape and very difficult to 
excavate. On removing the outer layer, which was composed of black 


vegetable mold, a layer of stones entirely covering the top was found. 
Underneath this came a layer of yellowish dirt about six inches in 
thickness. In this a finely-finished, grooved stone axe was unearthed. 
About a foot below this axe was a large flat stone, which, upon being 
removed, disclosed a cavity. 

In this cavity was found the skeleton of an adult mound builder, 
seated on the floor of clay, baked very hard. Around it were ashes and 
fragments of pottery, many of which exhibited great artistic skill in 
their various patterns. Several arrow heads, together with a number of 
small disks ground from fresh water clam shells, and a number of 
perfectly round polished stones, some of which have small grooves 
running completely around both ways, thus quartering the spheres were 
discovered. The grooves are so slight as to be used only by a small 



One of the large conical mounds on the outside of the fortification was 
next opened. After digging through a number of strata of sand, loam, 
and small pebbles a solid and compact layer of hard clay was reached. 
Underneath this layer was a number of human bones and fragments of 
pottery, but no ashes, nor anything to show that any fire had been used. 
Near the center of this bone depository were several rollers of textile 
fabric, preserved in shape by the moisture of the earth, but in coming in 
contact with the air, they were wafted away by the slightest breeze. 

Several stone axes, a spearhead, and numerous arrowheads of 
various types were unearthed. The excavation was continued for 
several feet through a kind of hard, sandy soil, but nothing being of 
further interest was discovered. 


In the north the earthworks took more frequently the form of animals, 
the serpent being the favorite design. Ohio and Wisconsin have several 
important effigy mounds, and these states have already undertaken the 
care of them. 


Two bird-shaped mounds, rising to a height of between two and a 
half to three feet above the surface, one forty-three feet long from beak 
to tail, the other sixty-six feet over all, have been preserved on the 
college campus of the University of Wisconsin at Madison. 


Nearly one mile inland from this village the remains of an ancient 
cemetery were found. A number of cone-shaped mounds of earth were 
scattered promiscuously over an area of several acres. Two of the most 
promising then in appearance were next opened. Strata of earth, sand, 
and cinders were removed to a depth of over ten feet before any 
remains were found. 

Underneath the lowest level of cinders a large number of bones were 
found, and judging from the different jawbones, at least eight bodies 
must have been interred in the mound. The excavation was continued 
through alternate layers of clay, sand, and pebbles until a depth of 
about ten feet was reached when a large number of bones and pottery 
were brought to light. The pottery was highly ornamented. 

Antiquities of the Badger State, 1855 

At the village of Merton are a number of circular and oblong 
elevations and one called “The Cross.” This last is certainly 
entitled to the name from its striking resemblance to the cross as 
emblematically used and represented by the Roman Church in 
every part of the world. And yet there can be no doubt that this 
mound was erected long before the first Jesuits visited this country 
and presented the emblem of the Christian faith. An excavation has 
been made in the mound at the intersection of the arms, and bones 
of a very large size have been found. 



While men were excavating with a steam shovel near Mora Minnesota, 
they found an old copper spear with a point measuring 10 inches in 


length and tapering to a very fine and tempered point. The weapon 
shows the maker to have been an adept in working copper metal. 
Archaeologists believe that at some prehistoric time the country 
surrounding Mora was densely inhabited by a race of people who were 
much further advanced in civilization than the Indians. 

The many mounds around Fish Lake show that a mighty race of 
people lies slumbering there, whose history is as yet unwritten—from 
the mounds of earth, which were used as sepultures for their dead, and 
which demonstrate beyond a doubt that they were a numerous as well 
as powerful people. 


Two investigators excavating a mound found a skeleton apparently 
embalmed in a kind of cement, which seemed to be prepared for 
embalming the dead. The skeleton appeared to be in a perfect state of 
preservation and showed by measurement a height of nine feet for the 
individual, who was built in good proportion. As soon as the air struck 
it, the bones crumbled and disappeared. 

Taking the country northeast from Fish Lake, where there is a group 
of 97 mounds, one finds a regular system of dams extending clear to 
Lake Superior, 100 miles, in which one can see that prehistoric man 
had a regular means of travel by water from their great city around Fish 
Lake to Lake Superior, and going south by Snake River to the Gulf of 




In the study of ancient human beings, the presence of cities is regarded 
as one of the most significant indicators of civilization. This sampling 
of stories from around the nation makes it clear that ancient America 
was home to significant urban centers, connected by trade. What is 
often not understood is that many mound builder centers featured 
traditional houses that surrounded the ceremonial mounds and that most 
of the major sites had roads, gates, and walls surrounding them. In 
addition, evidence of sewage systems and canals has been detected at 
various sites across the country. In some cases the towns were also 
manufacturing centers and show signs of high trade and commerce of 
great sophistication. 


Although the Cahokia mound complex near St. Louis is considered the 
major mound site on the Mississippi River, the Poverty Point 
earthworks in Louisiana is the most ancient temple site and trading 
center on the Mississippi River. As the vast extent of this site has been 
uncovered, its primacy as the major trading site of ancient America has 
gradually gained credence with traditional scholars. Poverty Point is 
constructed entirely of earthworks. The core of the site measures 
approximately five hundred acres (two square kilometers), although 
archaeological investigations have shown that the total occupation area 
extended for more than three miles (five kilometers) along the river 
terrace. The monumental construction consists of a group of six 
concentric, crescent-shaped ridge earthworks, divided by five aisles 
radiating from the center at the riverbank. The site also has several 
mounds, both on the outside and inside of the ring earthworks. The 
name Poverty Point came from the plantation that once surrounded the 
site. The United States nominated Poverty Point for inclusion on the 
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization’s 
(UNESCO) World Heritage List in January 2013. 


Fig. 6.1. Poverty Point 

Most of the artifacts found at Poverty Point are small baked shapes 
made of loess. They are usually shaped like balls, bicones, or ropes, all 
of which have been described as Poverty Point objects, or PPOs. 
Archaeologists have long debated their uses and have concluded that 
the fired-earth objects were used in cooking. When placed in earth 
ovens, the objects were shown to hold heat. An alternate way of heating 
up food before pottery was to stone boil. The soil of the lower 
Mississippi Valley at Poverty Point does not contain proper pebbles, so 
the manufacture of artificial stones was necessary. 

In recent years, the theory that these anomalous clay balls, fire pits, 
and other PPOs were used for cooking has come under intense debate, 
and more recent discoveries linking this site to the copper-producing 
region of the Great Lakes has led some scholars to posit that what was 
really going on at Poverty Point was actually the refining of copper for 
trade goods, the theory being that raw copper was brought down from 
Michigan during the summer months and then refined for manufacture 
and trade during the winter in the warmer climate of Louisiana. 



A report from 1871 notes that a lost city was found on a farm in 
Dunnville, Ontario, in association with two tons of charcoal and 
various implements that indicated the site of an ancient forge. 



Dunnville, Ontario: There is not the slightest doubt that the remains of 
a lost city are on this farm. At various times within the past years, the 
remains of mud houses with their chimneys had been found and there 
are dozens of pits of a similar kind to that just unearthed, though much 
smaller, in the place which has been discovered before, though the fact 
has not been made public hitherto. The remains of a blacksmith’s shop, 
containing two tons of charcoal and various implements, were turned 
up a few months ago. 

The farm, which consists of 150 acres, has been cultivated for nearly 
a century and was covered with a thick growth of pine, so that it must 
have been ages ago since the remains were deposited there. The skulls 
of the skeletons are of an enormous size and all manner of shapes, 
about half as large again as are now to be seen. The teeth in most of 
them are still in an almost perfect state of preservation, though they 
soon fall out when exposed to the air. 

It is supposed that there is gold or silver in large quantities to be 
found in the premises, as mineral rods have invariably, when tested, 
pointed to a certain spot and a few yards from where the last batch of 
skeletons was found directly under the apple tree. Some large shells, 
supposed to have been used for holding water, which were also found 
in the pit, were almost petrified. There is no doubt that if there is a 
scheme of exploration carried on thoroughly, the result would be highly 
interesting. A good deal of excitement exists in the neighborhood, and 
many visitors call at the farm daily. 

The skulls and bones of the giants are fast disappearing, being taken 
away by curiosity hunters. It is the intention of Mr. Fredinburg to cover 
the pit up very soon. The pit is ghastly in the extreme. The farm is 
skirted on the north by the Grand River. The pit is close to the banks, 
but marks are there to show where the gold or silver treasure is 
supposed to be under. From the appearance of the skulls, it would seem 


that their possessors died a violent death, as many of them were broken 
and dented. 

The axes are shaped like tomahawks, small, but keen, instruments. 
The beads are all of stone and of all sizes and shapes. The pipes are not 
unlike in shape the cutty pipe, and several of them are engraved with 
dogs’ heads. They have not lost their virtue for smoking. Some people 
profess to believe that the locality of the Fredinburg farm was formerly 
an Indian burial place, but the enormous stature of the skeletons and the 
fact that pine trees of centuries growth covered the spot go far to 
disprove this idea. 




The first settlers of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys found various 
forms of earthworks in the solitudes of the wilderness overgrown with 
dense forests. It is said that Ohio alone has 10,000 of these in the form 
of mounds of various sizes, and 1,500 enclosures are scattered through 
the state. 

They are found in Illinois, Wisconsin, and other Western States, and 
in the Gulf States, varying in size. Some are small hillocks two or three 
feet high, while others assume almost pyramidal magnitude, like the 
mound in Cahokia, Ill., which has a base of more than five acres in area 
and a height of ninety feet. 

One of the most elaborate of all these works is located in Newark, 
Ohio. It is labyrinthine in structure, containing some fifteen miles of 
embankment, and after years of investigation archaeologists can do no 
more than surmise as to what its uses were. 

Clearly it cannot have been built for architectural purposes, for the 
enclosures of which it principally consists have the ditches on the 
inside of the embankment, while the outside presents no visible 
obstacle to an invading army. 


One of the largest of the enclosures is known as “Old Fort” and stands 


one and a half miles southwest of the city of Newark. It consists of a 
circular embankment more than a mile in circumference, entirely 
unbroken except on the side toward the city, where a mammoth 
gateway of a hundred feet [in width] was constructed by the builders. 
On each side of this passage, the ends of the embankment projected a 
little from the center of the enclosure, and rose to a height of twenty- 
five feet, while the general height is about eighteen. Upon this 
embankment and within the ditch on the inside, the trees are as large as 
those upon the undisturbed portion of the ground around and within the 
fort. The citizen still lives in Newark who cut an oak tree upon this 
bank sixty years ago which measured 650 rings of annual growth. 



From this mammoth gateway, two parallel lines of earth, a few rods 
apart, lead to a rectangular enclosure over half a mile to the Northeast, 
which has an area of about twenty acres; beyond which, nearer the city, 
are still other works, traces of which are obliterated. 

From this network near the city, two sets of parallel walls run west 
more than two miles, move to another enclosure in the form of an 
octagon, containing about fifty acres, to the southwest of which, and 
almost adjoining it, is another circle about equal in size to “the Old 
Fort.” Both of these are situated on a range of hills. 


The ploughshare has performed its work of demolition to some extent 
upon the walls upon some of these latter enclosures with the exception 
of one point on the circular embankment. This consists of earth and 
stone somewhat irregularly built to a height of twenty-five feet, and, as 
it lies in the extreme southwest of the whole system of works, it is 
thought by some that this was the watchtower or signal station on the 


When, by whom, and for what purpose these mammoth works were 
built, are puzzles which have always baffled the skill of archaeologists. 


It is evident they were built long ages ago, for, where the timber has not 
been removed by civilized man, as in the case of the “Old Fort,” dense 
forests covered the works, which must have required one thousand 
years to grow where they now stand. It is not altogether unreasonable to 
suppose that generation after generation of forests has grown and 
decayed on this soil since it was built by the dusky savages into the 
form we now find it. 



An ancient mound in West Wheatfield Township, a short distance north 
of Robinson, Pennsylvania, was known to the earliest settlers as Fort 
Hill. Earlier digs at the Fort Hill site uncovered textiles of a finely 
woven nature that did not match those of the local Indians, as well as a 
number of carved and hollowed stone instruments whose use was 
unknown at the time they were dug up. The earliest published 
description is from 1806. 

Wheatfield Town History, 1806 

In Wheatfield Township there is a remarkable mound from which 
several antiques have been dug, consisting of a sort of stone 
serpent, five inches in diameter; part of the entablature of a 
column, both rudely carved, in form of diamond and leaves; an 
earthen urn with ashes, and many others of which we have no 
account. It was thought that it was the ruins of an ancient Indian 

Arm’s history states that the mound described was on the inside 
of “Fort Hill” and that there were found at an early date pottery 
fragments of much finer texture than that made by the historic 
Indians; also stones both large and small, of peculiar shapes, 
carved and hollowed. 


Fig. 6.2. Temple mounds enclosed in a circle, illustration from Ancient Monuments 
of the Mississippi Valley by Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis 


Before the encroachment of modern civilization, the area of western 
Pennsylvania leading all the way into Indiana was described as a vast 
sea of trees and high grass that was teaming with wild life and ample 
plants and herbs for a wide variety of uses. The following description 
of a circle mound population of two hundred people was first recounted 
in a court in 1731. 

An official report from Jonas Davenport and James LeTort to the 
Pennsylvania Provisional Council stated that there were three villages 
along Conemaugh Creek, composed of approximately forty-five 
families, with a population of around two hundred people. Typical of 
these kinds of villages, all three were contained within their own 
earthen rings. Jonas Davenport and James LeTort, two of the very 
earliest Europeans to trade with the Indians in Western Pennsylvania, 


reported in an affidavit before the Pennsylvania Provisional Council, 
October 29, 1731, that “on Conemaugh Creek there were three 
Shawanese towns” having 45 families and 200 men. Their Chief was 
Okowala (also Okowelah or Ocowellos) who was suspected of being a 
“favourer of ye French interest.” 

In its original wilderness condition at the beginning of historic times, 
Western Pennsylvania was covered by a vast sea of trees. Many 
travelers wrote of the view from one another of the mountain ridges as 
a sea of treetops or the waves of the sea. Here and there were small 
natural areas of shrubs and high grass. The area west of Indiana, 
according to the earliest pioneers, was one of these and so was a 
portion of the southeastern area of Indiana County known as “The 

In the northeastern part of the county were huge white pines, 200 feet 
or more high along with many hemlocks. In some places the shade of 
the tall trees was so dense that sunlight seldom ever penetrated. One 
could walk fairly easily through such mighty forests, but the oppressive 
silence and the sunless gloom caused many travelers to dread them, and 
they wrote of them as “Shades of Death.” 

The three ancient towns are thought to have been Conemaugh Old 
Town (now Johnstown), Black Legs Town, and Keekenepaulin’s Town 
south of the Conemaugh near Loyalhanna Creek. 

Davenport and LeTort also mentioned that the Delawares along the 
Conemaugh numbered 20 families, and 60 men; their Chiefs being 
Captain Hill, or “Alaymacapy” and “Kykenhammo.” Also named as 
living in the area was “Sypous, a Dingoe.” There seems to have been an 
Indian town north of New Florence. The Robert Hinkson tract of 301 
acres was described as “the old town . . . situate on the north side of 
Conemaugh opposite Squirrel Hill (the name of the Indian town at New 
Florence). The Joseph Culbertson Warrantee Survey (B 23-22) 
indicates an ‘Old Indian Town’ north of the Conemaugh.” 


Fig. 6.3. A carving of an otter. Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the 
Mississippi Valley by Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis 

In shape the village was roughly circular consisting of two parallel 
stockades, the outer one 450 feet in diameter and the inner 430 
feet. This fact was ascertained by the finding of rows of “post 
molds,” each mold easily identifiable because of the darker soil in 
it as contrasted with the lighter surrounding subsoil. There was a 
plaza area in the center of the village. Refuse pits filled with debris 
were here and there. 

The Indian huts were arranged in a rough circle just within the 
stockade, and, as shown by the post molds, were from 18 to 20 feet 
in diameter, having a very narrow entrance less than two feet wide. 
Inside was a fire pit. Attached to or very near each hut, was a bark- 
covered, pear-shaped food storage pit. It is believed that tender 
young saplings were placed in each post hole, arched toward the 
center, tied at the top, and the whole covered by bark. The staple 
food seems to have been maize, probably grown in small plots 
outside the village. Other common foods were fish and mussels, 
and the meat of animals, particularly deer and elk. 

The streams were then clean and sparkling, and fish were 
abundant. In the smaller creeks were speckled trout; in the larger 
ones yellow and black bass, white perch, buffalo fish, and mullets. 
In the rivers were pike, sturgeon, and salmon. Some specimens 
were as much as four feet long and 35 pounds. Other animals have 
been noted in connection with the archaeological excavations at 
the site of the late Prehistoric Indian village near Blairsville. 

Other animals known to have been here were gray and black 


squirrels. The number of panthers is thought to have been rather 
few. Even more scarced were the wood buffalos, larger than their 
Western kin (nearly a ton in weight), having no hump and being 
more nearly black in color, with shorter hair and large hind 
quarters. The extensive and lucrative fur trade caused the beaver to 
disappear from the local area. 


The claims of the local Indians of Pennsylvania that they did not clear 
the wide swaths of forest in the area echo the claims of other Indian 
tribes across the United States, who also claim no part in the 
construction of the ancient earthworks found in their tribal domains. 
The local Indians’ claim that giants were responsible for the clearing of 
forestland and construction of huge earthworks is echoed throughout 
the United States by widely separated, unrelated Indian tribes. 



’’Why this man was ten or twelve feet high. Thunder and lightning!” 
exclaimed Mr. Porter in astonishment. The first speaker, who has won 
local distinction as a scientist, reiterated his assertion. J. H. Porter has a 
farm near Northeast, not many miles from where the Lake Shore 
Railroad crosses the New York state boundary line. Early this week 
some workmen in Mr. Porter’s employ came upon the entrance to a 
cave and on entering it found heaps of human bones within. Many 
skeletons were complete and specimens of the find were brought out 
and exhibited to the naturalists and archaeologists of the neighborhood. 
They informed the wondering bystanders that the remains were 
unmistakably those of giants. The entire village of Northeast was 
aroused by the discovery and today hundreds of people from this city 
took advantage of their holiday to visit the scene. ... So far about 150 
giant skeletons of powerful proportions have been exhumed and 
indications point to a second cave eastward, which may probably 
contain as many more. Scientists who have exhumed skeletons and 
made careful measurements of the bones say that they are the remains 


of a race of gigantic creatures, compared with which our tallest men 
would appear pygmies. 

History of Crawford County Pennsylvania, 1850 

When first visited by the whites, in the valley of French Creek 
were old meadows, destitute of trees and covered by long wild 
grass and herbage resembling the prairies. By whom these lands 
were originally cleared will probably forever remain a matter of 
uncertainty. The Indians alleged that the work had not been done 
by them. A tradition among them attributed it to a larger and more 
powerful race of inhabitants who had pre-occupied the country. 





The center of the prehistoric Indian settlement, which evidently 
contained a large population, was on a prime piece of bottom land on 
the Cheat River, in a bend of the stream enclosing one thousand acres 
or more. It lies in Tucker County, two miles above the village of St. 
George, and has always been known as Horse Shoe Bend. The tract 
contained two towns, the sites of which may still be distinguished by 
the rank vegetation, which flourishes in a soil made fertile by the 
accumulation of bones and other camp life. 

The town sites are about a mile apart. The last inhabitant left them as 
much as 250 years ago, and perhaps much longer ago, if the evidence 
handed from the first settlers is reliable, and there is no occasion to 
doubt it. 

The lower town site lies opposite Sycamore Island, on the southwest 
bank of the Cheat River, a third of a mile below the mouth of Horse 
Shoe Run, and about an equal distance from the grave which I opened 
last Wednesday, mentioned in a former article. The town site is on the 


farm of Joshua Parsons. 

The river is rapidly encroaching on its banks at that place, and has 
been doing so for more than 100 years. It has washed away the greater 
part of the land that the village stood on and will wash it all away in the 
next few years. The soil at that place is 14 feet deep. 


This region along the Cheat River, above and below the Horse Shoe, is 
a storehouse of Indian archaeology. It is covered with sites of camps 
and towns with graves and mounds. Many relics have been picked up in 
the past, but few were saved. If all had been preserved they would tell a 
tale of the dim past that would astound the people of today. 


The site of the principal village on the Cheat River, near this place, had 
a particular nature nearly unknown elsewhere in this region. 

When Captain James Parsons in 1769 made his homestead on the 
river bottom, which is enclosed in the great bend of Cheat River, and is 
called the Horse Shoe, he found a plot of ground, rudely quadrilateral 
in shape, and covering about two acres, so stony as to be unfit for 
cultivation. He therefore left it un-cleared until all of his other hundreds 
of acres had been redeemed from the forest. 

Fig. 6.4. A carving of an eagle. Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the 
Mississippi Valley by Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis 



When the land became valuable, he cut off the trees and began hauling 
away the stone. He then discovered that all of the stones were on the 
surface of the ground, while a deep soil lay beneath. What surprised 
him more was to find that the stones had been laid in parallel rows, and 
so regularly that he was convinced that it was the work of men. 

The stones were worn river rocks, carried no doubt, from the stream 
which flowed immediately by the spot. The village had been long 
deserted, even in 1769, when first seen by white men. That was proved 
by the fact that large trees had grown up through the stone pavement, 
pushing the rocks aside with their trunks. There were sycamore trees 
six feet in diameter, and walnuts and oaks nearly as large. Their ages 
could not have been less than 300 and may have been 500 years. It is 
not probable that the trees would grow there while the Indians occupied 
the place. It is, therefore, not unreasonable to presume that we have 
here the remains of a town antedating the discovery of America by 


The first recorded settlement on that river bottom [Cheat River] was 
made in 1769, and there was built the fort in which the settlers found 
shelter during the Denmore War of 1774. The old settlers called the 
place where the Indian village stood “The Giant Town.” This was not 
because the town was larger, but from the fact that the skeleton of a 
very large man was unearthed at that place about 180 years ago. The 
fact is as well authenticated as any event can be that depends to some 
extent on tradition. 

In the year 1774, or about that time, James Parsons was walking 
along the river bank at that place (the Cheat River) and discovered the 
bones protruding from a bank where a recent flood had washed away 
the soil. He pulled out the thigh bones of a man, and adjusting the 
bones to his own leg for comparison he found that the bone was seven 
inches longer than his own. He was six feet tall. 

He pulled out other bones until he had the greater part of a skeleton 
from the knees upward. . . . The lower jaw bone fitted over the outside 
of his face. He made a partial reconstruction of the skeleton and was 
sure the man when alive was eight feet tall. 



Traditions of giants should be accepted with about the same caution as 
we accept the measurements of Goliath, who was said to be 11 feet tall. 
There is no special reason to dispute the truth of Captain James 
Parsons’ statement concerning the bones. He was a man well known in 
his day, and was reliable. He was frequently spoken of in the frontier 


On the occasion of my present visit I was disappointed and disgusted to 
find that the owner of the land had attacked it with a plow and scraper, 
and had leveled it (the mound). He wanted the space for agricultural 
purposes. A few sheaves of oats were worth more to him than a mound 
dating back to a prehistoric people. Such is the sentiment that one all 
too often finds. 

The past has no value in comparison with a crop of oats or a bushel 
of corn. Such people would break up the ruins of Baalbek for material 
to macadamize a road. 

The utter want of appreciation of things that cannot be eaten, worn, 
or sold, was illustrated in the case of a large earthen mound on the 
second terrace above both of the village sites, and nearly between them. 
I had expected to ask the permission of the owner of the land to open it; 
but I heard it had been opened some months ago. When I asked what 
was found in it, the answer was: “Not a cent; only some trash.” 

The people who dug it open expected to find money in it, and failing 
to find that, they saw no earthly value in the “trash” that was turned up 
by the shovels. Yet who knows what may have been the bits of weapon 
wampum, or of stone, bone, or copper jewelry, which would have 
thrown light on the history and habits of the people who lived and died 
here at a time of which no syllable has been recorded. 

In 1893, the Bureau of American Ethnology at the Smithsonian 
reported finding a very ancient Indian village near Poplar Bluff, 
Missouri. According to the article below, over one hundred skeletons 
were recovered, including those of a chief who measured seven feet, 
eight inches tall. 




The farm, long known to be an archaeological gold mine, is identified 
in archaeological circles as “Koehler’s Fort.” Diggings were made in 
1893, by the Bureau of American Ethnology (of the Smithsonian). 
Findings established that the Koehler farm was the site of a village 
populated by 500 Indians of the Middle Mississippian culture. These 
aborigines pre-dated the tribal American Indian. 


They lived in daub and wattle houses under a system of organized 
government. Identified with the mound builders of Cahokia, Illinois, 
whose culture extends as far southeast as Georgia, their culture was a 
peak in civilization. 




Professor Charles R. Keyes of Cornell and director of the Iowa 
Archaeological Survey, in association with the WPA: “The prehistoric 
residents of the Miles County (Iowa) district, lived in groups of perhaps 
35 in houses averaging 30 feet square. Excavation of about 12 houses 
in the vicinity revealed large holes in the floor, evidently used as 
storage or refuse pits,” Keyes explained, “while smaller cavities 
remained where posts supporting the roof had originally been situated.” 


Fields of lush soybeans and mature cotton now grow on the Walter 
Koehler farm near Naylor, Missouri, where an Indian village was a 
ceremonial center for primitive tribes nearly one thousand years ago. 




Poplar Bluff: The skeleton of a woman found with a pottery water 
bottle gives testimony to the archaeological treasure only inches 
beneath the soil on the Butler County farm. Jim Price, a sophomore 
student of archaeology at the University of Missouri, made the find 
September 5th. The skeleton is that of a woman 35 to 40 years old and 
dates back to AD 800 to AD 1000. The burial pottery is made of clay 
and ground river mussel from the Little Black and Black Rivers. 

Also discovered by Price, who holds the title of director of the 
archaeological survey of Missouri for the Missouri Archaeological 
Survey, was evidence of a house 15 by 20 feet. To the trained eye, the 
charcoal-streaked soil told that the house had been burned. The place 
where posts once set in a trench was evident and a broken pot lay on 
what was once the floor of the house, some three feet from the skeleton. 



Koehler has also dug up an estimated 100 skeletons in the shallow 
graves scattered over his fields. He has been interested chiefly in noting 
the height of the remains, which he says averaged 5 feet 6 inches. One 
skeleton measured 7 feet 8 inches. 


These Indians worshipped the sun as evidenced by the large temple 
mound clearly visible in the Koehler soybean field. The temple mound 
is 75 feet in diameter and has been 30 feet high in Koehler’s memory. 

Three other ancillary mounds, located west of the temple mound, 
contained houses for the priests. Outlying these mounds was the village 
area, which includes the Koehlers’ chicken yard, where the skeleton 
was discovered. The site for the village was probably selected for its 
nearness to water and its high ground. 


On the Big Harpeth River at Dog Creek in Tennessee, a major square- 
bottomed mound has been described in relation to a much larger 
complex. The mound is forty-seven feet by forty-seven feet at the base, 


with a height of twenty-five feet. Two other square-bottomed mounds 
were also noted in the complex, which are from five to ten feet in 
height. In all, there are thirteen mounds in this complex. 

The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee, 1823 
By Dr. John Haywood 

On the Big Harpeth river, in a bend of the river below the road, 
which crosses near the mouth of Dog creek, from Nashville to 
Charlotte, is a square mound, 47 by 47 at the base, twenty-five feet 
high, and two others in a row with it, of inferior size, from 5 to 10 
feet high. At some distance from them and near to the eastern 
extremity of the bend, are three others in a parallel row, with a 
space like a public square between the rows. 

Near these mounds are other small ones, to the amount of 13 in 
all. All around the bend except at the place of entrance is a wall on 
the margin of the river. The mounds are upon the area enclosed by 
the wall. Within them also and not far from the entrance is a 
reservoir of water. Its mouth is square, and it is 15 feet over. The 
water in it is nearly even with the surface. 

There are besides the entrance, two gateways; from thence to the 
river is the distance of 40 yards. The wall is upon the second bank. 
On the top of the large mound an image was found some years ago, 
eighteen inches long from the feet to the head. Soapstone was the 
material of which it was composed. The arms were slipped into the 
socket and there retained with hooks. They hung downwards when 
not lifted up. The trees standing upon the mounds were very old. A 
poplar stood on one of them, 5 or 6 feet through. A large road leads 
through the entrance, which is at the point where the river turns off 
to make the bend, and after making it, returns to an opposite point 
near it. 

Into the river at this latter point runs a branch from near the first 
mentioned point and the branch is wide enough for a road; and 
from this point to the branches, is a deep gulley, which is filled up 
as wide as the road, until made level with the adjoining land on the 
other side. Over this filled-up interval, passes a road from the great 
mound between the point where is a high bluff, and the branch in a 
southwardly direction. It is at this time two or three feet deep and 


six or seven wide. It crosses the river in less than half a mile. 

On the north side of the bend and wall is a gateway and also on 
the south. On parts of this wall, at the distance of about 40 yards 
apart, are projected banks like redoubts on which persons might 
have stood. 


Attesting to the primacy of this particular mound complex in ancient 
history is the fact that the two roads discovered leading to the site pass 
through the two main gates built into one of the walls and then pass 
into the main square complex. In addition, numerous walls enclose the 
mound complex and also line parts of the road leading to the complex. 

On the east side of the first large mound, is a way to ascend it, 
wide enough for two men to walk abreast, and sloping to the top. 
Steps were no doubt once there, though not now visible. From the 
gateway on the south side of the bend and wall are the traces of 
two old roads, one leading to the other works within a mile of 
these, in another end of the creek, and over an intervening bottom 
of rich land, made by the winding of the river between the two 
bends and, in fact, forming a middle or intermediate bend on the 
opposite side; so that there are three bends, the two outer and the 

The other road leading to the mouth of Dog creek and traceable 
for several miles beyond it; the first of these roads passes from the 
gateway into the public square, between the mounds to the other 
gateway on the north side. 

Higher up the river, and within a mile of the above-described 
enclosures, and above the road leading by the mouth of Dog creek 
to Charlotte, is another bend of the river, so formed as to leave a 
bend from on the north or opposite side of the river, and between 
the two bends on the south side. In the other bend on the south, 
above the road, is a square wall, abutting on the south side above 
the river, on a high bluff of the river, upon the bank of which a 
wall is also built, as it is on the three other sides. 

On the outside of it is a ditch, five or six feet wide, with large 
trees on it. In the eastern wall are two gateways. About the center 


of this enclosure is a mound of the same dimensions as was the 
large mound in the other enclosure. 

On the east, north, and south sides of it is a raised platform, 10 or 
12 feet high on the east side, but less as the hill ascends on the 
north and south. The top is level; from it to the top of the mound 
itself, is 10 or 12 feet or more. The top of this mound was ascended 
to from the west, where the height is a lot more than 5 or 6 feet. 

The platform is 60 feet over. Two large gateways are in the 
eastern wall. From the most southwardly of them, a road leads to 
the river and across it in a northwardly direction, near the mouth of 
Dog creek. And from the most northwardly gateway, a road leads 
to the river and across it, in a northwardly direction, or a little east 
of north. It then passes over the intermediate bend, or bottom, on 
the east side of the river and into the enclosures first described. 

The bottom on which the second enclosures stand, and also the 
bottom on the opposite side of the river below this, and that on 
which stand the enclosures first described, is full of pine knots, 
which are ploughed up daily. There are no piney woods nearer to 
these bottoms than 5 or 6 miles. These knots are the most abundant 
in the intermediate bottom, and but few in the first described 
enclosures. Mr. Spears supposes, that these are the remains of old 
field pines, grown to full size after the desertion of cultivation, and 
the total exhaustion of the lands by long continued tillage. That 
after allowing their full growth, and after the soil had been restored 
by long rest, the pines fell down and were succeeded by the growth 
we now see standing up on the bottom; large oaks, poplars, and 
sugar trees. One large sugar tree stands there with its roots 
shooting through the upper part of a large decayed pine stump. 



These ancient remains are probably more numerous in the state of 
Mississippi, though perhaps smaller, than anywhere else. But here, in 
some cases, sun-dried brick was used in the embankments and there is a 
mound sixty feet long, 400 feet wide, and forty feet high. 



When the Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto led an expedition 
into what is now the southeastern United States in the 1540s, he 
encountered a Native American group known as the Caddo. Composed 
of many tribes, the Caddo were organized into three confederacies, the 
Hasinai, Kadohadacho, and Natchitoches, which were all linked by 
similar languages. 

At the time of de Soto’s visit, the Caddo controlled a large territory. 
It included what is now eastern Oklahoma, western Arkansas, 
northeastern Texas, and northwestern Louisiana. Archaeologists have 
thought that the Caddo and related peoples had been living in the 
region for centuries and that they had their own local variant of 
Mississippian culture. 

Recent excavations have revealed within that region more cultural 
diversity than scholars had expected. The sites along the Arkansas 
River, in particular, seem to have their own distinctive characteristics. 
Scholars still classify the Mississippian sites found in the entire Caddo 
area, including Spiro Mound, as Caddoan Mississipian. 

Fig. 6.5. Location of the Caddoan Mississippian culture 





In 1964, Glen L. Kizzia discovered the site of a Caddo Indian village 
and burial ground near Murfreesboro: a site that he has given the name 
Ancient Burial Grounds. The village that Kizzia has unearthed covers 
about 30 acres in an area where the Little Missouri River once flowed. 
Located one-and-a-half miles west of Murfreesboro off Arkansas 
Highway 27, the Indian burials have become popular with tourists who 
visit the city in search of diamonds at the nearby Crater of Diamonds 
State Park and in pursuit of outdoor recreation on the cool waters of 
Lake Greeson. 

Early European explorers, who visited the land that was to become 
Arkansas, reported the Caddo to be an advanced civilization. These 
Indians were expert in many things, including tanning hides, making 
pottery, and farming. Kizzia believes that early Caddo pottery is among 
the finest Indian pottery he has encountered. 

An example of a “Temple Mound” is to be found at the Ancient 
Burial Grounds. The mound has not been excavated, except to show a 
good cross-section of the various stages that have occurred. The most 
unusual burial at the site is one, which Kizzia believes to be the largest 
Caddoan burial on record, probably at least 800 years old. This is a 
circular burial, measuring two feet deep, by some 15 feet in diameter. 


Fig. 6.6. For a thousand years Caddo women made the finest pottery east of the 





Two miles west of Barfield Point, in Arkansas County, Ark., on the 
east bank of the lovely stream called Pemiscot river, stands an Indian 
mound, some twenty-five feet high and about an acre in area at the top. 
. . . The mound derives its name from Chickasawba, a chief of the 
Shawnee tribe, who lived, died, and was buried there. This chief was 
one of the last race of hunters who lived in that beautiful region and 
who once peopled it quite thickly . . . 

Aunt Kitty Williams, who now resides there, relates that 
Chickasawba would frequently bring in for sale as much as twenty 
gallons of pure honey in deerskins bags slung to his back. He was 
always a friend to the whites, a man of gigantic stature and herculean 
strength. ... He was buried at the foot of the mound on which he had 
lived, by his tribe, most of whom departed for the Nation immediately 
after performing his funeral rites. .. . 

Chickasawba was perfectly honest and the best informed chief of his 
tribe. ... A number of years ago, making an excavation into or near the 
foot of Chickasawba’s mound, a portion of a GIGANTIC HUMAN 
SKELETON was found. The men who were digging, becoming 
interested, unearthed the entire skeleton and from measurements given 
us by reliable parties the frame of the man to whom it belonged could 
not have been less than eight or nine feet in height. Under the skull, 
which slipped easily over the head of our informant (who, we will here 
state, is one of our best citizens), was found a peculiarly shaped earthen 
jar, resembling nothing in the way of Indian pottery, which has before 
been seen by them. It was exactly the shape of the round-bodied, long 
necked carafes or water-decanters, a specimen of which may be seen on 
Gaston’s dining table. 


The material of which the vase was made was a peculiar kind of clay 
and the workmanship was very fine. The belly or body of it was 
ornamented with figures or hieroglyphs consisting of a correct 
delineation of human hands, parallel to each other, open, palms 
outward, and running up and down the vase, the wrists to the base and 
the fingers toward the neck. . . . Since that time, wherever an 
excavation has been made in the Chickasawba county in the 
neighborhood of the mound SIMILAR SKELETONS have been found 
and under the skull of every one were found similar funeral vases, 
almost exactly like the one described. There are now in this city several 
of the vases and portions of the huge skeletons. 

One of the editors of the Appeal yesterday measured a thigh bone, 
which is fully three feet long. The thigh and shin bones, together with 
the bones of the foot, stood up in a proper position in a physician’s 
office in this city, measured five feet in height and show the body to 
which the leg belonged to have been from nine to ten feet in height. At 
Beaufort’s Landing, near Barfield, in digging a deep ditch, a skeleton 
was dug up: the leg of which measured between five and six feet in 
length, and other bones in proportion. In a very few days we hope to be 
able to lay before our readers accurate measurement and descriptions of 
the portions of skeletons now in the city and of the artifacts found in 
the graves. It is not a matter of doubt that these are HUMAN 
REMAINS, but of a long extinct race. 


Fig. 6.7. Illustration of a Haley complicated-incised jar excavated in 1911 by 
Clarence B. Moore from a grave at the Haley Place, Miller County, Arkansas. 

(The drawing and watercolor painting was one of the featured color plates in 
Moore’s 1912 report, Some Aboriginal Sites on Red River.) 

The following article on archaeological finds made in Oklahoma while 
digging for a new dam opens with an unexpectedly apologetic headline. 






While construction of the Grand River Dam in Mayes County will be 


of vast value to the residents of this area and others, it has already 
proven a “boon” to archaeological research insofar as finds made in the 
form of skeleton remains of pre-historic man during excavation work 
are concerned. During the last week two large burials have been 
unearthed, one of which contained several dozen decapitated skulls, 
showing that the early day races of eastern Oklahoma tribes did away 
with their enemies in a unique manner. 

Fig. 6.8. The Great Mortuary: effigy of a man smoking a pipe made of Missouri 

flint clay (courtesy of Herb Roe). 


Fig. 6.9. Engraved whelk shell cup with raptor head (courtesy of Herb Roe) 

Fig. 6.10. Craig Mound—also called the Spiro Mound—is the second-largest 
mound on the site and the only burial mound. It is located about 1,500 feet (460 
meters) southeast of the plaza (courtesy of Herb Roe). 

A cavity created within the mound, about 10 feet (3 m) high and 15 
feet (4.6 m) wide, allowed for almost perfect preservation of fragile 
artifacts made of wood, conch shell, and copper. The conditions in this 
hollow space were so favorable that objects made of perishable 
materials such as basketry, woven fabric of vegetal and animal fibers, 
lace, fur, and feathers were preserved inside it. Such objects have 


traditionally been created by women in historic tribes. Also found 
inside were several examples of Mississippian stone statuary made 
from Missouri flint clay and Mill Creek chert bifaces, all thought to 
have originally come from the Cahokia site in Illinois. 

Fig. 6.11. Copper ear spool (courtesy of Herb Roe) 



Centuries before the arrival of white pioneers in what is today the 
geographical confines of Ottawa, Mayes, and adjoining counties, a 
strange race, now known to archaeologists as the mound builders, came 
to establish their governmental seats here. 

This was definitely established only a few days ago in the discovery 
by workmen excavating for the Grand River Dam, near Langley in 
Mayes County, of two large burials containing several dozen skeletons 


and a dozen “odd” skulls, ranging from children to adults. An 
examination of these remains, which appear to be in a fairly excellent 
state of preservation, by anthropologists from the University of 
Oklahoma, who are now on the scene, shows that the skeleton remains 
are unmistakably those of a race of people known as the mound 


The remains of mounds, such as effigy, burial, ceremonial, fortification 
etc., which have been found throughout northern Mayes and eastern 
Ottawa counties, and which appear to centralize in this area around 
Langley, near the Grand River Dam site, give ample proof that this 
section of eastern Oklahoma evidently was the capital of this vanished 
race. . .. 


Large quantities of arrow-heads, ranging in size from the slender fish- 
point types, used to hunt small game such as birds, up to the large war- 
points, ranging up to 10 inches in length have been found during 
excavation work on the dam. These, together with quantities of pottery 
and potsherds (potions of pottery) of many designs, which have been 
found, have given scientists and laymen something to think about as 
regards the races that inhabited this part of eastern Oklahoma, centuries 
before the arrival of the white man. 


OF 100,000 

Tracing the area as it one-time appeared, and basing theories on the 
tremendous amount of artifacts found by workmen during digging 
operations, it is established by anthropologists and archaeologists who 
are now on the scene, that the “city,” if that is what it might have been 
called, had an area of about 10 square miles, and no doubt supported an 
estimated population of over 100,000 people. 


The remains of this vanished race consist of about 75 complete 
skeletons. Two distinct burials were unearthed, one containing dozens 


of decapitated bodies, while the other contained an equal amount of 
complete skeletons, which do not appear to have been mutilated. 

The skeleton remains do not crumble when exposed to outside air, 
and appear to have been buried over one thousand years, or more. An 
estimate of 1,500 years has been given by those who are excavating the 
remains, part of which will be transferred to the University of 
Oklahoma at Norman for study and classification. 


This find baffles archaeologists and anthropologists from the 
University of Oklahoma somewhat, yet it is believed that the mound 
containing the headless burials is a sacrificial mound, where enemies 
were buried after their capture during warfare. 

The second burial is that of an ordinary burial mound, such as was 
unearthed near Grove in Delaware County two years ago. Both burials 
are unmistakably those of mound-builder origin, and are certainly not 
of Indian origin. 


Although the cliff dwellers are generally thought of as a recent tribe, 
Smithsonian field reports from 1910 on a Puye cliff-dweller excavation 
describe signs of construction dating back at least five thousand years 
at some of the kivas that they explored. In a report, Smithsonian 
correspondent M. J. Brown writes, “It is estimated by the Smithsonian 
people that 10,000 lived on the face of this one cliff, and that the 
population of the adjoining cliffs and on the mesas was fully 100,000 
people.” Brown also comments on the great quantities of Portland 
cement that were plastered in almost every one of the hundreds of 
rooms in the settlement. 


Most wonderful of all is the stairway that leads to the top of the cliffs. 
Here one gets some idea of the ages that these people lived in this spot 
and the multitude who used this path, for human feet have worn the 
solid rock to a depth of twelve inches, and when you consider that this 


outside rock is not of the soft composition of the caves, then you have 
some conception of the age and the density of the population. 

To give a further idea of just how distorted our view of the extent 
and size of the cliff dweller population is, here is a report from the 
Oakland Tribune of 1926 about the discovery of a six-mile-long city in 



“The skeleton of a giant fully eight feet tall has been found near Silver 
City,” said H. E. Davis. The thigh bone of this ancient inhabitant of the 
southwest measures two inches more than the ordinary man and must 
have been a giant of great strength. The jaw bone is large enough to fit 
over the jaw of an ordinary man. A peculiarity of the forehead is that it 
recedes from the eyes like that of an ape. The similarity is still further 
found in the sharp bones under the eyes. The skeleton was found 
encased in baked mud, indicating that encasing the corpse in mud and 
baking it was the mode of embalming. Near the skeleton was found a 
stone weighing 12 pounds, which, judging from its shape, must have 
been a club. The wooden handle has rotted away but there are marks on 
the stone that indicate that it had been bound to a wooden handle with 
tongs. It is rather peculiar that less than 30 miles from where this 
skeleton was found and located on the Gile river are the former houses 
of a tribe of small cliff dwellers. The existence of these two races so 
near together forms an interesting topic. “These ‘gorillalike’ or 
‘monkey-like’ skulls have been reported in many states several times 
by Smithsonian personnel. Professor Thomas Wilson, the curator of 
Prehistoric Anthropology for the Smithsonian, said the following about 
the find of an eight-foot-one-inch giant skeleton in Miamisburg, Ohio, 
in 1897. “The authenticity of the skull is beyond doubt. Its antiquity is 
unquestionably great. To my own personal knowledge several such 
crania were discovered in the Hopewell group of mounds in Ohio, 
exhibiting monkey-like traits.” 





Out in Nevada Governor James Graves Scrugham and archaeologist M. 
C. Harrington announced the discovery of Pueblo cities that pre-date 
the birth of Christ. The discoveries gained national attention a year ago 
when Harrington first told of the finds. 

“The ruins,” Harrington said, “run in a continuous line of six miles 
and are about a half mile wide. The outlines of the houses of stone and 
adobe and the stone pavement are clearly seen.” Everywhere were 
myriads of pieces of broken pottery. Later Harrington found evidence 
convincing him that the city had existed 2000 years and was occupied 
for at least 1000 years. Then followed discoveries of tombs decorated 
with turquoises and pearl shells cut into small beads. “These ancient 
Nevadans,” said Mr. Harrington, “probably were the ancestors of our 
modern Pueblo tribes.. ..” 


In New Mexico and Arizona have been found communal dwellings 
from three to five stories high, in which may have lived as many as 
1200 Indians. They are believed to be between 2000 and 5000 years 
old. Wide interest was aroused among scientists by the reports that 
certain hieroglyphs found on the walls resemble those of the Chinese. 





“The Pueblos have no traditions, legends, or anything regarding 
these cliff people. ” 


It is estimated by the Smithsonian people that 10,000 people lived on 
the face of this one cliff, and that the population of the adjoining cliffs 
and on the mesas was fully 100,000 people. 



And just beyond this ruin is a burial ground where during the past 
summer, the Smithsonian people excavated 250 skeletons and all kinds 
of trinkets and pottery buried with them. The graveyard is but partially 
excavated and hundreds of other skeletons yet sleep there. From one of 
the caves in the cliff, Mr. Hoag showed me some leg bones. 


About in the center of this long cliff is a stone stairway with a kiva at 
the foot. And I must tell you of the kiva before we go up. The best 
description of it would be of a well perhaps ten feet across and twenty 
feet deep. 

The roof has long since washed away, and the hole is partially filled 
up, but the Smithsonian people have excavated it and placed therein a 
ladder. We descended and there found the only fireplace, or rather the 
ruins of one, that is to be found in the whole city. The floor is cement, 
and in front of the fireplace are two rows of holes in the floor, six on a 
side, and the walls are full of niches, each seeming to conform with 
similar places on the opposite side. 

This kiva is supposed to have been the secret room where the 
religious and ceremonial rites of these strange people were performed 
and a room where but few of the cliff dwellers feet ever trod. 


Where the great quantities of cement came from that plastered almost 
every room of these hundreds is another for the puzzle department to 
go to. Nothing has ever been found here of the sticky nature, yet these 
aborigines must have had a Portland source from somewhere, for it was 
used in abundance. 

In but one room of the hundreds, is there any color. But in one we 
found the interior painted red, faded through the many generations, but 
plainly, red, and the picture of some unintelligible man or animal over 
this door and had first been carved and then painted. 

We climbed the cliff, putting our patent leathers in the deep, worn 
footpath, and our gloved hands in the hand-holds, and gained the top. 


What a sight! 

There in the bright sunshine lay the ruins of a great communal 
dwelling, one building that once sheltered 1,200 people, a human 
beehive of the days before history. Ages ago this house fell into ruins, 
but it has been carefully excavated and cleared away, and the first story 
and its walls now stand as they did when built. 

The great building reminds one of our modern stockyards—an 
enclosure cut up into little rooms—each room about five by ten feet— 
and each communicating with the other by a door about three feet high 
by eighteen inches wide—just one great beehive with no outdoor 

From the quantity of ruins it is pretty thoroughly established that this 
building was at least three stories high, one great enclosure around a 
court, and with one main entrance, or street, which is clearly defined. In 
the center, or court, there are many handsome stone relics, grinding 
stones, skinning stones, pieces of pottery, and many whose use we can 
only guess at, but plainly fashioned for some purpose. 


Over the doors of many of the homes on the cliff’s face, are rock 
pictures—whose meaning I would give much to read—and of some I 
am sure there are meanings. The sun symbol is prominent, and they 
were in no doubt sun worshippers, while there are many crude 
drawings representing men, beasts, and birds. One carving particularly 
interested me, as representing a heart. 


“There is too great a difference in the heads of the Cliff Dwellers 
skeletons and the present Indians to allow any connection or 
relationship,” stated Hewitt of the Smithsonian expedition. “The 
Pueblos have no traditions, legends, or anything regarding these cliff 
people. Old mountaineers will tell you that a plague exterminated them; 
others that volcanic fumes stifled them at one stifle; and so on, but as 
stated, there is absolutely nothing to bear out any change, but that of a 
slow order of extermination.” 





Owing to the discovery of the remains of a race of giants in Guadalupe, 
New Mexico, antiquarians and archaeologists are preparing an 
expedition further to explore that region. This determination is based on 
the excitement that exists among the people of a scope of country near 
Mesa Rica, about 200 miles southeast of Las Vegas, where an old 
burial ground has been discovered that has yielded skeletons of 
enormous size. Luciana Quintana, on whose ranch the ancient burial 
plot is located, discovered two stones that bore curious inscriptions and 
beneath these were found in shallow excavations the bones of a frame 
that could not have been less than 12 feet in length. The men who 
opened the grave say the forearm was 4 feet long and that in a well- 
preserved jaw the lower teeth ranged from the size of a hickory nut to 
that of the largest walnut in size. The chest of the being is reported as 
having a circumference of seven feet. Quintana, who has uncovered 
many other burial places, expresses the opinion that perhaps thousands 
of skeletons of a race of giants long extinct, will be found. This 
supposition is based on the traditions handed down from the early 
Spanish invasion that have detailed knowledge of the existence of a 
race of giants that inhabited the plains of what now is Eastern New 
Mexico. Indian legends and carvings also in the same section indicate 
the existence of such a race. 






Located in Lake Superior off the northern tip of the Keweenaw 
Peninsula in northern Michigan, Isle Royale, also known as Royal 
Island, is one of the most interesting ancient sites in America. Not only 
is the island literally made out of the highest-grade copper in the entire 
world, but its name also suggests its royal status in the minds of the 
ancient giants of the North American copper kingdom. Significantly, a 
quick look at a modern map of the United States quite clearly shows 
that the northern border of America was drawn to include this island, 
showing, again quite clearly, that someone knew of the extreme 
importance of this innocuous little island. 

Because of a freak volcanic event that twisted the copper-bearing 
bedrock above the water line, thus allowing all the sulfur impurities to 
burn away in the open air, the copper at Isle Royale is the purest found 
anywhere in the world. The entire region is scarred by ancient mine pits 
and trenches up to twenty feet deep. Carbon-dating testing of wood 
remains found in sockets of copper artifacts indicates that some are at 
least 5,700 years old, while other open digs around the area have been 
dated from eight to ten thousand years old. 

The most conservative estimates calculate that during a ten- 
thousand-year period, over five hundred thousand tons of copper were 
taken from the mines. At the other end of the spectrum, in Prehistoric 
Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, published in 1961, Roy 
Ward Drier and Octave Joseph DuTemple estimated that over 1.5 
billion pounds of copper had been mined from the region. Since 
traditional researchers refuse to analyze European copper for its 
probable Michigan signature, no one has been able to account for 
where all this copper went. That it was traded and used extensively 


across the United States by the mound builders there is no question, but 
this in no way can account for the magnitude of copper taken out of 
these unique mines. 

Fig. 7.1. Ontonagon boulder of native copper as depicted in Henry Rowe 
Schoolcraft’s 1821 book Narrative Journal of Travels through the Northwestern 
Regions of the United States. Note the relative size of the boulder on the right 
riverbank versus the men in the canoes. The Ontonagon boulder is actually just 
three feet, eight inches in its largest dimension and weighs 3,708 pounds. It was 
initially exhibited in Detroit in 1843 and was eventually acquired by the 

Smithsonian Institution. 

What researchers have determined is a continuous history of mining 
activity that began in 8000 BCE and then abruptly ended around 1500 
BCE, contemporaneous with the volcanic explosion on the Cretan 
island of Thera (now known as Santorini). Since rock-cut pictures of 
Cretan trading vessels have been found in the Isle Royale area, this 
lends credence to the Cretan connection in North America at a very 
early date. In addition, researchers have also determined that copper 
mining activity resumed again around 900 CE. This date corresponds 
perfectly with related evidence of a Viking presence in the area around 
that same date. 


In 1863, the Smithsonian published this field report based on Col. 
Charles Whittlesey’s explorations of the copper mines discovered along 
the Eagle River in the Keweenaw Peninsula. Although the report is 
mostly observational, it does hint at the magnitude of these mining 





Another authority. Colonel Charles Whittlesey, a Civil War veteran and 
American professional geologist for the government, wrote in 1856 a 
treatise entitled, “Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior,” 
based on what he had seen at Eagle River in the Keweenaw copper 
area. In 1862, Col. Charles Whittlesey drew a map of the position of 
the ancient copper mine pits for the Smithsonian, and it forms a 
valuable part of his document on the prehistoric copper miners. 

After completing his inspection of the ancient copper mines in the 
Upper Peninsula on the shores of Lake Superior, Col. Whittlesey 
reasoned somewhat as follows: an ancient people, of whom history 
gives no account, extracted copper from the rocks on the Keweenaw 
Peninsula. They did it in a crude way by means of fire and the use of 
copper wedges or gads and stone mauls. They had only the simplest 
mechanical contrivances and penetrated the earth but a short distance. 
They do not appear to have had any skill with metallurgy or of breaking 
up large masses of copper. For cutting tools they had chisels and 
probably axes of pure copper hardened only by beating when cold. 
They sought chiefly for small masses and lumps of metal and not for 
large pieces. No sepulture mounds, defenses, domiciles, roads, or 
canals are known to have been made by them. 

No evidence remains for their cultivation of the soil. They made 
weapons of defense or of the chase such as darts, spears, and daggers of 
copper. These Old Copper Indians must have been numerous, 
industrious, and persevering. The amount of work done indicates that 
they mined the country a long time or the equivalent of 10,000 men 
over a period of 1,000 years. Col. Charles Whittlesey discovered that 
the principal prehistoric copper mines in the Keweenaw-Ontonagon 
area of the Upper Peninsula corresponded to the mining locations of the 
1850s. In both the prehistoric and the modern mines three groups of 
operations appear, one a little below the forks of the Ontonagon River, 
another at Portage Lake, and the third on the banks of the Eagle River. 


These last two sites were located on the Keweenaw Peninsula. It was 
evident to Whittlesey that centuries ago the old copper miners were 
only surface explorers, and while the principal mines of the new era 
followed in the same pattern of location as the ancient, the latter-day 
miners were able with much better equipment to penetrate the earth to 
far greater depths. 


The ancient North American coppersmiths were the best in the ancient 
world, as evidenced by the antiquity, quality, and scientific uniqueness 
of their work. Not only did they know how to anneal, emboss, and 
engrave copper, but they also produced hardened axes and other 
instruments whose strength and temper cannot be adequately 
reproduced to this day. In addition, these ancient coppersmiths 
produced a unique, ultrapure, high-quality sheet metal superior to that 
produced in the Mediterranean. 



In the following newspaper article, reporter Victor F. Lemmor talks 
about a German book called Reisen im Nordwesten der Vereinigten 
Staaten (Travels in Northwestern Parts of the United States), with 
chapters relating to the ancient miners, or “Old People,” who legend 
says were the original miners of the copper in this area. It is interesting 
to note that the term Old People is a cognate of Anasazi (Ancient 
Ones), which refers to the original builders of the cliff dwellings in the 
southwestern United States. 



Some large mounds have been found in this territory. In some places a 
number of pieces of pottery have been unearthed. It will be 
remembered that when the dam at International Falls was under 
construction several hundred pieces of tempered copper were unearthed 
from a depth of 15 feet. The articles consisted of fish hooks, knives, 
spears, and arrows. The art of tempering copper, which was known by 


these early mound builders, is now a lost art. An unusually large 
skeleton was also unearthed and thought to have been a woman. 
Physicians who have examined the skeleton declare that it represented 
a type of early prehistoric persons who were seven feet tall or more and 
who possessed an especially large lower jaw. They drew this 
conclusion because the skeleton found was that of a person of very 
large stature. The jaw bone was wide and its construction is said to be a 
special gift of nature to the early man in order that he could masticate 
the coarser foods which then made up his subsistence. The skull is very 
large. The well rounded forehead gives evidence of considerable 
development of intelligence of the Rainy Lake territory. . . . The 
skeleton will be sent to the Minnesota Historical Society. 




According to Dr. George I. Quimby, the known world of the Old 
Copper Indians was the Upper Great Lakes region. Some of these 
prehistoric people lived as early as 7,000 years ago, and others were 
still around 3,000 years ago. In addition to being miners, these ancient 
workmen were the first known fabricators of metal in America. It is 
believed that the Old Copper Indians must have been rather tall, 
rugged, and muscular. Dr. Quimby states that by using as a basis the 
available archaeological evidence, some of the techniques of the 
prehistoric copper miners have been reconstructed. 



Among the discoveries made, which determined these conclusions, are 
remnants of wooden levers, parts of birch bark buckets, hammer stones, 
and charcoal from fires found in old mining pits. These prehistoric men 
dug pits in order to follow the veins of pure copper from surface 
outcrop-pings. They broke the copper from the rock formations with 
the help of water and fire and heavy beach boulders. According to Dr. 
Quimby, the mining method practiced was to heat the rock surrounding 


the pure copper with fire and then crack it by sudden dousing with cold 
water. After that the copper was pounded loose with boulder hammers 
and then pried away with wooden levers. 

The pure copper was fashioned into weapons and tools by cold 
hammering. To prevent the copper from becoming too brittle, it was 
alternately heated and chilled. Smelting and casting of copper were 


In addition to these three groups of mines on the Upper Peninsula, the 
copper on Isle Royale was also known to the aborigines for thousands 
of years. Professor Roy W. Drier, who is in the department of 
metallurgical engineering at the Michigan College of Mining and 
Technology at Houghton, Michigan, informed this writer in November 
of 1959 that he had found mining that had been done at least 3,000 
years ago on Isle Royale. 

His evidence points to the possibility of the “Island Miners” being of 
an earlier race or culture than the “Prehistorics” who mined in the 
Keweenaw Peninsula. In 1953 Prof. Drier accompanied by Dr. James 
B. Griffin, director of the Museum of Anthropology, University of 
Michigan, dug in the old copper pits of Isle Royale to a depth of 70 
inches. They unearthed a charred log section, which was dated by 
carbon methods at the University of Michigan Memorial Phoenix 
Laboratory as being 3,000 years old plus or minus 350 years. In 1954 
Prof. Drier again dug in the same ancient pit and took out another 
charred log section, which was dated at 3,800 years plus or minus 500 

This writer’s personal interest in the prehistoric copper miners began 
just a few years ago at the time he was president of the Historical 
Society of Michigan. There was called to his attention a German book 
published in 1857 and written by Johann Georg Kohl, and it is titled 
Reisen im Nordwesten der Vereinigten Staaten, (Travels in 
Northwestern Parts of the United States). Kohl was a German 
geographer and researcher who devoted most of his life to scientific 

The chapters relating to the ancient miners or “Old People” as 
designated by Kohl, were translated from the German into English by 


Mrs. Helen Longyear Paul, curator of the Marquette County Historical 
Museum, at Marquette, Michigan. After Mrs. Paul made a detailed 
study of Johann Kohl’s descriptive chapter on the prehistoric copper 
mines of the Ontonagon country, she and two men from Marquette 
visited the area referred to in Kohl’s book. By following the directions 
given in Kohl’s travels, they, too, discovered the pits and hammer 
stones that had captivated Kohl over a hundred years before. 


The first actual modern mining operations were commenced near the 
forks of the Ontonagon about 1730 by Sieur de la Ronde, and later in 
1761 continued by Alexander Henry, an English traveler and fur trader 
who became interested in exploiting copper discoveries near Lake 



While Minnesota and Michigan were nearer these copper sources, it is 
in Wisconsin that the greatest number of Indian-made articles, that is 
artifacts of copper, has been found. Indeed, more copper Indian 
artifacts have been found in Wisconsin than in any other state in the 
Union. There are on record, at present, over 20,000 specimens of Indian 
copper manufacture found in Wisconsin and produced from the mines 
of the Lake Superior region. Copper was found in nuggets of all sizes 
and in the seams of copper-bearing rock. 

It is assumed that the Indians doing the mining took these sheets, a 
typical size being about three-sixteenths of an inch, and ten inches long 
by eight inches wide, and the nuggets home to their village artisans 
who in turn worked them into ornaments and tools. 

At Indian sites all along Green Bay there have been found many 
copper chippings: definite evidence of copper workshops there. At Two 
Rivers, Sheboygan, Waupaca, and Green Lake especially large amounts 
of copper chips and other copper pieces have been found as proof of 
extensive copper manufacture in those parts. The distribution was also 




Findings indicate that native copper, as well as the finished artifacts, 
went in trade east, south, and west. Perhaps in this way Wisconsin 
Indians secured the ivory-colored flint of Ohio, the obsidian of the 
Yellowstone, and the beautiful conch shells from the seashores, all of 
which have been found among the Wisconsin Indian relics. 
Unmistakably, Wisconsin was the seat of the Indian copper industry, 
the products of which passed through the avenues of trade to many and 
distant lands. 

With the stone tools that the Indian coppersmith made, he formed the 
copper artifacts. He found early in his work that hammering on a piece 
of freshly-mined copper made it crumble, so he experimented until he 
developed a practical method. 

The first step in this method is called annealing and consists of the 
alternate heating and dipping in water of the copper, which made it 
tough and manageable. Then by hammering, grinding, cutting, and 
polishing, he produced the finished object, and by embossing and 
perforating, he decorated it. 


Finding many objects made of sheet copper in Wisconsin brought up 
controversy as to whether the Indians produced these sheets or got them 
from Europe in trade. Chemical analysis showed that the Indian 
coppersmith did not melt or temper copper. The free silver found in the 
artifacts studied would not be seen if the copper had not been tempered. 
Analysis shows that the Indian-made sheets, to cite one instance, 
contained 99.73 percent copper; .34 percent iron and .023 percent 
silver, while the European trade sheets showed the presence of bismuth, 
zinc, antimony, nickel, and arsenic and that they were obviously 
tempered. By annealing and hammering only, the Indian coppersmiths 
made sheet copper out of chunks and welded pieces upon one another 
and together. 

Copper was used a great deal for decoration, the commonest 
ornaments being beads. These were made by winding a thin strip of 


copper around a sort of spindle, the number of times around regulating 
the size, and by drilling through solid pieces and hammering them into 
shape. Hammering and polishing made a handsome bead. A chain of 
copper beads, now famous among finds, was discovered to be over 11 
feet long, and to contain over 500 beads, each one-fourth inch in 

Innumerable bangles, rings, pendants, breastplates, bracelets, ear 
rings, and hair ornaments were made. From the copper breast plate 
forged as a medal of honor, to the lovely bracelets and hair ornaments 
goes the story of Indian life and romance, if one cares to read it. 



Too numerous to mention is the detailed list of other copper artifacts 
ranging from spears and arrow points, through knives, adzes and 
gouges, to fish hooks and harpoons. The Schumacher collection of 
copper artifacts in the Neville Museum in Green Bay offers an 
exceptional opportunity for study, as do other museum collections in 
Wisconsin and elsewhere. 

For those wishing to read more on the subject, an article “Myths and 
Legends about Copper,” by Charles E. Brown of the Wisconsin 
Historical Museum, published in the recent September issue of the 
Wisconsin Archaeologist, will be of much interest. 


“The lands claimed by the Algonquian Menomonies and recognized as 
theirs by the United States has yielded the greatest number of copper 
workshops and copper implements of any region in the United States, 
showing the Indians to have been accomplished artisans, as for 
centuries they manufactured their copper tools and ornaments,” notes 
W. C. McKern, associate curator of Anthropology at the Milwaukee 
Public Museum. 




Waukesha, Wisconsin: A power shovel has unearthed a chunk of pure 
copper, which two Carroll County scientists regard as probable 
evidence of the primitive “copper culture” 10,000 years ago. John 
Cooper was operating a power shovel Tuesday when the machine 
turned up the mass of copper at a subdivision south of here. 

Anthropologist Harold Eastman and geologist Benjamin Richason 
conjectured that the copper chunk, larger than a man’s fist, probably 
was placed in an ancient grave about 100 centuries (10,000) years ago. 



Important new evidence expected to provide scientists with further 
information concerning the history and culture of ancient Indians in 
Wisconsin has been uncovered near Leonard’s Point on Lake Butte des 
Morts, it has been revealed by officials of the Oshkosh Museum. The 
discoveries were made on the Matt Reigh farm, northwest of the city, 
the same site, which produced an interesting series of prehistoric 
burials, during excavations carried on by Oshkosh and Madison 
anthropologists during the summer of 1953. James E. Lundsted, curator 
of anthropology at the local museum, said Tuesday that three more 
burials, much older than the 1953 discoveries were found at the Reigh 
farm site last month. 

The remains of the three prehistoric Indians, Lundsted stated, are 
estimated to date back to a period of between 3,000 to 5,000 BC. The 
dates of the burials from two years ago have been established at about 
500 BC. The new excavations were carried out, beginning May 25 by 
Lundsted; Stuart H. Mong, director of the Oshkosh Public Museum; 
and Heinz Meyer, Oshkosh High School history teacher and student of 


Lundsted said the new work came about as the result of a “tip” from 
Terry Raettig, a boy who lives at Highland Shore, located near the site. 


The boy called the museum after finding some bones and pottery at the 
Reigh farm site. The pottery, described as thick and bearing what 
anthropologists refer to as “cord” markings, dated back to later Indian 
burials at the Reigh site. “However,” Lundsted stated, “the bones of the 
three prehistoric Indians were in poor condition, it was reported, 
although the leg bones were well enough preserved to show a heavy 
and thick conformation, similar to those found during the 1953 
excavation. Five copper points were found between the feet of one of 
the skeletons.” 


One of the burials was in a narrow ledge of red material, two to three 
inches thick. “The red material has not been positively identified,” 
museum officials commented, “but appeared to be sand with a high 
percentage of iron oxide. The bones had taken on the bright red color 
and were also heavily impregnated with copper salts.” 


Grave goods—artifacts buried with the prehistoric Indians—included a 
celt or ax, two crescent-shaped knives, a snail shell bracelet and a 
number of antler beads. A rolled copper bead was discovered at the site 
by Penny Foust, a neighborhood girl. 

Scientists said the newly-discovered burials near Leonard’s Point, 
were highly important and that they are tentatively believed to be 
related to what anthropologists know to be the “Old Copper Culture.” 
Other evidence of the “Old Copper Culture” has been found in 
Wisconsin at Potosi, at Osceola, and, in 1952, at Oconto. Wood 
charcoal found at the Oconto site was sent to the University of Chicago, 
where a complicated analysis known as the “carbon 14” test was made. 
The test indicated the charcoal was about 5,000 years old. The snail 
beads and crescent-shaped knives found at the Reigh site, a museum 
official said, are similar to those uncovered at Oconto. 


Mr. Lunsted pointed out that the Reigh site is a logical location for 
remains of the “old copper culture” being situated about mid-way 
between Osceola and the Oconto sites. Further excavations of the 


archaeologically rich Reigh site will be carried out by Osceola 

Fig. 7.2. Grave goods from a child’s burial on Big Island in Pilley’s Tickle, Notre 
Dame Bay, Canada (from The Beothucks or Red Indians by J. P. Howley, 1915, 

plate XXXIV) 

Fig. 7.3. Miniature diorama of an archaic copper mine, formerly at the Milwaukee 

Public Museum 



Remains of a total of 43 human beings were uncovered at Osceola by a 
team of Oshkosh and Madison anthropologists in the summer of 1953. 
Among the important artifacts discovered at that time were two highly- 
polished and notched swan bones, a conical copper point, a copper 
headdress, two axes made of elk antler and a gorget (or neck 
ornament), made of a conch shell. 

The Indians of the “old copper culture” used pure copper in 
fashioning some of their artifacts but did not have methods for 
tempering the metal. Instead they worked it by cold pounding and 
annealing techniques. 



Another fascinating find was a copper headdress that extended half way 
around the upper portion of the skull. The headdress consisted of 
flattened strips of pure copper, which, at one time, were fastened 
together by a piece of buckskin or fabric. Still another artifact found by 
the archaeologists was a “gorget,” or neck ornament, made of a conch 
shell. The gorget, which measured about five inches in length, and two 
inches in width, had three holes on its long axis for suspension 
purposes. The ornament was shaped like the sole of a sandal. 

Among the other unusual artifacts were two swan bones about 7 and 
8 inches long, both highly polished and both with a series of notches 
cut into the sides. The bones may have been used for ceremonial 
purposes, but their function is not exactly known. 

The excavations of last summer also yielded a conical copper point 
of a somewhat different type than the usual run of such objects. 


The most interesting specimens found at the site, however, were two 
axes made of elk antler. The archaeologists’ report indicated that the 
axes found on the Reigh farm were different, so far as is known now, 
from any previously discovered in the United States. 

The 1953 finds at the Reigh farm serve to increase our knowledge of 
one of the least known periods in Wisconsin archaeology, covering the 


time period ranging from about 1,000 years before the Christian era, to 
about 350 AD. 


A newspaper article of 30 years ago noted that such an arrow had been 
found imbedded in the bones of a mastodon found near the Mississippi 
River farther north in the state. 

A turning point in Wisconsin prehistory came in 1945, when Dr. 
Robert Ritzenthaler, of the Milwaukee Museum, excavated a site near 
Potosi. There, the first real evidence of the “Old Copper Culture” was 
found in situ. The “Old Copper Culture” refers to a cultural group of 
Indians, antecedent to that of the Early Woodland period, which used 
copper rather than stone in the manufacture of artifacts. 

Dr. R. E. Ritzenthaler, assistant curator of anthropology of the 
Milwaukee Museum, was sent by his museum to survey the find. The 
trench in which the bodies were buried, he told the Wisconsin State 
Journal, is about 80 feet long and 15 feet wide. The bodies were laid 
out on the sand of the reef, in the beginning, and covered with black 
dirt at a distance of about 5 feet below the present ground level. 

“The copper artifacts have been found in the lower level. The copper 
awls, 5 and 6 inches long, have been sharpened at both ends and were 
probably used in making clothing. The ‘spuds,’ tools with sharp edges 
hafted on handles, were used in scooping out dugout canoes, cleaning 
skins, and the like,” Dr. Ritzenthaler said. 

“The instruments were placed in regular patterns,” according to 
Rollo Jamison Beetown, “indicating that the placing of the artifacts was 
part of a religious ritual. Burials at the upper level were of a bundle 
burial type, in which the bones, collected during the winter, were 
buried in a mass ceremony and without placing of copper artifacts.” 



The Potosi burial ground had once been on the banks of the Grant 
River, but the building of the dam on the Mississippi at Dubuque, 
raised the waters to include this in the Mississippi and eat away a part 
of the burial ground. 




The dead at the Osceola site were disposed of in two ways: either 
through bundle burial or partial cremation. (Bundle burials were 
thought to be of Indians who had died in the winter and whose bodies 
had been left on platforms in trees until only the bones remained. These 
were then gathered in a bundle for burial in the spring when the ground 



It appears that the ancient miners went on a different principle from 
what they do at the present time. The greatest depth yet found in these 
holes is thirty feet—after getting down to a certain depth, they drifted 
along the vein, making an open cut. These cuts have been filled nearly 
to a level by the accumulation of soil, and we find trees of the largest 
growth standing in this gutter, and also timber trees of a very large 
growth have grown up and died, and decayed many years since; in the 
same place there are now standing trees of over three hundred years 
growth. This discovery will lead to a new method of finding veins in 
this country, and may be of great benefit to some. 

Fig. 7.4. This is a modern photo of a ten-ton block of copper being removed from 


Isle Royale. It is similar in size, but not workmanship, to the smooth-pounded ten- 

ton block of copper described below. 


Last week they dug down to a new place, and about 12 feet below the 
surface found a mass of copper that will weigh from eight to ten tons. 

This mass of copper was buried in ashes, and it appears they could 
not handle it, and had no means of cutting it, and probably built fire to 
melt or separate the rock from it, which might be done by heating, and 
then dashing on cold water. 


This piece of copper is pure, and clean as a new cent, the upper surface 
has been pounded clear and smooth. It appears that this mass of copper 
was taken from the bottom of a shaft, the depth of about thirty feet. In 
sinking this shaft from where the mass now lies, they followed the 
course of the vein, which pitches considerably; this enabled them to 
raise it as far as the hole came up with a slant. At the bottom of the 
shaft they found skids of black oak, from eight to twelve inches in 
diameter: these sticks were charred through, as if burnt; they found 
wooden wedges in the same situation. In this shaft they found a miner’s 
gad and a narrow chisel made of copper. I do not know whether these 
copper tools are tempered or not, but their make displays good 
workmanship. They have taken out more than a ton of cobblestones, 
which have been used as mallets. These stones are nearly round, with a 
score cut around the center, and look as if this score was hatched cut for 
the purpose of putting a handle around it. 



There was a well-developed system of trade among those ancient 
aborigines, and marine shells are often found in the mounds of the 
Middle West, while articles of native Wisconsin copper occur in those 
of West Virginia. In Alabama was dug up a skull filled with snail 
shells, for what purpose can hardly be imagined. A gourd-shaped vessel 
full of lead ore so pure it was turned into bullets was found in Bellinger 


County, Missouri. In 1879, the people in the neighborhood of a 
Mississippi town, where there are mounds exceptionally rich in pottery, 
discovered that such relics had commercial value. A regular mining 
fever set in, and men, women and children deserted other tasks to dig 
for aboriginal bric-a-brac, which was sold to traders and passed on to 
museums and collectors. 

Fig 7.5. A postcard of the Indian Mound Cemetery, Marietta, Ohio 


In a group of mounds near Chillicothe, Ohio, were found dozens of 
skeletons wearing copper masks. Presumably the copper came from 
Wisconsin, where the Indians, long before Columbus landed, obtained 
the metal by building a fire about a rock containing it and then pouring 
water on the hot stone, thereby splitting the latter into fragments. The 
copper thus procured was heated and beaten out into sheets. 


A number of articles describe the findings of archaeologist Robert J. 
Hruska at an old copper culture site along the Menominee River. 




Within 20 inches of the surface, Hruska and his colleagues uncovered a 
wooden burial crypt, fashioned of oak logs with a roof of sewed birch 
bark. Because of its proximity to the surface, skeletal material had 
disappeared, leaving only the enamel of the teeth. 

This burial, like others found this summer, gave evidence of red 
ochre: a substance which appears to have had a religious or ceremonial 


Digging down another foot into the pit, the archaeologist found another 
burial. In association with the skull, all that was left of the skeleton 
were 13 7-inch ceremonial blades of stone, representing a type never 
before found with an Old Copper Culture red-ochre burial. So far this 
summer, Hruska has uncovered four burials with blades, each 
apparently a set, but differing with each set. 


Proceeding another foot down into the pit brought to light the remains 
of two individuals in “bundle” or flexed burials. One produced a well- 
preserved skull, which indicates that its owner died right at the site 
from a severe blow in the face. At each side of the skull, where the ears 
had been, was a large animal tooth, which Hruska believes may have 
come from an elk. 



The burial, which was surrounded by upright charred oak logs, 
consisted of an adult and a child who had been interred in the flesh and 
beneath them the cremated remains of about five other individuals. 
“The entire burial,” Hruska said, “was impregnated with red ochre, a 
substance widely used by American Indians for religious or ceremonial 



The other person in this burial was a larger-than-average man. Much of 
the skeletal material was preserved, due to the chemical properties of a 
large number of copper beads with which he was buried. At about the 
7-foot level, Hruska uncovered another “bundle” burial, this one a 



Fortunately, much of the wrapping materials, including strings of 
beads, some of them braided, were recovered. Around the bones and 
beads was woven matting which, in turn, was wrapped in the skin of an 
animal, possibly a beaver. Outer wrapping was a birch bark. Arranged 
around this burial at the bottom of a pit was found a set of 44 blades, 
with all the points carefully positioned so as to face north. 


Around each wrist of the adult were seven strands of copper beads, 
while a string of some 200 beads was found directly over the skeletal 
material. Between the two bodies were nine flint blades—spear heads 
or knives—ranging up to 10 inches in length. 

Revealing exceptionally fine workmanship, the blades were 
manufactured of a type of flint commonly found in Indiana or Illinois, 
but never before discovered in association with the Old Copper Culture. 
“The implication that they were imported is clear,” commented Hruska. 



Unfortunately human skeletal material had almost entirely disintegrated 
after 3,000 years in the ground, but enough was left to indicate that 
physically the Old Copper Culture people were of about average height 
for their times, and, judging by the thickness of the bones, stocky and 


Among the copper artifacts found with the burials were two large and 
fine awls, both still showing remnants of wooden handles. One of the 
awls is fitted at one end with a beaver tooth, probably indicating that 


the implement performed double duty as a chisel. Other copper grave 
goods included two toggle-head harpoons: the first of their kind ever. 




One of the most successful archaeological excavations ever made in 
Wisconsin has come to an end. Archaeologist Robert J. Hruska, the 31- 
year-old curator of anthropology at the Oshkosh Public Museum, has 
pronounced the digging as “rewarding beyond my wildest dreams.” 

The excavations, commenced in July and recently completed, were 
made at a burial and village site of a copper age culture settlement of 
Indians known to have lived along the Menominee River near here. 
Hruska and a crew of volunteer diggers from Menominee succeeded in 
excavating more than 7,000 cubic feet of ground, from which more 
than 30 multiple human burials consisting of skeletal remains of about 
100 Old Copper Culture age people known to have lived here in 
prehistoric times were found. 

Previous excavations of the Old Copper Culture have shown the 
Indians to have lived here 3,000 to 5,000 years ago. Of the many 
human skeletons discovered in the dig only three were of individual 
burials. Hruska believes that the prehistoric copper people refrained 
from winter-time burials because of the frozen ground. They retained 
the bodies of their dead until spring-time thaws and buried all persons 
who died the previous winter. 



Curator Robert J. Hruska: “The dig has attracted national attention in 
archaeological circles because of the wealth of identifiable new 
material it produced and the new insights it is yielding into the lives of 


these rather mysterious early Americans.” 

The Old Copper Culture—so named because its members fashioned 
a variety of tools and ornaments of cop-per—is the most ancient of 
prehistoric Wisconsin-Michigan Indian cultures. This summer’s 
expedition produced, to say nothing of a vast number of beads, 79 large 
stone blades, ranging in length up to 10 inches; about 15 copper 
artifacts, biggest of which is a 12-inch awl, and also including points, 
knives, axes, and fish hooks; a variety of stone arrow and spear points, 
scrapers, etc.; and three skulls good enough for exhibit purposes. 



A total of 20 burials, some of which produced significant artifacts and 
other grave goods, have been uncovered this summer during the second 
season of a continuing archaeological dig at Menominee, Michigan. 
Robert J. Hruska, curator of anthropology at the Oshkosh Public 
Museum, said that this summer’s field work, completed last week, had 
shed new light on the lives of the rather mysterious prehistoric Indians 
who comprised what is known as the Old Copper Culture. 


This season’s excavations, which began in mid-June, have also raised 
many new questions and pointed the way for further investigations next 
summer at the ancient burial and village site, located in an unused 
portion of Menominee’s Riverside Cemetery. One of the most 
interesting aspects of this year’s work from the scientific viewpoint was 
the recovery of a considerable number of pottery shards of a type 
associated with Early Woodland—a culture marked by cord-wrapped 
and paddle-impressed pottery, and, probably, a lack of agriculture. It 
has not yet been definitely established that the Old Copper Culture 
people had pottery, and this summer’s yield of pottery fragments might 
possibly indicate a temporal overlapping of the final stages of the Old 
Copper Culture and Early Woodland. The Menominee site is known to 
be at least 3,000 years old. 



Along with the fabled ancient copper mines found in the northern 
peninsula of Michigan, the mica mines of North Carolina are some of 
the most significant natural resource sites in North America. The 
importance of mica to the mound-builder culture cannot be 
overemphasized. Throughout the United States and Mexico, numerous 
mound builder burials have revealed a plethora of mica jewelry, 
ornaments, and decorations, the majority of which can be linked to 
these mica mines, which archaeologists estimate have been worked 
since ancient prehistoric times. 



At present North Carolina produces two-thirds of all the mica mined in 
the United States. The center of this industry is at Barkerville, Mitchell 
County, North Carolina. Senator Clingman, a gentleman of scientific 
knowledge, had noticed in two geological investigations of the 
formation of Mitchell County ancient mounds upon which there were 
large dumps from some ancient mines. He opened several, but found no 
precious metals, only mica, which he believed worthless. Therefore, the 
exploration of these mounds was abandoned. A few months later a 
“cute Yankee” from Connecticut, while prospecting the country for 
minerals, and coming upon a mound, which Clingman had opened, 
upon examining the mica, and determining its value, soon afterward 
obtained a lease upon the property in question and by his energy and 
practical knowledge of the business soon made a handsome fortune. At 
the present time there are in this section but two mines that are large 
producers, the Cloudlook, now 100 feet deep, and the Kay mine, the 
most valuable property of its kind in the country, which is being 
worked at a depth of 300 feet and producing two tons monthly. The 
Clarrisa mine near Barkerville, at one time produced about one-half of 
the total product of the United States, but after being worked to a depth 
of 565 feet has been abandoned, as the vein has pinched and the mine is 
now very wet. A large portion of the product of North Carolina is 
mined by farmers who eke out a scanty subsistence by prospecting for 
this valuable mineral. 


In this mica belt, which is thirty miles wide and one hundred miles 
long, the mica is found near the surface and of as good a quality as that 
found at a considerable depth, which is unquestionably a common 
experience everywhere, since mica is not as quickly oxidized as other 
minerals. After the vein is opened a few feet in depth, say 10 or 20 feet, 
if no pay mica is found the prospect is usually abandoned. These quasi¬ 
miners are often satisfied with the finding of a few pockets yielding 
$100 to $200 return for a season’s labor. 



It is a notable fact that all the best mines of North Carolina are of 
prehistoric origin. The ancient people working these mines were 
doubtless contemporaneous with the mound builders of the Ohio 
Valley, since in Chillicothe, Circleville, and other places have been 
found in the mounds adjacent sheets of mica covering human remains; 
also, mica sheets lying upon ancient altars, evidently used for sacrificial 
purposes, while perforated disks of mica found in graves suggest they 
were worn as ornaments. 

Mica was well known in prehistoric America, traces of its use being 
widespread. A great shaft near Mount Mitchell, North Carolina, was 
discovered in 1869, and this not only solved the question as to the 
origin of the early supply, but gave mica mining in the United States its 
first impetus. In this region, for many years, mica was largely used as a 
medium of exchange between farmers and storekeepers. 


Mica jewelry and grave goods are common in many mound-builder 
burials across the country. This not only argues for the high regard the 
ancients had for mica, but also shows the widespread trade in this 
material from an extremely ancient date. The sheet mica found in North 
Carolina is unique, and it should be noted that between the courses of 
the pyramids at Teotihuacan there are to be found massive sheets of 
mica. Mica chips are also found in many of the pyramids’ walls. 
Traditional archaeologists say this material came from mines in the 
Amazon, while the much more likely explanation is that it came from 
North Carolina. 


History of Delaware County, 1879 

We were shown some interesting relics consisting of a queen 
conch shell, some isinglass (mica), and several peculiarly shaped 
pieces of slate which were found on the farm of Solomon Hill, 
Concord Township. The mound is situated on the banks of a rocky 
stream. Two human skeletons were also found in the mound, one 
about seven feet long, the other an infant. The shell was found at 
the left cheek of the large skeleton. A piece of slate about one-by- 
six inches was under the chin. The slate was provided with two 
smooth holes, apparently for the purpose of tying it to its position. 
Another peculiarly shaped piece with one hole was on the chest, 
and another with some isinglass (mica) was on the left hand. 




The majority of sites that reveal burials of giants also yield evidence of 
a very sophisticated material culture. The following story gives a 
reconstruction of the amazing finds made at the extensive complex of 
mounds in the vicinity of Charleston, West Virginia. These mounds 
were first breached and studied in 1838 by the state’s geological survey 
team and later by the Smithsonian in 1883. This report is from a front 
page feature in the state’s largest and most respected newspaper at the 
time, and because it is so precise and detailed and, in many cases, 
straight from the Smithsonian’s own report, I will be quoting from it at 



Among the most interesting artifacts unearthed were three worked and 
shaped pieces of cannel coal, a special finely-textured variety of 
bituminous, which may have come from one of the outcroppings along 
our local streams. 

One was in pendant form, one a disc, and the third of no particular 
form, probably unfinished. Fragments of seven stone and five clay 
pipes were found. There were two splendid bone fish hooks and many 
bone awls and pins. Clay balls about the size of marbles may have been 
used in children’s games. Miniature “toy” pottery vessels were 
discovered. Objects of worked antler included a chisel, projectile 
points, and flakers. There were 341 triangular flint projectile points and 
90 flint projectile points of other types. Stone celts, adzes, balls, and a 
perforated stone disc were brought to light. Other discs of perforated 
mussel shell were found. A study of the animal and bird bones 
indicated that the white-tailed deer was very common, also wild turkey, 
elk and black bear to a lesser extent. Evidence of animals no longer 


here included elk (28 fragments), bobcat (five fragments), wolf (one) 
and beaver (eleven). 






Some 400 skeletons, the sizes of which vary from unborn infants to 
male adults and whose ages were estimated at 1,000 to 5,000 years, 
have been uncovered at the Indian mounds at Moundville by the 
Alabama Museum of Natural History. From his offices at the 
University of Alabama, Walter B. Jones, director of the museum, 
announced that one skeleton measured seven feet six inches in height. 

The museum party, headed by Director Jones and Curator William L. 
Halton and consisting of David de Jarnette, assistant curator, and Carl 
T. Jones, topographer, is completing its first period of excavations. The 
party is digging in an area recently purchased by the Museum and 
which has been designated as Moundville. In addition to the remains of 
400 Indians, the excavation party has taken from the mounds hundreds 
of valuable artifacts. 


All skeletons unearthed whose bones were strong enough to be 
preserved have been brought to the Museum. “Most of the large 
skeletons brought out were found in the vicinity of Mound ‘G,’” Dr. 
Jones said, “the majority averaging over six feet or more in height. All 
of the graves from which the skeletons were taken were earthen except 
one, which was a very fine type of stone box burial, which is so 
prevalent in Tennessee and Kentucky. As a whole the teeth were in 
very remarkable condition.” 


Fig. 8.1. Archaeologists have said this stone duck bowl found at Moundville is 
arguably the most significant prehistoric artifact ever found in the United States 

(courtesy of Jeffrey Reed). 



One of the most remarkable burials encountered was that of a very 
prominent member of the tribe, possibly the chief of a tribe that resided 
around Mound “E.” This burial carried a stone disc under the skull, two 
square pots, and three miscellaneous pots; this pottery is superb ware 
and beautiful in design. 

In addition, the skeleton wore many shell beads at the neck, the 
wrists and there were seven beads on the right ankle and eleven on the 


The only metal encountered during the excavations was copper, which 
appeared to be a great favorite with the mound builders. 

Red, yellow, and other pigments were met with everywhere, and all 
discs showed the presence of white to pearl-gray paint, possibly made 
of lead carbonate, showing that these people carried on elaborate rituals 
and procedures. 



Director Jones announced that among the group of artifacts, 150 pots of 
various kinds, four pipes, ten stone discs, one copper pendant, six 
copper ear plugs, about seventy-five bone awls or piercing instruments, 
100 discoidal stones, some made from igneous rocks brought in from 
other localities, thousands of shell beads ranging from one and one half 
inches in length to very minute objects. Many of the beads were spool 
shaped, some discoidal, others irregular. 


Their foods consisted of the meats of various animals, fowls, and fresh¬ 
water mussel shells. The latter type of food was duplicated in one very 
fine vessel of earthenware. Numerous bones of deer, bear, turkey, and 
fish were found with burials in pots and in dumps bordering the burial 
ground. Incidentally, the dumps, or refuse heaps, appeared to have been 
buried the same as the human bodies. 

Fig. 8.2. Engraved stone palette from Moundville, illustrating a horned rattlesnake, 
perhaps from the great serpent of the southeastern ceremonial complex (courtesy 

of Jeffrey Reed) 



The most remarkable object met with by the party was a square pot, 
ornamented by brilliant red and pearl-gray circles. Each circle was 
fringed by a pearl-gray ring. This is perhaps the finest vessel ever to be 
taken from Moundville. Several other colored pots were encountered, 
several of which were very remarkable. In 1904-05, Dr. Clarence 
Moore, connected with the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, found 
only three colored pots, and these were rather rude. 


The art of the mound builders is characterized by various effigies 
including human heads and sometimes bodies, heads of ducks, owls, 
alligators, frogs, fish, eagles, serpents, rattle snakes, etc. The rattle 
snake is often portrayed as having horns and wings, making up what is 
termed the “flying circle.” 

The party secured three excellent frog bowls. Although the Indians 
sometimes exaggerated certain features, there is no question about the 
great accuracy of their artistic endeavors. 


On Mound “B,” 57 feet in height and one of the most remarkable 
Indian mounds in the world, were found several pots probably placed 
there during some ceremonial rites, for no human bones were found 
with them and the pits in which they had been placed were carefully 
covered with a very nice type of clay brick. 

The party was able to spot 33 distinct mounds within the area. Of the 
33, the hollow square consists of 16 prominent mounds on the 
circumference with the largest and finest within the square. It is 
assumed that the Chief lived on the high mound overlooking the entire 
area and that tribal ceremonies were carried on upon the great mound 
just to the south of the Chief’s abode. It is further assumed that lesser 
Chiefs occupied the lesser mounds, while the villagers lived in the 
areas adjoining the mounds. The northern rim of the hollow square 
overlooks the Black Warrior River. The entire plain is well above high 
water level. 


In 1871, a Canadian newspaper article reported on a find from 
Cayuga, New York, in which two hundred skeletons were removed 
from a collapsed mound. . . . These skeletons were said to be in a 
perfect state of preservation and that “the men were of gigantic stature, 
some of them measuring nine feet, very few of them being less than 
seven feet.” 








Cayuga, New York: On Wednesday last. Rev. Nathaniel Wardell, 
Messers Orin Wardell (of Toronto), and Daniel Fredenburg were 
digging on the farm of the latter gentleman, which is on the banks of 
the Grand River, in the township of Cayuga. 

When they got to five or six feet below the surface, a strange sight 
met them. Piled in layers, one upon top of the other, were some two 
hundred skeletons of human beings nearly perfect: around the neck of 
each one being a string of beads. 

There were also deposited in this pit a number of axes and skimmers 
made of stone. In the jaws of several of the skeletons were large stone 
pipes, one of which Mr. O. Warded took with him to Toronto a day or 
two after this Golgotha was unearthed. 

These skeletons are those of men of gigantic stature, some of them 


measuring nine feet, very few of them being less than seven feet. Some 
of the thigh bones were found to be at least a foot longer than those at 
present known, and one of the skulls being examined completely 
covered the head of an ordinary person. 

These skeletons are supposed to belong to those of a race of people 
anterior to the Indians. 

Some three years ago, the bones of a mastodon were found 
embedded in the earth about six miles from this spot. The pit and its 
ghastly occupants are now open to the view of any who may wish to 
make a visit there. 


The primacy of river routes in relationship to the placement of mound 
builder sites can be seen everywhere in the United States. In this case 
the Allegheny River is singled out as a major ingress route into western 
Pennsylvania and New York State. 


On October 20, 1941, we have this report on the Smithsonian’s 
involvement in excavations at the Sugar Run Indian Mounds in Warren, 
Pennsylvania, by Dr. Wesley Bliss and Edmund Carpenter, in 
association with the state historical commission and representatives 
from the Smithsonian, including Dr. William N. Fenton. 

The central or most important find, was of two rock cists each 
containing an uncremated skeleton in good preservation. Deposited 
with one of these, beneath the skull, were fifty-three cache blades; 
near its feet, quantities of red and yellow ochre, a gorget and a 
sheet of mica. Near the center of the same burial was a lump of 
galena (crystal lead). Mica, and cache blades were found, too, with 
the second skeleton. 

The earlier Sugar Run people appear to represent an eastern 
outpost for the “mound builders” of the Mississippi drainage basin. 
The Allegheny River suggests itself as the corridor through which 
these people penetrated into Western Pennsylvania and New York. 
These people probably flourished until at least 1000 CE. 

No intimate connection can be traced between the mound 


builders of Sugar Run and the “Cornplanter” band or the other 
Senecas living just across the line in New York State. The former 
appear to have lived along and disappeared from the upper 
Allegheny many years before the ancestors of the present Senecas 
first appeared hereabouts. 


As we have seen time and time again in this book, major caches of 
archaeological material are handed over to the Smithsonian, only later 
to disappear down the memory hole of traditional research. The article 
by Fenton continues . .. 

“Material recovered from this site will be studied by experts over 
several months,” said Dr. C. E. Schaeffer of the state historical 
commission in a speech also attended by Dr. William N. Fenton of 
the Smithsonian, who was there to consult as a Seneca specialist. 

When the returns are all in formal reports of the investigations 
will be published and distributed in professional quarters to make 
the information available to archaeologists in other areas. Leaflets, 
illustrated talks, exhibits, and the like, will be prepared for the non¬ 

Finally, the artifacts will be placed in permanent storage or on 
exhibition at some central repository for the benefit of the serious 
or casual student of archaeology. 



A great deal of local Indian lore is recorded in the old 1880 History of 
Indiana County. A few colorful Indian names have continued until the 
present, reminding us of earlier times. The name “Kiskiminetas” is of 
Indian origin, but there is some difference of opinion as to its meaning. 
Based on stem words from the Indian language, one meaning is “plenty 
of walnuts.” Rev. John Heckewelder, a Moravian missionary from the 
time of the Revolutionary War, said it meant “make daylight.” John 
McCullough, captured in Franklin County by Indians in 1756, wrote of 
being taken to an old-town at “Keesk-kshee-man-nit-teos,” meaning 


“cut spirit” and located at the junction of the Loyalhanna and the 
Conemaugh. Conemaugh is also a name of Indian origin and means 
“long fishing place” or “otter creek.” 


As we begin to catalogue the mound builder burial practices, one of the 
major burial styles is “flexed” burial, where the knees are drawn up to 
the chest. 

Seventeen burials were uncovered in the excavated portions of the 
tract; ten children and infants, four adult males, two adult females, and 
one unidentified adult. “Most had been buried in a flexed position, with 
knees dawn up to the chest.” 


In North Carolina, significant finds were made in the Yadkin Valley of 
Caldwell County in 1883 that included one group of four skeletons in 
seated positions and a pair lying on their backs. One of the recumbent 
skeletons was of a man who was reported to be seven feet tall. At 
another site in the North Carolina foothills, twenty-six skeletons were 
found in unusual burial positions associated with other mound builder 
sites. In yet another location, sixteen skeletons were found in seated, 
squatting, and prone positions in the center of which was a skeleton 
standing upright in a large stone cist, which is a burial chamber made 
of stone or a hollow tree. 

The following section is from an October 18, 1962, Associated Press 
article that includes extensive quotes from a report written for the 
Smithsonian. It was published in the North Carolina-based Lenoir 
News and the Virginia Bee and was also syndicated nationally. This 
article is of great interest as it documents the Smithsonian’s 
involvement in the dig, as well as the institution’s confiscation of the 
evidence for further study. 





In 1883 the foothill section of North Carolina became the site of intense 
excavations for Indian relics. Dr. James Mason Spainhour, a Lenoir 
dentist and Indian authority, discovered several large mounds in the 
area. Relics, which he and others unearthed, so aroused the interest of 
officials of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington that a 
representative, J. P. Rogan, was sent to the area to assist with the 

Rogan wrote a comprehensive report of Caldwell County findings 
using sketches to illustrate each of five notable mounds discovered. All 
were located in the Yadkin Valley area now known as Happy Valley. 
After skeletons were carefully removed and labeled, they were sent to 
the Smithsonian. Later one of the mounds was carefully reproduced in 
miniature for public viewing. 

It was on the T. L. Nelson farm about a mile and a half southeast of 
Patterson, that two important discoveries were made. “The first mound 
was only about 18 inches in height from first appearances,” writes 
Rogan. “Of circular shape it was about 38 feet in diameter. A pit had 
been dug about three feet deep, with the center area being about six feet 
in depth. 

“Sixteen skeletons were found in various positions, some squatting, 
some reclining, while others were in small stone sepultures of water- 
worn rocks,” continues Rogan in the official Smithsonian report. “In 
the center was a skeleton standing upright in a large stone cist. Also 
found were stones shaped like disks and pitted. There were celts, crude 
bones and soapstone pipes, black paint made from molded nuts and 


“On the W. D. Jones property two miles east of Patterson, a fourth 
excavation was made,” reports Rogan to the Smithsonian. 

In a low circular mound about 32 feet in diameter and three feet in 
depth, 26 skeletons were discovered. Relics included celts, disks, shell 
beads, food cups, crescent shaped pieces of copper, pipes, red and black 
paint, broken pottery, and charcoal. 


As a result of the excavations excitement spread throughout the 
region. People began exploring hillocks and mounds in all vicinities. 
Other discoveries, which went unrecorded, were made. John P. Perry 
and John M. Houck, exploring an old Indian camp site near the present 
Brown Mountain Beach, found many relics. 


I have already included excerpts detailing some of the amazing 
accounts in Dr. John Haywood’s wonderful book from 1823, The 
Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee. Perhaps the most 
amazing finds described in the book were the tiny mounds that 
contained caskets of the three-foot-tall “moon-eyed children,” who 
were pygmies that were said to accompany the giants. The three-foot- 
tall pygmies were originally said to have come from North Carolina, 
and legends say they were mischievous and only liked to come out at 
night. Comparisons with leprechauns immediately come to mind 
reading this. Cherokee lore recounts that they waged war against these 
moon-eyed people and drove them from their home in Hiwassee, a 
village in what is now Murphy, North Carolina, pushing them west into 

In addition to numerous giants and pygmies, Haywood discovered 
grave goods, including bloody axes, a stone trumpet hunting horn, 
carved mastodon bones, and soapstone statues and pipes. In a cave on 
the south side of the Cumberland River, a secret room was discovered 
that was twenty-five feet square and showed signs of engineering, as it 
contained a large rock-cut well and the skeleton of a blond-haired giant. 

Outside of Sparta, a standing stone was discovered that marked the 
burial of more oversized skeletons. In another burial at the top of a 
nearby hill, carved ivory beads were found of the “finest and best 
quality,” while in a dig at Ohio Falls, Roman coins depicting Claudius 

II and Maximinus II were uncovered. It was reported that in 1794, an 
ancient furnace was discovered and in association with it a bar of iron 
was found, as well as annealed and hardened copper implements. 

The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee, 1823 

By Dr. John Haywood 

It would be an endless labor to give a particular description of all 


the mounds in Tennessee. They are numerous upon the rivers, 
which empty into the Mississippi, running from the dividing ridge 
between that river and Tennessee. They are found upon Duck river, 
the Cumberland, upon the Little Tennessee and its waters, and 
upon the Big Tennessee, upon Frenchbroad and upon Elk river. 

Fig. 8.3. An illustration of the Tennessee dig led by Dr. John Haywood, 1823 

The trees are of more recent growth which are upon the mounds that 
are found in the last settlements of the Natchez; for instance, near the 
town of Natchez, and on the waters of the Mississippi within the 
present limits of Tennessee than those are which grow upon the 
mounds in other parts of the country: a circumstance, which furnishes 
the presumption, that the ancient builders of the latter were expelled 
from the other parts of Tennessee, at a period corresponding with the 
ages of the trees which the whites found growing upon them. 

A careful description of a few of these mounds in West and East 
Tennessee will put us in possession of the properties belonging to them 
generally. In the county of Sumner, at Bledsoe’s lick, eight miles 
northeast from Gallatin, about 200 yards from the lick, in a circular 
enclosure, between Bledsoe’s lick creek and Bledsoe’s spring branch, 
upon level ground, is a wall 15 or 18 inches in height, with projecting 
angular elevations of the same height as the wall and within it, are 
about 16 acres of land. 


Fig. 8.4. Engraved shell from a Tennessee mound, from The Problem of the Ohio 
Mounds by Cyrus Thomas, Smithsonian Institute, 1889 

In the interior is a raised platform, from 13 to 15 feet above the 
common surface, about 200 yards from the wall to the south, and 
about 50 from the northern part of it. This platform is 60 yards 
length and breadth, and is level on the top. And is to the east of a 
mound to which it joins, of 7 or 8 feet higher elevation, or 8 feet 
from the common surface to the summit, about 20 feet square. On 
the eastern side of the latter mound, is a small cavity, indicating 
that steps were once there for the purpose of ascending from the 
platform to the top of the mound. 

In the year 1785, there grew on the top of the mound a black oak 
three feet through. There is no water within the circular enclosure 
or court. Upon the top of the mound was ploughed up some years 
ago, an image made of sandstone. On one cheek was a mark 
resembling a wrinkle, passing perpendicularly up and down the 
cheek. On the other cheek were two similar marks. The breast was 
that of a female, and prominent. The face was turned obliquely up, 
towards the heavens. The palms of the hands were turned upwards 
before the face and at some distance from it, in the same direction 


that the face was. The knees were drawn near together, and the 
feet, with the toes towards the ground, were separated wide enough 
to admit of the body being seated between them. 

The attitude seemed to be that of adoration. The head and upper 
part of the forehead were covered with a cap or mitre or bonnet 
from the lower part of which came horizontally a brim, from the 
extremities of which the cap extended upwards conically. The 
color of the image was that of a dark infusion of coffee. If the front 
of the image was placed to the east, the countenance obliquely 
elevated, and the uplifted hands in the same direction would be 
toward the meridian sun. 

About ten miles from Sparta, in White county, a conical mound 
was lately opened, and in the center of it was found a skeleton 
eight feet in length. With it was found a stone of the flint kind, 
very hard, with two flat sides, having in the center circular hollows 
exactly accommodated to the balls of the thumb and forefinger. 
This stone was an inch and a half in diameter, the form exactly 
circular. It was about one third of an inch thick, and made smooth 
and flat, for rolling, like a grindstone, to the form of which, indeed, 
the whole stone was assimilated. When placed upon the floor, it 
would roll for a considerable time without falling. 

The whole surface was smooth and well-polished, and must have 
been cut and made smooth by some hard metallic instrument. No 
doubt it was buried with the deceased, because for some reason he 
had set a great value on it in his lifetime, and had excelled in some 
accomplishment to which it referred. 

The color of the stone was a dingy white, inclining to a darkish 
yellow. At the side of this skeleton were also found two flat stones, 
about six inches long, two and a half wide at the lower part, and 
about one and a half at the upper end, widening in the shape of an 
ax or hatchet from the upper to the lower end. The thickness of the 
stone was about one tenth of an inch. An inch below the upper end 
exactly equidistant from the lateral edges, a small hole is neatly 
bored through each stone, so that by a string run through, the stone 
might be suspended off the side or from the neck as an ornament. 

One of these stones is the common limestone. The other is 
semitransparent, so as to be darkened by the hand placed behind it 


and resembles in texture those stalactical formations, like white 
stone, which are made in the bottoms of caves by the dripping of 
water. When broken, there appears a grain running from one flat 
side to the other, like the shootings of ice or saltpeter, of a whitish 
color inclining to yellow. The latter stones are too thin and slender, 
for any operation upon other substances, and must have been 
purely ornamental. 

The first described stone must have been intended for rolling. 

For why take so much pains to make it circular, if to be used in 
flinging? Or why, if for the latter purpose, so much pain taken to 
make excavations adapted to the thumb and finger. The conjecture 
seems to be a probable one that it was used in some game played 
upon the same principles as that called ninepins; and the little 
round balls, like marbles, but of a larger size, were so disposed as 
that the rolling stone should pass through them. 

Such globular stone, it is already stated, was found in a mound in 
Maury County. With this large skeleton were also found eight 
beads and a human tooth. The beads were circular and of a bulbous 
form. The largest about one fourth of an inch in diameter, the 
others smaller. The greater part of them tumescent from the edge to 
the center, at which a hole was perforated for a string to pass 
through and to connect them. The inner sides were hard and white, 
like lime indurated by some chemical process. The outside was a 
thin coal of black crust. 




Yes! The tombs of a long-vanished race of mound builders have been 
found near Langley, in Mayes County, site of the Grand River dam, and 
much is expected to be learned from these finds after investigating 
archaeologists and anthropologists complete their studies of the finds 
which have been made. 

The pottery, consisting of drinking vessels, water bowls, and so forth 
has been found in the excavated mounds near Langley, and also 


recently in mounds unearthed near Grove in Delaware County, even to 
designs such as the Thunder Bird. Arrow heads, which have been found 
at Langley and also in the Grove “diggings,” are of many designs and 

In the slender fishing or hunting point type, made of some material 
resembling glass, the symmetry and design are perfect, thus reflecting a 
remarkable degree of ability on the part of the manufacturers. Battle or 
war points, ranging in size from eight to ten inches, and about two 
inches in width at their widest point near the center, are of two types of 
material, namely obsidian “black” and flint “gray.” A study in the area 
of the vicinity of these finds by geologists fails to show any material 
corresponding to these types of rocks, and on the basis of these finds, it 
is assumed that the material to make these points was brought from 
some distant point in either southern Kansas or central Missouri, where 
some of this material exists. The balance of the war points is perfect 
and when held in the palm of the hand, remains in a perfect balanced 

Picture writings which have been found near Grove show in crude 
design a hunter chasing a buffalo with a spear of this type. 



Some of the burials, which have been unearthed at the dam site, appear 
with head to the north, while others appear with head to the south. The 
meaning of this has not been determined. Some evidences of the 
practice of masonry are noted in some of the finds, and it is believed 
that the mound builders had knowledge of this craft. Certain skeleton 
remains have considerable arrow heads, beaded work, and other 
artifacts around them. It is theorized that the person possessed some 
rank of standing within the tribal councils and was thus designated by 
the artifacts buried with him. 


Fig. 8.5. Examples of copper and stone work: pre-Columbian copper artifacts from 
Oklahoma, Missouri, and Illinois (courtesy of Herb Roe) 

Most of the skeleton remains are much larger than present day 
humans and the race must have presented a strange sight owing to the 
extreme heights of its members. 




Two miles west of Barfield Point, in Arkansas County, Ark., on the 
east bank of the lovely stream called Pemiscott River, stands an Indian 


mound, some 25 feet high and about an acre in area at the top. 

This mound is called Chickasawba, and from it the high and 
beautiful country surrounding it, some twelve square miles in area 
derives its name: Chickasaw. The mound derives its name from 
Chickasawba, a chief of the Shawnee tribe, who lived, died, and was 
buried there. 


From 1820 to 1831, Chickasawba and his hunters assembled annually 
at Barfield Point, then, as now, the principal shipping place of the 
surrounding country, and bartered off their furs, peltries, buffalo robes, 
and honey to the white settlers and the trading boats on the river, and 
receiving in turn powder, shot, lead, blankets, money, etc. 



A number of years ago in making an excursion into or near the foot of 
Chickasawba’s mound, a portion of a gigantic human skeleton was 
found. The men who were digging, becoming interested, unearthed the 
entire skeleton, and from measurements given to us by reliable parties 
the frame of the man to whom it belonged could not have been less 
than eight or nine feet in height. 

Under the skull, which easily slipped over the head of our informant 
(who, we will here state, is one of our best citizens) was found a 
peculiarly shaped earthen jar, resembling nothing in the way of Indian 
pottery, which had before been seen by them. 

It was exactly the shape of the round-bodied, long-necked carafes or 
water-decanters, a specimen of which may be seen on Gaston’s table. 


The material of which the vase was made was of a peculiar kind of 
clay, and the workmanship was very fine. The belly or body of it was 
ornamented with FIGURES OR HIEROGLYPHICS consisting of a 
correct delineation of human hands, parallel to each other, open, palms 
outward, and running up and down the vase, the wrists to the base, the 


fingers towards the neck. On either side of the hands, were tibia or 
thigh bones, also correctly delineated, running around the base. 



Since that time, whenever an excavation has been made in 
Chickasawba country in the neighborhood of the mound SIMILAR 
SKELETONS have been found and under the skull of every one were 
found similar funeral vases, almost exactly like the one described. 
There are now in the city several of the vases and portions of the huge 
skeletons. One of the editors of The Appeal yesterday measured a 
thighbone, which is fully three feet long. 

The thigh and shin bones, together with the bones of the foot, stood 
up in proper position in a physician’s office in this city, measure five 
feet in height, and show the body to which the leg belonged to have 
been from nine to ten feet in height. At Beaufort’s Landing, near 
Barfield, in digging a deep ditch, a skeleton was dug up, the leg of 
which measured from five to six feet in length and other bones in 



Pre-Columbian Foreign Contact 





As we have seen, there is compelling evidence that America’s giants 
belonged to sophisticated indigenous cultures. Along with that there are 
strong indications of very ancient cultural exchanges with other parts of 
the world. In this chapter I review reports related to tablets carved with 
inscriptions, a calendar stele, and ancient foreign coins. 


One of the most extraordinary documents I have run across in my 
research is a newspaper article published in 1891, which goes into a 
detailed description and translation of tablets in the possession of a 
historical society’s museum in Cincinnati, textiles matching those in 
Assyria, evidence of surgery, and so forth. The author was a respected 
writer, and the article was widely syndicated nationally in 1891. 






Continued explorations among the ancient monuments remaining in the 
Ohio valley maintain the general interest in those people whose 


existence was before the time of written history, whose relations to the 
rest of mankind have never been discovered, and who are distinguished 
simply as mound builders; that is, they are known only as the authors of 
the most enduring of the monuments that survive them: those great 
piles of earth, whether raised for sacrifice, sepulture, or war. 

The museum of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History is filled 
with a wealth of these curious peoples, in many cases inexplicable 
antiquities, and the explorations, which are in progress among the 
mounds and forts of the Little Miami Valley, under the direction of Dr. 
Metz, of Madisonville, Ohio, are almost every day bringing to light 
additions to the remarkable collection, which is equaled only by the one 
at the Peabody Museum, that was filled and still supplied by the same 

A study of these shows that the mound builders were an agricultural 
people, industrious in the arts of peace as well as the precautions of 
war, with considerable educational and scientific attainments, and that 
they had rites and ceremonies of religion and burial as distinctive as 
any that characterize the people of the present day. 


Illustrative of the physical characteristics of the people, the Cincinnati 
Museum has a number of skeletons taken from the mounds around the 
city and the newly-excavated cemetery near Madisonville, and there are 
rows upon rows of grinning skulls from which the learned members of 
the society have drawn many lessons touching on the mental 
qualifications of these ancient people. 

They have determined that the shape and the phrenological points 
preclude the possibility to their having belonged to any Indians of 
whom our histories furnish us information. 

There is also in the rooms of the society a piece of woven cloth taken 
from one of the mounds, in this case found lying close to a skeleton that 
occupied almost the center and bottom of the mound (so that it must 
have been placed there with the corpse) that in texture is almost 
identical with cloth found among the ruins of ancient Babylon and 
Assyria and the farther east. 


Fig. 9.1. Cincinnati tablet. Sometimes referred to as the great American Rosetta 
stone, the Cincinnati tablet was discovered in the Old Mound at the corner of Fifth 
and Mound Streets in Cincinnati in 1841. At first declared a fraud, it was later 
shown to be authentic. Some have speculated that it is a stylized representation 
of the Tree of Life. (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 
by Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis.) 


Similar to the textile in its ancient connections to advanced civilization, 
are two other relics in the possession of the Society—one known as the 
“Conjuring Stone” and the other as the “Tablet of Life” or more 
commonly the “Cincinnati Tablet” because it was taken from one of the 
mounds marking the site of the city—the former a mathematical, the 
other a psychological witness. 

The tablet is a remarkable and curious stone. Two others of similar 
hieroglyphical decoration, but plainly of less advanced philosophical 
idea, according to the learned men who examined them have been 
found in Ohio mounds, one near Wilmington and the other near 

And not only does the Cincinnati Tablet exhibit a more advanced 
idea, it is also of superior workmanship and preservation. An 
examination of the drawing of the Cincinnati Tablet will discover upon 
it several fetal designs that have been interpreted as symbolical of those 
gestative and procreative mysteries that must have powerfully affected 


the minds of man in the remotest early ages. The design of the tablet 
shows that its author had knowledge of the stages of development at 
various periods of fetal growth, and the tablet, bearing these 
symbolizations of the existence before life, was no doubt used in 
connection with the ceremonies of sepulture and possibly by way of 
comparative conjecture concerning the hidden things of life beyond the 


Regarding the next in importance to the “Tablet,” is the “Measuring 
Stone.” This is a piece of sandstone, about exactly nine inches on the 
flat side and twelve inches on the curve, the dotted lines in the drawing 
indicating the completed ellipse, which is an exact model of the mound 
in which it was found. 

Learned mathematical analysis shows this stone to have been the 
basis for all measurements of the great mounds and earthworks in the 
Ohio Valley, and that the same numbers 9 and 12 are the key numbers 
of the measures used in the construction of the architectural works of 
the Chaldeans, Babylonians, pre-Semites, and Egyptians, while the 
latter number remains to this day the English standard. 


The skull taken from an excavation near Cincinnati shows that these 
people were well-versed in surgery. It is the skull of a man who had 
once received a terrible blow to the side of the head, which crushed the 
skull, but after careful treatment recovered from the effects of the blow. 
Dr. Langdon, an eminent surgeon of Cincinnati, examined the skull and 
said that the adjustments to the parts of bone and the way in which they 
had healed show knowledge of practical surgery scarcely excelled at 
the present day. 


The relics in the Museum of the Cincinnati Society show also that these 
people were well-versed in the industrial arts, there being the remains 
of hammers, knives, mica ornaments, beads, wampum, decorated 
shells, pottery, and many other things. Among these are some that have 
puzzled the scientists to determine to what uses they have been applied 
such as a certain leg bone. 


It is a femur almost worn in two by some friction, as though it must 
have been used for polishing. Thousands of pieces of these bones have 
been found, having been so worn away that they broke in use. 

There is also a kind of needle, made from long fish bones resembling 
in length the present crocheting needle and the carpet needle in 
construction. They may have been used in the making of clothing. 

There are found the remains of forges, and great quantities of furnace 
slag and cinders and scaling like those that fly from beaten white-hot 


It may be that one of the tablets with “similar hieroglyphical 
decoration” referred to by McDowell in 1891 is the one described 
below as part of the findings of an elaborate giant burial in Muskingum 
County, Ohio. 




The mound in which these remarkable discoveries were made was 
about sixty-four feet long and thirty-five feet wide top measurement 
and gently sloped down to the hill where it was situated. A number of 
stumps of trees were found on the slope standing in two rows, and on 
the top of the mound were an oak and a hickory stump, all of which 
bore marks of great age. 

All of the skeletons were found on a level with the hill, and about 
eight feet from the top of the mound. In one grave there were two 
skeletons, one male and one female. The female face was looking 
downward, the male being immediately on top, with the face looking 
upward. The male skeleton measured nine feet in length, and the female 
was eight. 

The male frame in this case was nine feet, four inches in length and 
the female was eight feet. 


In another grave was found a female skeleton, which was encased in 
a clay coffin, holding in her arms the skeleton of a child three and a 
half feet long, by the side of which was an image, which being exposed 
to the atmosphere, crumbled rapidly. 

The remaining seven, were found in single graves and were lying on 
their sides. The smallest of the seven was nine feet in length and the 
largest ten. One single circumstance connected with this discovery was 
the fact that not a single tooth was found in either mouth except in the 
one encased in the clay coffin. 

On the south end of the mound was erected a stone altar, four and a 
half feet wide and twelve feet long, built on an earthen foundation 
nearly four feet wide, having in the middle two large flagstones, from 
which sacrifices were undoubtedly made, for upon them were found 
charred bones, cinders, and ashes. This was covered by about three feet 
of earth. 



What is now a profound mystery may in time became the key to unlock 
still further mysteries that were centuries ago commonplace affairs. 

I refer to a stone that was found resting against the head of the clay 
coffin above described. It is irregularly shaped red sandstone, weighing 
about 18 pounds, being strongly impregnated with oxide of iron, and 
bearing upon one side TWO LINES OF HIEROGLYPHS. 


Other ancient engraved tablets found in Ohio and Illinois deepen the 



In November of 1860, David Wyrick of Newark, Ohio, found an 
inscribed stone in a burial mound about ten miles south of Newark. The 
stone is inscribed on all sides with a condensed version of the Ten 
Commandments or Decalogue, in a peculiar form of post- Exilic square 


Hebrew letters. The robed and bearded figure on the front is identified 
as Moses in letters fanning over his head. 

The inscription is carved into a fine-grained black stone. It has been 
identified by geologists Ken Bork and Dave Hawkins of Denison 
University as limestone; a fossil crinoid stem is visible on the surface, 
and the stone reacts strongly to HC1. It is definitely not black alabaster 
or gypsum as previously reported here. According to James L. Murphy 
of Ohio State University, “Large white crinoid stems are common in 
the Upper Mercer and Boggs limestone units in Muskingum Co. and 
elsewhere, and these limestones are often very dark gray to black in 
color. You could find such rock at the Forks of the Muskingum at 
Zanesville, though the Upper Mercer limestones do not outcrop much 
further up the Licking.” We therefore need not look any farther than the 
next county over to find a potential source for the stone, contrary to the 
previous assertion here that such limestone is not common in Ohio. The 
inscribed stone was found inside a sandstone box, smooth on the 
outside and hollowed out within to exactly hold the stone. The 
Decalogue inscription begins at the non-alphabetic symbol at the top of 
the front, runs down the left side of the front, around every available 
space on the back and sides, and then back up the right side of the front 
to end where it begins, as though it were to be read repetitively. 


Fig. 9.2. The Newark “holy stone” (courtesy of J. Huston McCulloch) 

David Deal and James Trimm note that the Decalogue stone fits well 
into the hand, and that the lettering is somewhat worn precisely where 
the stone would be in contact with the last three fingers and the palm if 
held in the left hand. Furthermore, the otherwise puzzling handle at the 
bottom could be used to secure the stone to the left arm with a strap. 
They conclude that the Decalogue stone was a Jewish arm phylactery 
or tefilla (also written t’filla) of the Second Temple period. Although 
the common Jewish tefilla does not contain the words of the 
Decalogue, Moshe Shamah reports that the Qumran sect did include the 



Several months earlier, in June of 1860, David Wyrick had found an 


additional stone, also inscribed in Hebrew letters. This stone is 
popularly known as the “Keystone” because of its general shape. 
However, it is too rounded to have actually served as a keystone. It was 
apparently intended to be held with the knob in the right hand, and 
turned to read the four sides in succession, perhaps repetitively. It 
might also have been suspended by the knob for some purpose. 
Although it is not pointed enough to have been a plumb bob, it could 
have served as a pendulum. 

The material of the Keystone has been identified, probably by 
geologist Charles Whittlesey, immediately after its discovery as 
novaculite, a very hard fine-grained siliceous rock used for whetstones. 
[For more on Whittlesey, see “Ancient Copper Mining in the Great 
Lakes.” .1 The inscriptions on the four sides read: 

Fig. 9.3. The Keystone (courtesy of J. Huston McCulloch) 

• Qedosh Qedoshim, "Holy of Holies" 

• Melek Eretz, "King of the Earth" 

• Torath YHWH, "The Law of God" 

• Devor YHWH, "The Word of God" 

Wyrick found the Keystone within what is now a developed section 
of Newark, at the bottom of a pit adjacent to the extensive ancient 
Hopewellian earthworks there (circa 100 BC-AD 500). Although the 
pit was surely ancient, and the stone was covered with 12-14 inches of 
earth, it is impossible to say when the stone fell into the pit. It is, 
therefore, not inconceivable that the Keystone is genuine but somehow 


The letters on the Keystone are nearly standard Hebrew rather than 
the very peculiar alphabet of the Decalogue stone. These letters were 
already developed at the time of the Dead Sea Scrolls (ca. 200-100 
BC), and so are broadly consistent with any time frame from the 
Hopewellian era to the present. For the past 1000 years or so, Hebrew 
has most commonly been written with vowel points and consonant 
points that are missing on both the Decalogue and Keystone. The 
absence of points is therefore suggestive, but not conclusive, of an 
earlier date. 

Note that in the Keystone inscription, “Melek Eretz,” the aleph and 
mem have been stretched so as to make the text fit the available space. 
Such dilation does occasionally appear in Hebrew manuscripts of the 
first millennium AD. Birnbaum, The Hebrew Scripts, vol. I, pp. 173-4, 
notes that “We do not know when dilation originated. It is absent in the 
manuscripts from Qumran. . . . The earliest specimens in this book are . 
. . middle of the seventh century [AD]. Thus we might tentatively 
suggest the second half of the sixth century or the first half of the 
seventh century as the possible period when dilation first began to be 
employed.” Dilation would not have appeared in the printed sources 
nineteenth-century Ohioans would primarily have had access to. 

The Hebrew letter shin is most commonly made with a V-shaped 
bottom. The less common flat-bottomed form that appears on the first 
side of the Keystone may provide some clue as to its origin. The exact 
wording of the four inscriptions may provide additional clues. 

Today, both the Decalogue Stone and Keystone, or “Newark Holy 
Stones,” as they are known, are on display in the Johnson- 
Humrickhouse Museum in Roscoe Village, 300 Whitewoman St., 
Coshockton, Ohio. 


One year after Wyrick’s death in 1864, two additional Hebrew- 
inscribed stones were found during the excavation of a mound on the 
George A. Wilson farm east of Newark. These stones have been lost, 
but a drawing of the one and a photograph of the other are reproduced 
in Alrutz. 

The two stones from the Wilson farm, known as the “Inscribed 
Head” and the “Cooper Stone” at first caused considerable excitement. 


Shortly afterwards, however, a local dentist named John H. Nicol 
claimed to have carved the stones and to have introduced them into the 
excavation, with the intention of discrediting the two earlier stones 
found by Wyrick. 

The inscription on the Inscribed Head can be read in Hebrew letters 
as J-H-NCL.In Hebrew, short vowels are not represented by letters, so 
this is precisely how one would write J-H-NiCoL. 

The Cooper stone is less clear, but appears to have a similar 
inscription. The inscriptions themselves therefore confirm Nicol’s 
claim to have planted these two stones. Nicol was largely successful in 
his attempt to discredit the Wyrick stones, and they quickly became a 
textbook example of a “well-known” hoax. It was only with Alrutz’s 
thorough 1980 article— that interest in them was revived. 

Although the Decalogue is of an entirely different character than 
either of the Wilson Mound stones, it is disturbing that Nicol was 
standing near Wyrick at the time of its discovery. 


Two years later, in 1867, David M. Johnson, a banker who co-founded 
the Johnson-Humrickhouse Museum, in conjunction with Dr. N. Roe 
Bradner, M.D., of Pennsylvania, found a fifth stone, in the same mound 
group south of Newark in which Wyrick had located the Decalogue. 
The original of this small stone is now lost, but a lithograph, published 
in France, survives. 

The letters on the lid and base of the Johnson-Bradner stone are in 
the same peculiar alphabet as the Decalogue inscription, and appear to 
wrap around in the same manner as on the Decalogue’s back platform. 
However, the lithograph is not clear enough for me to attempt a 
transcription with any confidence. However, Dr. James Trimm, whose 
Ph.D. is in Semitic Languages, has recently reported that the base and 
lid contain fragments of the Decalogue text. The independent 
discovery, in a related context, by reputable citizens, of a third stone 
bearing the same unique characters as the Decalogue stone, strongly 
confirms the authenticity and context of the Decalogue Stone, as well 
as Wyrick’s reliability. 


Fig. 9.4. Ancient Works at Newark. This map was published in thel866 Newark 

County Atlas. 


Fig. 9.5. These skeletons found in a recent excavation in Germany are from the 
Neolithic Period and are typical of the multiple burials found in many of America’s 
Indian mounds (courtesy of Arthur W. McGrath). 

inscription dz. Newark 

Fig. 9.6. Lithograph by Nancy J. Royer, Congres International des Amerlcanistes 

(courtesy of J. Huston McCulloch) 

Mr. Myron Paine of Martinez, Calif., has cogently noted that the 
Johnson-Bradner stone, if bound in a strap so as to be held as a frontlet 
between the eyes, would serve well as a head phylactery, while the 
Decalogue stone was being used as an arm phylactery per the Deal- 
Trimm hypothesis noted in the first section above. 



A stone bowl was also found with the Decalogue, by one of the persons 
accompanying Wyrick. By Wyrick’s account, it was of the capacity of 
a teacup, and of the same material as the box. Wyrick believed both the 
box and the cup had once been bronzed (Alrutz, pp. 21-2), though this 
has not been confirmed. The bowl was long neglected, but was found 
recently in the storage rooms of the Johnson-Humrickhouse Museum 
by Dr. Bradley Lepper of the Ohio Historical Society. It is now on 
display along with the Decalogue stone and Keystone. (Photo courtesy 
of Jeffrey A. Heck, Najor Productions, T 

An interview in the Jan/Feb 1998 issue of Biblical Archaeology 
Review (“The Enigma of Qumran,” pp. 24ff.) sheds light on the 
possible significance of the stone bowl. The interviewer, Hershel 
Shanks, asked how we would know that Qumran, the settlement 
adjacent to the caves in which the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, was 
Jewish, if there had been no scrolls. The four archaeologists 
interviewed gave several reasons: the presence of ritual baths, 
numerous Hebrew-inscribed potsherds, and its location in Judea, close 
to Jerusalem. Then Hanan Eshel, senior lecturer in archaeology at 
Hebrew University and Bar-Ilan University, gave a fourth reason. 

Fig. 9.7. The Decalogue stone, the Keystone, and the ritual cleansing bowl (photo 

by Jeffrey A. Heck) 

ESHEL: We also have a lot of stone vessels. 

SHANKS: Why is that significant? 

ESHEL: Stone vessels are typical of Jews who kept the purity laws. 
Stone vessels do not become impure. 



ESHEL: Because that is what the Pharisaic law decided. Stone 
doesn’t have the nature of a vessel, and therefore it is always pure. 

SHANKS: Is that because you don’t do anything to transform the 
material out of which it is made, in contrast to, say, a clay pot, whose 
composition is changed by firing? 

ESHEL: Yes. Probably. Stone is natural. You don’t have to put it in 
an oven or anything like that. Purity was very important to the Jews in 
the Late Second Temple period. 

In an article in a subsequent issue of BAR, Yitzhak Magen goes on to 
explain that in the late Second Temple period, the Pharisees ordained 
that observant Jews should ritually rinse their hands with pure water 
before eating, and that in order to be pure, the water had to come from a 
pure vessel. Pottery might be impure, but stone was always pure. The 
result was a brief “Israeli Stone Age,” during which there flourished an 
industry of making stone teacups to pour the water from and stone jugs 
to store it in. After the destruction of the Second Temple in AD 70, this 
practice quickly disappeared. 

The stone bowl therefore fits right in with the Decalogue Stone as an 
appropriate ritual object. It is highly doubtful that Wyrick, Nicol, 
McCarty, or anyone else in Newark in 1860 would have been aware of 
this arcane Second Temple era convention. 

Perhaps the stone box is another manifestation of the same “Stone 
Age” imperative: The easy way to make a box to hold an important 
object (or a prank) is out of wood. Carving it from stone is 
unnecessarily difficult, and would be justified only if stone were 
regarded as being significant in itself. According to Wyrick the bowl 
and box were made of the same sandstone. 

Two unusual “eight-square plumb bobs” were also found with the 
Decalogue. Their location is unknown, though they might also turn up 
in the Museum’s collections. 







A remarkable discovery was recently made on the virgin field a few 
miles from LaHarpe, in the historic old county of Hancock, in Illinois. 
Wyman Huston and Daniel Lovitt were chasing a ground squirrel on 
the farm of Huston, when the dog trailed the squirrel to its hole under 
an old dead tree stump, which was easily pushed over by one of the 
men. In grabbing for the squirrel, the old stump was taken out, and 
under its roots were found two sandstone tablets, about 10 x 11 inches, 
and from one-fourth to half-an-inch in thickness. 

The tablets lay one upon the other, and the sides that faced contained 
strange inscriptions in Roman-like capital letters that had been cut into 
the stone with some sharp instrument. The men brought the tablets to 
LaHarpe, where they were inspected by several antiquarians but none 
of them could decipher the inscriptions. Mr. Huston allowed the stones 
to be forwarded to the Smithsonian in Washington D.C., where they are 
to be held for scientific investigation. 


The authorities of the Smithsonian Institution state that the find is a 
remarkable one, and that they hope to throw some light upon the 
meaning of the lettering etched upon the tablets. But, so far, however, 
they have been unable to do so, or at least they have not announced the 
result of any discoveries, they may have made in the matter. 


When the Davenport Stele is added to the mix, things get even stranger. 
The stele was found in an Indian mound in 1877, and according to 
Harvard Professor Barry Fell, the stele contains writing in Egyptian, 
Iberian-Punic, and Libyan. The Smithsonian, of course, says it and 
others like it are fakes. 





“Egyptian and Libyan explorers sailed np the Mississippi River 2,500 
years ago and left a tablet where Davenport now stands,” a Harvard 
Professor said. “That’s absurd,” countered a former Iowa state 
archeologist, who says the Professor is perpetuating a 100-year-old 
hoax. Harvard’s Dr. Barry Fell, a marine biologist by profession and an 
epigraphist by avocation, said he had deciphered the front and back of a 
table that was found in an Indian mound in 1877. “The tablet,” he 
stated, “contains writing not only in Egyptian hieroglyphics but also in 
Iberian-Punic and Libyan.” 

He likened it in importance to the famed Rosetta Stone, which, 
because it said the same thing in three languages, enabled scientists to 
decipher hieroglyphics. 

“It is unquestionably genuine,” he stated. 

“Not so,” said University of Iowa archeologist Marshall McKusick. 
“The tablet is part of ‘one of the most thoroughly documented hoaxes 
in American archeology.’ Members of the old Davenport Academy of 
Science inscribed the tablets and buried them in a mound on the old 
Cook farm, knowing the tablets would be found by a member they 
wanted to ridicule,” McKusick says. 

But the hoax got out of hand when the Smithsonian Institution got 
involved and the discovery of the tablets received national publicity. 
McKusick documented the hoax in a 1970 book. The Davenport 

“That all may well be true,” Fell said in a recent telephone interview, 
“and two of the three tablets in the mound probably are fake. But the 
third, which he refers to as the Davenport Calendar Stele, definitely is 
not.” This stele with the spring equinox scene on is described in Barry 
Fell’s book, America B.C., as “one of the most important ever 
discovered. It is used in the ceremonial erection of a New Year pillar 


made of bundles of reeds called ‘Djed,’” Fell said. 

“Writing in the curving lines above says the same thing in Iberian 
and Libyan. The Egyptian hieroglyphics along the top explain how to 
use the stone. 

“Two Indian pipes carved in the shape of elephants found in the 
mound also are genuine,” Fell says. 



Fell’s account of deciphering the tablet and the implications of its 
message are contained in his book just published, America B.C.: 
Ancient Settlers in the New World. The book deals with a wide variety 
of finds, particularly in New England, but also ranging as far west as 
Oklahoma, which Fell contends prove that ancient Egyptians, Fibyans, 
Celts, and other people were able to reach America and settle here well 
before the birth of Christ. Portions of the book are reprinted in the 
February issue of Reader's Digest. “The Davenport stele,” Fell writes, 
“is the only one on which occurs a trilingual text in the Egyptian, 
Iberian-Punic, and Fibyan languages. 

“This stele, long condemned as a meaningless forgery, is in fact one 
of the most important steles ever discovered,” he writes. 

“One side of the tablet—since its discovery it has separated by 
cleavage so that each face is now separate—depicts the celebration of 
the Djed Festival of Osiris at the time of the Spring equinox (Mar. 21),” 
Fell says. The other side contains the corresponding fall hunting 
festival at the time of the autumnal equinox (Sept. 21). The writing runs 
along the top of the spring tablet. “The Iberian and Fibyan texts,” Fell 
says, “both say the same thing—that the stone carries an inscription 
giving the secret of regulating the calendar.” This “secret” is given in 
the Egyptian text of hieroglyphics. 

“This Egyptian text,” Fell says, “may be rendered in English as 

To a pillar attach a mirror in such a manner that when the sun 
rises on New Year’s Day it will cast a reflection onto the stone 
called the Watcher. New Year’s Day occurs when the sun is in 
conduction with the zodiacal constellation Aries, in the House of 


the Ram, the balance of night and day being about to reverse. At 

this time (the spring equinox) hold the Festival of the New Year 

and the Religious Rite of the New Year. 

“This festival,” Fell says, “consists in the ceremonial erection of a 
special New Year pillar made of bundles of reeds called a “djed.” The 
tablet, shows long lines of worshippers pulling on ropes with the pillar 
in the center.” 



“How did this extraordinary document come to be in a mound burial in 
Iowa?” Fell asks. “Is it genuine? 

“Certainly it is genuine,” he says, “for neither the Libyan nor the 
Iberian scripts had been deciphered at the time Gass [Rev. Jacob Gass] 
found the stone. The Libyan and Iberian texts are consistent with each 
other and with the hieroglyphic text. 

“As to how it came to be in Iowa, some speculations may be made. 
The stele appears to be of local American manufacture, perhaps made 
by a Libyan or an Iberian astronomer who copied as an older model 
brought from Egypt or more likely from Libya, hence probably brought 
on a Libyan ship. 

“The Priest of Osiris may have issued the stone originally as a means 
of regulating the calendar in far distant lands. The date is unlikely to be 
earlier than about 800 B.C., for we do not know of Iberian or Libyan 
inscriptions earlier than that date,” Fell writes. 

“The explorers presumably sailed up the Mississippi River and 
colonized in the Davenport area,” he says, and he hazards a guess that 
they came on ships commanded by a Libyan skipper of the Egyptian 
navy, during the Twenty-second, or Libyan, Dynasty, a period of 
overseas exploration. “An Egyptian astronomer-priest probably came 
with the explorers,” he speculates, “and it was he or his successors who 
engraved the stone. 

“The hunting scene tablet is engraved in Micmac script and is the 
work of an Algonquian Indian of about 2,000 years ago,” Fell says. He 
does not explain the discrepancy in time, but goes on to say that the 
Algonquian culture shows evidence of contact with early Egyptians. 


The approximate translation is: 

Hunting of beasts and their young, waterfowl and fishes. The herds 

of the Lord and their young, the beasts of the Lord. 

“It is the earliest known example of Micmac script,” Fell says. Fell 
makes no mention in his book of McKusick’s account of the Davenport 
fraud but this is not because he was not aware of it. 


“I just felt it was kinder not to mention it,” he said recently. “It was my 
desire to avoid raking up old disputes. Who cares whether somebody 
defrauded somebody else a hundred years ago? I attach no importance 
to those things.” 



The Smithsonian, which was the first to declare the tablets fraudulent, 
had no experts in ancient languages. “Only those who thought they 
were,” Fell said. 

“And McKusick himself makes no claim to being a linguist,” he 
says. Fell said he has been investigating similar archeological finds that 
had been labeled frauds, “and we find that 95 per cent of them are 

“There is a tendency on the part of those established in a field of 
science either to ignore or label as fraud anything that does not fit in 
with their pre-conceived notion of how things should be,” he said. 

“It is much easier to cry fraud at something out of the ordinary than 
to investigate it,” he said. “Americans are throwing away 2,000 years 
of their history that way.” 

Fell concedes he has never been in Iowa and was not allowed to see 
the tablet, which is now in possession of the Putnam Museum in 
Davenport. He says he did his deciphering from photographs, which is 
the usual way epigraphists do their work. McKusick has taken up the 
challenge by writing a report to Science, the weekly publication of the 
prestigious American Academy for the Advancement of Science. He 
said the Davenport frauds were first exposed in Science in the 1880s 


and later reviewed in 1970. McKusick pointed out that the slate for one 
of the tablets (not Fell’s Davenport stele) came from a wall of the Old 
Slate House, a notorious early-day house of ill fame. “The third tablet, 
a piece of limestone with a tablet, is engraved on a piece of slate,” said 
University of Iowa Archeologist Marshall McKusick. 

In 1970 McKusick wrote a book about the Davenport Conspiracy 
that surrounded the finding of the tablets in an Indian mound in 1877. 
“Holes diameter and were used to hang the slate,” McKusick says. Fell 
concedes this tablet may well have a fake figure of an Indian on it and 
came from Schmidt’s Quarry, not far from the place where the tablets 
were found. The farm site now is occupied by the Thompson-Hayward 
Chemical Co., 2040 West River Drive. 

“A dictionary and almanacs provided inspiration for the writing on 
the tablets,” he said. “A janitor at the Academy admitted carving 
various Indian pipes, which also were found in the mound,” McKusick 
said. “They were soaked in grease or rubbed with shoe black to make 
them look old.” Two members of the academy were expelled in the 
ruckus that followed the claims of fraud but a curious sidelight to the 
controversy lies in the fact that none of the participants ever admitted in 
writing that they actually forged the tablets. All were under threat of 
libel at the time. The closest thing to a confession in McKusick’s book 
is a statement by Judge James Bellinger made in 1947 to a Mr. Irving 
Hurlbut. In it, Bellinger tells of copying hieroglyphics out of old 
almanacs on slate he tore off the wall of the Old Slate House. 

The story becomes suspect, however, when McKusick points out that 
Bellinger was only 9 years old at the time the tablets were found. 
“Whatever the judge may have said, he was nowhere near the scene of 
the events he so vividly describes,” McKusick wrote. 


In his report to Science McKusick says of the Fell book: “It is an 
unfortunate imposition upon a gullible public to have the Davenport 
frauds accepted as genuine and used to explain Egyptian explorations 
up the Mississippi 3,000 years ago. 

“Fell, as a ‘Harvard scholar,’ has a scholarly responsibility to know 
the professional literature on subjects he is publishing theories about. 
His book, America B.C., is irresponsible amateurism and is 


unfortunately but one example of a genre of speculation that is growing 
and sells well to the public.” 

“Modern technology may provide the means for resolving the issue 
of whether one or all of the tablets are fake,” says Dr. Duane Anderson, 
who succeeded McKusick as state archeologist. “If the tablets could be 
submitted to a rigorous microscopic examination, it might be possible 
to determine that the writing is older than a mere 100 years,” Anderson 
said. “Rock ages, and often a patina, or microscopic crust, develops on 
the surface. It might also be possible to detect traces of modern steel if 
the incisions were made with modern instruments,” he said. Anderson 
continued, “But they might at least be able to reveal if the writing was 
done before 1877.” 

Anyone wishing to make such an examination will have to secure the 
cooperation of the Putnam Museum, which is the present custodian of 
the tablets. Museum Director Joseph Cartwright has steadfastly refused 
access to the tablets, saying they have “been removed from the museum 

“We are not anxious to dig up the whole controversy again,” he said 
in a recent telephone interview. “It is not in the museum’s interest to 
make them available. This is something the museum is not interested 
in.” Asked if it might not be interesting for the public to put the tablets 
on display in view of the present renewal of the controversy, 
Cartwright replied, “It is our prerogative to decide, not yours.” 


Evidence of writing and hieroglyphs has been found all over the 
country, attesting to widespread trade and wide-ranging cultural 
influences. Many examples have been found in Michigan, including the 
controversial Michigan tablets, which number in the thousands. Many 
more finds of writing have been discovered across the country, 
although many, like the Ten Commandments from Ohio and the 
Michigan and Illinois tablets, are still under hot dispute. Here are two 
finds from Michigan and Kentucky that appear genuine. 





The mounds on the south side of Crystal Lake, in Montcalm County, 
Michigan, have been opened and a prehistoric race unearthed. One 
contained five skeletons and the other three. In the first mound was an 
earthen tablet five inches long, four wide, and half as much thick. It 
was divided into four corners. On one of them were inscribed queer 
characters. The skeletons were arranged in the same relative positions, 
so far as the record is concerned. 

In the other mound, there was a casket of earthen ware ten and one 
half inches long and three and a half inches wide. The cover bore 
various inscriptions. The characters found upon the tablet were also 
prominent on the casket. Upon opening the casket, a copper coin was 
revealed, together with several stone types, with which the inscriptions 
or casket had evidentially been made. There were also two pipes—one 
of stone, the other of pottery and apparently of the same material as the 


_ SOCIETY, FEBRUARY 11, 1880 _ 

Craig Crecelius made a curious discovery in 1912, while plowing his 
field in Meade County, Kentucky. He had unearthed a limestone slab 
that had strange symbols chiseled onto the rock face. Knowing that he 
had made an important historical find, he sought information about the 
origins of the stone from the academics. 

For over 50 years, Crecelius inquired of anyone with academic 
credentials about the significance of the carved symbols. Typical of the 
comments he received from the “experts” were like what one geologist 
in 1973 remarked that the rock was “geologic in origin” and “not an 
artifact.” An archaeologist has said that the carvings were grooves 
created by shifting limestone pressures. 

Disheartened and tired of being made fun of by the locals, Crecelius 
finally gave up his quest for finding out the rock’s secrets. In the 
midl960s, he allowed Jon Whitfield, a former trustee of the Meade 


County, Kentucky, Library, to display the stone in the Brandenburg 
Library. This could very well have been the end of the story, had it not 
been for the observant Mr. Whitfield. 

Whitfield attended a meeting of the Ancient Kentucky Historical 
Society (AKHS) and saw slides of other, similar-looking carved stones. 
He learned that the carvings were a script called Coelbren, used by the 
ancient Welsh. Whitfield was informed that similar stones had been 
widely found across the south-central part of the U.S. Pictures made of 
the Brandenburg Stone were submitted to two Welsh historians helping 
the AKHS in deciphering the scripts. 

Alan Wilson and Baram Blackett, specialists in the study of the 
Coelbren script in Wales, immediately were able to read the script. The 
translation is intriguing; it appears that the stone may possibly have 
been a property or boundary marker: “Toward strength, divide the land 
we are spread over, purely between offspring in wisdom.” 

Wilson and Blackett place a connotation of the promotion of unity 
with the phrase “Toward strength” and a connotation of justice with the 
word “purely.” The stone was on public display from 1999-2000 at the 
Falls of the Ohio State Park Interpretive Center in Clarksville, Indiana. 
The display has since been moved to the Charlestown Public Library, 
Clark County, Indiana. 


Scattered reports of ancient coins found buried around the country are 
usually dismissed as fraudulent by traditional archaeologists, but in the 
collection of stories that follow, one outlines a circumstance where the 
difficulty of creating a hoax belies that idea, while others tell of quite 
recent finds that have been authenticated by ancient coin experts. 

The following first-person account of the discovery of two ancient 
coins is very instructive. The coins were found underneath the roots of 
a beech tree that had been blown up in order to clear a field. This is not 
something that could be done as a prank, as the entire operation would 
have been costly and pointless in the extreme. 

The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee, 1823 

By Dr. John Haywood 


A Copper Medal of King Richard III Found 

Between the years of 1802 and 1809, in the state of Kentucky, 
Jefferson County, on Big Grass Creek, which runs into the Ohio 
River at Louisville, at the upper end of the falls, about ten miles 
above the mouth, near Middleton, Mr. Spear found under the roots 
of a beech tree, which had been blown up, two pieces of copper 
coin of the size of our old copper pence. On one side was 
represented an eagle with three heads united to one neck. The 
sovereign princes of Greece wore on their scepters the figure of a 
bird and often that of an eagle. Possibly this may have been a coin 
uttered in the time of the three Roman emperors. 

Lately, a Cherokee Indian delivered to Mr. Dwyer, in the year 
1822, who delivered to Mr. Earle, a copper medal, nearly or quite 
the size of a dollar. All around it, on both sides was a raised rim. 
On the one side is the robust figure of a man, apparently of the age 
of 40, with a crown upon his head, buttons upon his coat, and a 
garment flowing from a knot on his shoulder, toward and over the 
lower part of his breast, his hair short and curled; his face full; his 
nose aquiline, very prominent and long, the tip descending very 
considerably below the nostril; his mouth wide; the chin long, and 
the lower part very much curved, and projected outwards. Within 
the rim, which is on the margin, and just below it in Roman letters, 
are the words and figures: “Richardus III. DG. ANG. FR. Et HIB. 
Rex.” The letters are none of them at all worn. Both the letters and 
figures protuberated from the surface. On the other side is a 
monument with a female figure reclined on it, her knees a little 
raised, with a crown upon them, and in her left hand a sharp 
pointed sword. Underneath the monument are the words: “Coronat 
6h Jul, 1483.” And under that line: “Mort 22 Aug. 1485.” 

Of Their Coins and Other Metals 

About the year 1819, in digging a cellar at Mr. Norris’s, in 
Fayetteville, on Elk river, which falls into Tennessee, and about 
two hundred yards from a creek, which empties into Elk, and not 
far from the ruins of a very ancient fortification on the creek, was 
found a small piece of silver coin of the size of a nine-penny piece. 

On the one side of this coin is the image of an old man projected 


considerably from the superficies with a large Roman nose, his 
head covered apparently with a cap of curled hair; and on this side 
on the edge in old Roman letters, not so neat by far as on our 
modern coins, are the words: “Antoninus Aug: Pius. PP. RI. Ill 

On the other side the projected image of a young man, 
apparently 18 or 20 years of age; and on the edge: Juleiius Ceasar. 
AL/GP, 111.cos.” It was coined in the third year of the reign of 
Antoninus, which was in the year of our Lord 137, and must in a 
few years afterwards have been deposited where it was lately 
found. The prominent images are not in the least impaired, nor in 
any way defaced, nor made dim or dull by rubbing with other 
money; neither are the letters on the edges. It must have lain in the 
place where lately found, 1500 or 1600 years. 

For had it first circulated a century, before it was laid up, the 
worn-off parts of the letters and images would be observable. It 
was found five feet below the surface. The people living upon Elk 
River when it was brought into the country had some production of 
art, or of agriculture, for which this coin was brought to the place, 
to be exchanged. It could not have been brought by De Soto, for 
long before his time it would have been defaced and made smooth 
by circulation; and, besides, the crust of the earth would not have 
been increased to the depth of five feet in 177 years, the time 
elapsed since De Soto passed between the Alabama and the 
Tennessee, to the Mississippi. 

Irrefutable Proof of Commerce by Sea 

This coin furnishes irrefragable proof of one very important fact; 
namely, that there was an intercourse, either by sea or by land, 
between the ancient inhabitants of Elk River, and the Roman 
Empire in the time of Antoninus, or soon afterwards; or between 
the ancient Elkites, and some other nation, who had such 
intercourse with it. Had a Roman fleet been driven by a storm, in 
the time of Antoninus, on the American shores, the crews, even if 
they came to land all at the same place, would not have been able 
to penetrate to Elk river, nor would any discoverable motive have 
engaged them to do so. 


And again: Roman vessels, the very largest in the Roman fleet of 
that day, were not of structure and strength sufficient to have lived 
in a storm of such violence and long continuance in the Atlantic 
ocean, as was necessary to have driven them from Europe to 
America. Nor are storms in such directions and of such 
continuance at all usual. Indeed, there is no instance of any such, 
which has occurred since the European settlements in America. 

The people of Elk in ancient times did probably extend their 
commerce down the rivers that Elk communicated with; or if 
directly over land to the ocean, they were not impeded by small, 
independent tribes between them and the ocean but were part of an 
empire extended to it. A thick forest of trees, not more than 6 or 8 
years ago, grew upon the surface where the coin was found, many 
of which could not be of more recent commencement than 300 or 
400 years; a plain proof that the coin was not of Spanish or French 

Besides this coin impressed with the figures of Antoninus and 
Aurelius, another was also found in a gully washed by torrents 
about two and a half miles from Fayetteville, where the other coin 
was found. It was about four feet below the surface. The silver was 
very pure, as was also the silver of the other piece; evidently much 
more so than the silver coins of the present day. 

The letters are rough. Some of them seem worn. On the one side 
is the image of a man, in high relief, apparently of the age of 25 or 
30. And on the coin, near the edge were these words and letters: 
Commodus. The C is defaced, and hardly visible. AVG. HEREL, 
on the other side, f E. IMP. III. cos. H. PP. Oa rx. This latter side 
also is the figure of a woman, with a hoop in her right hand. She is 
seated in a square box; on the inside of which, touching each side, 
and resting on the ground, is a wheel. Her left arm, from the 
shoulder to the elbow, lies by her side, but from the elbow is raised 
a little above the top: and across a small distaff, proceeding from 
the hand, is a handle to which is added a trident with the teeth or 
prongs parallel to each other. It is supposed that Faustina, the 
mother of Commodus, who was defied after her death by her 
husband Marcus Aurelius, with the attributes of Venus, Juno, and 
Ceres, is represented by this figure. 


The neck of Commodus is bare, with the upper part of his robes 
flowing in gatherings from the lower part of the neck. His head 
seemed to be covered with a cap of hair curled into many small 
knots, with a white fillet around it, near its edges, and the temples 
and forehead, with two ends falling some distance from the knot. 
Commodus reigned with his father, Marcus Aurelius, from the 
time he was 14 or 15 years of age, until the latter died, in the year 
of our Lord 180. From that time he reigned alone, until the 31st of 
December, 192, when he was put to death. 



Also from Haywood’s book, here is a separate report from Lincoln, 
Tennessee, which is about eleven miles from the Fayetteville site, in 
which a silver medallion was discovered with the image of a deer being 
chased by a hound engraved on one side. More than thirty-five similar 
medallions were plowed up three miles from this site on a farm owned 
by a Mr. Oliver Williams. 

The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee, 1823 
By Dr. John Haywood 

Lincoln County, in West Tennessee, is eleven miles from 
Fayetteville, where the Roman coin above mentioned was found, 
and near to the mouth of Cold water creek, and about 600 yards 
distant from the river. The button is about the size of a half dollar 
in circumference and is of the intrinsic value of little more than 
37.1 cents. The silver is very pure. The button is convex with the 
representation of a deer engraved on it and a hound in pursuit. The 
eye of the button appears to be as well soldered as though it had 
been effected by some of our modern silversmiths. 

It was in the spring of 1819 when the first discovery of this 
button was made. On the opposite side of the river is an 
entrenchment, including a number of mounds. Mr. Oliver Williams 
lives within three miles of this place and says that during the year 
1819 one dozen of the like buttons were ploughed up; and that for 
every year since, more or fewer of them have been found; the 
whole amounting to about three dozen. Upon all of them the device 


is that above stated. These buttons have been found promiscuously, 
at the depth to which the plough generally penetrates into the earth, 
or from 9 to 12 inches. The field in which the buttons were found 
contains from 60 to 70 acres of land. Trees lately grew upon it, 
before the land was cleared, from 4 to 5 feet in diameter. The 
country around is rather hilly than otherwise. 

An Ancient Furnace Is Discovered 

As to other metals found in Tennessee, there is this fact: In the 
month of June, in the year 1794, in the county of Davidson, on 
Manscoe’s creek, at Manscoe’s Lick, on the creek, which runs 
through the lick, a hole or well was dug by Mr. Cafftey, who, at the 
distance of 5 or 6 feet through black mud and loose rocks found 
the end of a bar of iron, which had been cut off by a cleaving iron, 
and had also been split lengthwise. A small distance from that, in 
yellow clay, 18 inches under the surface, was a furnace full of 
coals and ashes. 

Another fact evinces most clearly, the residence of man in West 
Tennessee in very ancient times, who knew how to forge metals, 
make axes and other metallic tools and implements, and probably 
also the art of fusing ore and of making iron or hardened copper, 
such as have been long used in Chile by the natives. It also fixes 
such residence to a period long preceding that at which Columbus 
discovered America. 

In the county of Bedford, in West Tennessee, northeast from 
Shelbyville, and seventeen miles from it, on the waters of the 
Garrison fork, one of the three forks of Duck river, on McBride’s 
branch, in the year 1812, was cut down a poplar tree five feet some 
inches in diameter. It was felled by Samuel Pearse, Andrew Jones, 
and David Dobbs, who found within two or three inches of the 
heart, in the curve made by the ax cut into the tree, the old chop of 
an ax, which of course must have been made when the tree was a 
sapling not more than three inches in diameter. 

Of 400 years of age when cut down, it must have been 70 when 
Columbus discovered America, and 118 when De Soto marched 
through Alabama. If the chop was made by an ax, which the 
natives obtained from him, it must have been made since the 


commencement of 282 years from this time; and a poplar sapling 
of three inches in diameter could not be more than 8 or 10 years of 
age; making the whole age of the tree, to the time it was cut down, 
about 300 years in which time a tree of that size could not probably 
have grown. 

Brass Coin with Minerva on It 

Two pieces of brass coin were found in the first part of the year 
1823, two miles and a half from Murfreesborough, in an easterly 
direction from thence. Each of them had a hole near the edge. 
Their size was about that of a nine-penny silver piece of the 
present time. The rim projected beyond the circle, as if it had been 
intended to clip it. 

On the obverse, was the figure in relief of a female, full faced, 
steady countenance, rather stern than otherwise; with a cap or 
helmet on the head, upon the top of which was a crescent 
extending from the forehead backwards. In the legend was the 
word Minerva; on the reverse was a slim female figure, with a 
ribbon in her left hand, which was tied to the neck of a slim, neatly 
formed dog that goes before her, and in the other a bow. 

Amongst the letters of the legend in the reverse, are SL. After the 
ground, which covered this coin, had been for some years cleared 
and ploughed, it was enclosed in a garden on the summit of a small 
hill; and in digging there, these pieces were found eighteen inches 
under the surface. 

A Brief History of Ancient Coinage 

There are no Assyrian or Babylonian coins; nor is there any 
Phoenician one till 400 before Christ. Sidon and Tyre used 
weights. Coinage was unknown in Egypt in early times. The 
Lydian coins are the oldest. The Persian coins began 570 before 
Christ. The darics were issued by Darius Hystaspes 518 or 521 
before Christ. Roman coins have been found in the Orkneys, and in 
the remotest parts of Europe. Romans have three heads upon the 
side, as that of Valerian and his two sons, Gallienus and Valerian. 

On the Roman coins are figures of deities and personifications, 
which are commonly attended with their names; Minerva, for 
instance, with her helmet and name inscribed in the legend. 


sometimes a spear in her right hand, and shield, with Medusa’s 
head, in the other, and an owl standing by her, and sometimes a 
cock and sometimes the olive. Diana is manifest by her crescent, 
by her bow and quiver on one side, and often by her hounds. The 
Roman brass coins have SC. for senatus consultam, till the time of 
Gallienus, about the year of our Lord 260. The small brass coins 
ceased to be issued for a time in the reign of Pertinax, 19 CE, and 
from thence to the time of Valerian. Small brass coins continued 
from the latter period till 640 CE. Some coins are found with holes 
pierced through them, and sometimes with small brass strings 

Earliest Roman Coins Date Back to Antoninus 

Such were worn as ornaments of the head, neck, and wrist, either 
by the ancients themselves, as bearing images of favorite deities, or 
in modern times when the Greek girls thus decorated themselves. 
From these criteria it may be determined, that these metals are not 
counters but coins. Of all the Roman coins that have been found in 
Tennessee and Kentucky, the earliest bears date in the time of 
Antoninus, the next in the time of Commodus, the next before the 
elevation of Pertinax, and the last in the time of Valerian. Coins 
prior or subsequent to the space embraced in these periods are not 
found; and from hence the conclusion seems to be furnished, that 
they were brought into America within one or two centuries at 
furthest, after the latter period, which is about the year of our Lord 
354, and thence to 260; and by a people who had not afterwards 
any intercourse with the countries in which the Roman coins 

One of these pieces was stained all over with a dark color 
resembling that of pale ink, which possibly is the verugo peculiar 
to that metal, which issued from it after lying in a dormant state for 
a great length of time, and which thus preserved it from decay. The 
legend on the reverse, on the lower part, below a line across are the 
letters “EL. SL. RECHP.—ENN.” 

The author, since writing the above, has seen another coin of the 
same metal precisely, which seems to be a mixture of silver and 
brass. Upon it, on one side, is the figure of a man’s face; and in the 


legend, LEOPOL. DG. IMP. On the other, under a mark or cross: 
El. SL.; also, the sun at the top; and in the legend, only a 
contraction of those in the larger piece, namely, RL. C. PERNN. 

This, then, is a German coin of modern date. 


In 1997, the Ohio Museum took possession of a cache of Roman coins 
that was originally discovered in 1963 by a construction engineer 
excavating on the north shore of the Ohio River during construction of 
the Sherman Minton Bridge. Coin experts have examined these Roman 
coins and declared them to be authentic. 

Fig. 9.8. Claudius II (left), Maximinus II (right) (courtesy of Troy McCormick) 

The discoverer kept most of the hoard for himself but gave two of 
the coins to another engineer on the project. In 1997 the second 
engineer’s widow brought these two to Troy McCormick, then manager 
of the new Falls of the Ohio State Park Interpretive Center in 


Clarksville, Indiana, not far from the find site. She donated them to the 
museum, where they remain today. 

The larger coin has been identified by both Mark Lehman, president 
of Ancient Coins for Exploration, and Rev. Stephen A. Knapp, senior 
pastor at St. John Lutheran Church, Forest Park, Illinois, and a 
specialist in late Roman bronze coinage, as a follis of Maximinus II 
from 312 or 313 CE, despite McCormick’s original identification of the 
coin as a 235 CE bronze of Maximinus I. 

The coin of Claudius II is similar in type and period to the recently 
discovered Roman coins from Breathitt County, Kentucky, but is in a 
much better state of preservation. The latter coin makes this find 
several decades later than the Severian Period (193 to 235 CE), to 
which the Roman head from Calixtlahuaca, Mexico, has been attributed 
on stylistic grounds. Unfortunately, the discoverer moved south to work 
on another bridge shortly after the find, and the second engineer’s 
widow could not remember his name, so the bulk of the hoard is lost. 

For several years, the Falls of the Ohio State Park Interpretive Center 
had an exhibit about the find that displayed several casts of both sides 
of the two originals, so as to reflect the approximate number of coins 
originally in the hoard. The two original coins, depicted in fig. 9.8 (see 
above) are in storage and were not on public display. In February 2012, 
I was informed that the replicas were still on display, despite an earlier 
report to the contrary, in the Interpretive Center as part of the Myths 
and Legends exhibit, and that they will remain there at least into 2014. 

Recently, three more heavily weathered Roman coins found in 
Breathitt County were examined hands-on by Norman Totten, professor 
of history, now professor emeritus, at Bentley College. Totten 
identified the two thinner coins as antoniniani, a type of bronze Roman 
coin minted between 238 and 305 CE. The obverses depict an 
unidentifiable emperor wearing the distinctive “solar crown” of the 
period. The reverse of one coin depicts two figures standing facing 
what apparently is a central altar, while that of the second coin depicts 
a female standing figure facing left with a cornucopia in her right hand. 

These would originally have had a silver surface, which is long since 
gone. The third coin is thicker and depicts a bust facing right and 
wearing a laureate wreath rather than a crown. The reverse, according 
to Totten, is perhaps a figure of a centaur walking to the right and 


looking back. Its flan (the metal disk from which the coin is made) 
seems to be of a North African (Egyptian) or Middle Eastern type. This 
coin probably dates to a similar period to that of the two antoniniani 
(the singular of which is antoninianus). 





Mummies of ancient Caucasian giants with red hair have been found in 
startlingly diverse areas of the country, from Florida to Nevada. Along 
with these finds ample evidence of sophisticated culture, such as fine 
weavings, has also been found. Then there are the members of North 
Dakota’s Mandan tribe, long known from the earliest days for their red 
hair and blue eyes. Perhaps the magnitude of the mystery they represent 
has been partially responsible for the lack of general knowledge about 
them, or has it been because of definite attempts at suppression of 
evidence that flouts all previous theories about origins? 


What do you think the international reaction would be to news that 
mummies were found in Egypt that predated the earliest ones ever 
discovered there by more than five thousand years? Surely it would be 
front-page news from one end of the planet to the other. Yet news that 
two 9,500-year-old mummies were found in America has elicited 
barely a whisper. You may think this is impossible or that I’m referring 
to some discredited rumor, but the truth could not be clearer or more 

It turns out that the original discovery was made in 1940, and it has 
taken more than sixty years to come to light. Perhaps the only reason 
the public is now belatedly finding out about this earth-shattering 
discovery is the fact that the remains were not turned over to the 
Smithsonian, but kept instead by the Nevada State Museum. The 
original find in 1940 of two amazingly well-preserved mummies was 
made by Sydney and Georgia Wheeler, a husband and wife 
archaeological team working for the Nevada State Parks division, who 
were commissioned to study the archaeological effects that guano 
mining was having on any possible historical remains to be found in the 


arid caves scattered across the Nevada wastelands. (Bat guano is mined 
because it contains saltpeter, which is used to make fertilizer and is the 
main ingredient of gunpowder.) 

The site was appropriately called Spirit Cave, and it is located 
thirteen miles east of Fallon, Nevada. In order to find the mummies and 
the sixty-seven related artifacts associated with the burial, the Wheelers 
had to dig through several feet of guano droppings that covered the 
base of the cave and preserved what lay underneath. The two human 
mummies were expertly wrapped in a highly sophisticated weaving 
made of tule matting that exhibited extremely fine knotting and hand 
weaving not thought to exist until thousands of years later. Because the 
mummies were sealed in bat guano the weavings are extremely well 
preserved, and they are arguably the greatest evidence of ancient 
weaving in the world, yet close to nothing is generally known about 



The male mummy was in better condition and was found lying on a fur 
blanket, dressed in a twisted skin robe with leather moccasins on its 
feet and a twined mat sewn around its head and shoulders. A similar 
mat was wrapped around the lower portion of the body and bound 
under the feet. Skin remained on the back and shoulders as well as a 
small tuft of straight dark hair, which changed to reddish-brown when 
exposed to light and air. The age of the mummy was estimated at forty- 
five years and its height well in excess of six feet. 

The original dig in 1940 was led by the Wheelers with the help of 
local residents, and the two mummies and sixty-seven related objects 
were taken to the Nevada State Museum, where they were examined 
and dated at between 1,500 and 2,000 years old. They were then 
transported to the museum’s storage facility in Carson City and 
promptly forgotten about. In 1996 the mummies came to the attention 
of Erv Taylor, an anthropologist at the University of California, 
Riverside, who decided that new breakthroughs in mass spectrometry 
dating could reveal the true age of the mummies, especially in light of 
the extremely good condition of the tule diamond-plaited matte 
wrappings and the excellent preservation of the mummified bones and 


associated assorted relics. 

One can only imagine Taylor’s stunned reaction when the results 
came in. The mummies were dated to 9,400 before the present, in what 
is scientifically referred to as uncalibrated radio-carbon years before 
present (URCYP)—11.5 KYA. 

Yet instead of this momentous news shattering the world of 
archaeology to its very roots, the Bureau of Land Management stepped 
into the breach and shut down all news of the discovery in 1997 when it 
ruled in favor of a claim by the Paiute-Shoshone tribe of Fallon, 
Nevada, that the bones belonged to them by rights of the Native 
American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). 

Although no DNA testing was allowed at the time of Taylor’s dating, 
the Paiute-Shoshone tribe’s claim held until pressure from the academic 
community forced the courts to reconsider the claims of the Bureau of 
Land Management related to the Indian ancestral claims. In 2006, the 
courts overturned the findings of the bureau and the Paiute-Shoshone 
tribe and allowed DNA testing of the mummy by Douglas W. Owsley, 
division head of Physical Anthropology at the Smithsonian’s National 
Museum of Natural History, and Richard L. Jantz, an anthropology 
professor at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The tests revealed 
that the mummy was of a Caucasian origin, with a long face and 
cranium that most closely resembled either Nordic or Ainu ancestry 
and bore no ancestral relationship to either the Paiute or Shoshone 
tribes. Although these findings were made public and extensively 
covered by the local media, this groundbreaking news has received 
barely a glimmer of attention in the outside world. 

In order to put this find in its proper context and understand the other 
related and equally amazing finds in this part of the western United 
States, it is imperative that we reconstruct the local topography of this 
area as it existed ten thousand years ago. Although this knowledge 
should be commonplace to most schoolchildren, the true map of ancient 
America remains a complete mystery to most all its citizens. 

As it turns out, much like the Sahara region prior to 6000 BCE, the 
western United States prior to the gigantic Lassen volcanic explosion, 
posited at some time around 5000 BCE, was home to one of the biggest 
freshwater lakes in the world and contained a lush biodiversity that one 
geologist has characterized as abundant in every respect, perhaps the 


lushest in the world at that time, with every kind of plant and animal 
necessary for human life. The area of this ancient lake was immense, 
covering approximately 8,500 square miles in the northeast section of 
Nevada, bordering on California and Oregon. 

Its name is Lake Lahonton, and at its peak around eleven thousand 
years ago it was almost one thousand feet deep in places and was fed 
by the Humboldt, Walker, Truckee, and Carson River systems. 
Remnants of the dried-out lake can be seen at Pyramid Lake, Lake 
Russell, and Lake Tahoe. At its peak the lake’s resting waterline was at 
approximately 5,200 feet, and consequently many of the finds around 
its ancient shoreline are found at least at that height. 

The Lenni Lenape Indians on the East Coast of America report that 
they originally lived in the West until their world was destroyed by fire 
and they were forced to migrate to the other side of the Mississippi 
River in search of food and shelter. When we understand that these 
desert regions were once home to abundant life, the other related 
prehistoric archaeological finds in this area become understandable and 
even expected, as we are no longer looking at isolated desert remains 
devoid of logic and contextual understanding. 

Fig. 10.1. Ice age lakes in the Southwestern United States, with Red Rock Pass 
located on the north side of Lake Bonneville (courtesy of Ken Perry) 




In light of this, the equally amazing finds at Lovelock Cave, eighty 
miles east of Reno, should come as no surprise. Once again we are 
dealing with a guano-filled cave on the shoreline of Lake Lahonton, in 
an area called the Great Basin, only this time the original find was 
made in 1911 and involved considerably more bodies and artifacts that, 
because of their highly unusual nature, are routinely criticized and 
dismissed by mainstream archaeology to this day, although the related 
finds at Spirit Cave should change all of the doubters’ minds, especially 
as the reality of Lake Lahonton’s Great Basin culture becomes more 
well known and accepted. 

Quite simply what we are dealing with here is what the popular press 
at the time called “red-haired giants,” which immediately roused the 
hackles of mainstream academia and caused them to immediately 
sweep the whole unpleasant subject under the rug. Fortunately for us, 
the skeletons and artifacts were not sent to the Smithsonian, and 
although many of the pieces have disappeared from the historical 
record, some can still be found in local universities and museums in the 


The Paiute Indians have a legend about their ancestors and red-haired 
giants. These giants, known as the Si-Te-Cah, were a red-haired tribe of 
cannibals who lived near the Paiutes, often harassed them with constant 
war and occasionally captured victims to eat. Eventually the various 
Paiute groups had had enough and decided to band together to eradicate 
the Si-Te-Cah (translated as “tule eaters”). Legend has it that the 
Paiutes cornered the giants and forced them underground, into a cave 
system, piled brush over the entrance, and set it on fire with flaming 
arrows, extinguishing the Si-Te-Cah for good. 

Modern historians and anthropologists have dismissed this legend as 
fantasy and allegorical myth, but others have claimed that 
archaeological finds indicate otherwise. Could there really have been a 
race of Caucasoid giants that inhabited North America before the 
Native Americans? Are the artifacts discovered in Lovelock Cave proof 
that history is wrong, or are they just another hoax? 


Lovelock Cave first caught the attention of archaeologists in 1924, 
thirteen years after miners began harvesting the several-foot-thick layer 
of bat guano that had built up on the cave floor. The miners continued 
to dig until sifting out the ancient relics beneath the top layer of bat 
guano became too much hassle. They notified the University of 
California about their finds, and the excavation began. 


Fig. 10.2. These skulls were photographed at the Humboldt Museum in 

Winnemucca, Nevada. 


Fig. 10.3. L. L. Loud of the Paleontology Department of the University of California 
removes the famous duck decoys from Lovelock Cave. 

Among the artifacts found were woven cloth, tools, duck decoys (for 
hunting), inscribed stones, and supposedly, very tall red-haired 
mummies. Thousands of pieces were found discarded outside the cave 
after being separated from the guano. Most of the nonhuman artifacts 
can be found in local museums or at the University of California 
Museum of Paleontology in Berkeley, but the mysterious bones and 
mummies are not so easy to come by. The artifacts themselves prove 
that an advanced culture did indeed predate the Paiute Indians, but 
whether the legend of red-haired giants is historically accurate remains 

What is significant to note is that the scientific community has 
assiduously scrubbed all references to the six- to eight-foot-tall, red- 
haired skeletons found at the site. As will be seen, this repeated effort 
to clear the historical record of all references to a pre-Indian Caucasian 
culture in the United States can be seen as working in harmony with the 


NAGPRA policies of the federal government, which works on agendas 
based on political correctness and not objective science. 

Fig. 10.4. A view from the mouth of Lovelock Cave 


Fig. 10.5. Heads of the exquisite tule-wrapped duck decoys from Lovelock Cave 

Fig. 10.6. Examples of the fine workmanship found in association with the 

Lovelock Cave burials 


Fig. 10.7. Normal-size teeth compared with a giant jaw from Lovelock Cave 

Lovelock Cave, or Horseshoe Cave, as it was then known, was 
originally mined for fertilizer in 1911 by two miners named David 
Pugh and James Hart, who were hired to mine for bat guano from the 
cave, to be later used as gun powder and fertilizer. They removed a 
layer of guano estimated to be from three to six feet deep and weighing 
about 250 tons. The guano was dug up from the upper cave deposits, 
screened on the hillside outside the cave, and shipped to a fertilizer 
company in San Francisco. The miners had dumped the top layers into 
a heap outside of the cave. They were aware of the presence of some 
ancient artifacts, but only the most interesting specimens were saved. 
As the finds began to accumulate, L. L. Loud of the Paleontology 
Department at the University of California was contacted by the mining 
company, and in the spring of 1912 he arrived to recover any materials 
that remained from the guano mining of the previous year. Loud also 
excavated Lovelock Cave for five months and reportedly collected 
roughly ten thousand material remains. The majority of the finds were 
made in refuse pits inside and outside the cave, but the University of 
California alleges that no comprehensive lists of the skeletons and 
artifacts that were found were ever made, which is quite unusual and 
not in keeping with the protocol of the day. 


What was reported at the time was that in addition to the thousands 
of artifacts, mummies similar to the ones found at Spirit Cave were, in 
fact, unearthed. The mummies were reported as being from six to eight 
feet tall with red hair and lying some four feet under the surface of the 

Twelve years after the first excavation, in the summer of 1924, Loud 
returned to Lovelock Cave with M. R. Harrington of the Museum of the 
American Indian. It was at this time that the most famous Lovelock 
artifacts were found, the amazing cache of eleven duck decoys that 
attests to the lake culture that predominated in this region. These 
amazing artifacts were made from bundled tule, which the Lake 
Lahonton culture used much like papyrus for clothing, boats, and 
artistic and religious objects. The decoys were painted and feathered, 
and despite their rich cultural and artistic importance, again, for 
unknown reasons, neither the Museum of the American Indian nor the 
Smithsonian nor the American Museum of Natural History accepted 
any of these objects into their collections. 

It was not until 1984 that the duck decoys were properly studied in 
an academic environment. At that time, A. J. T. Tull of the University 
of Arizona, Tucson, conducted the dating of the specimens. Duck 
Decoy 13/4513 was dated at 2,080 + 330 BP, and Duck Decoy 
13/4512B was dated at 2,250 + 230 BCE. In addition to these duck 
decoys, a wide range of other materials has been recovered that 
includes slings, nets, sandals, tunics, and baskets. Not only are these 
items not on general public display, they also have never been tested as 
to their antiquity. 


Fig. 10.8. This mummy wrap provides an example of the fine level of weaving 
achieved more than eight thousand years ago. 

Since the scientific community refuses to acknowledge the reality of 
the skeletons found at Lovelock, the site has been dated by studying the 
coprolite droppings found in association with other artifacts on the 
accepted “surface floor” of the cave. Based on those findings it has 


been determined that the tule people had a diet rich in fish and game, 
and the earliest habitation of the cave has been dated to 2580 BCE. 
Since the remains of Spirit Cave were found in the same general area 
and on the shoreline of the same lake, this could mean that as the lake 
shrunk in size, the resident tule culture moved to recently exposed 
caves closer to the new shoreline, or more simply that the cave has 
never been properly studied and more extensive excavations could 
reveal continuous occupation going back at least five thousand more 
years to a date that corresponds to the similar cultural context of the 
findings at Spirit Cave. 

Recently it has been confirmed that four of the ancient skulls 
unearthed at Lovelock Cave are, in fact, in the possession of the 
Humboldt Museum in Winnemucca, Nevada. According to Barbara 
Powell, who is director of the collection, the museum is prohibited by 
the state of Nevada from putting the skulls on public display because 
“the state does not recognize their legitimacy.” They are instead kept in 
the storage room and shown to visitors from all over the world only by 
request. In addition, Powell said that additional bones and artifacts 
were transferred to the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology in 
Berkeley, California, where they are kept but also never put on display. 

Whether the Lovelock Cave mummies ever really existed or were 
deliberately covered up, we may never know. The existing artifacts do 
seem to substantiate the Paiute legend, and evidence of gigantism has 
been discovered, and documented, in other places across the planet. 
The Lovelock Cave claim seems to have all the vital pieces, except for 
the giant mummies themselves. Were they hidden away in some 
warehouse, so humanity wouldn’t see the errors of modern history? Or 
were they the imaginary compilation of an ancient legend and a few 
mysterious bones? 


Fig. 10.9. The Lovelock Cave hugs the Humboldt River 

Fig. 10.10. The entrance to Lovelock Cave can be seen in the upper right-hand 

corner of the photograph. 

If you want to follow the trail and perhaps answer that question, you 


might begin with the PDF file of a document by Loud and Harrington 
titled “Lovelock Cave,” published by the University of California in 
1929. See appendices 3 and 4 for personal accounts of the legends of 
the cave. The investigators at the time did a very good job of analyzing 
what they could of the site. However, at that time knowledge of native 
U.S. archaeology and history was not what it is today, and they had so 
many interesting issues competing for their attention. I only wish the 
site and the legends could be reinvestigated today with open minds and 
that the original artifacts were still available. 

Something to ponder in the meantime is provided by Sarah 
Winnemucca Hopkins, daughter of Paiute Chief Winnemucca, who 
related many stories about the Si-Te-Cah in her book Life Among the 
Paiutes: Their Wrongs and Claims. 

My people say that the tribe we exterminated had reddish hair. I 
have some of their hair, which has been handed down from father 
to son. I have a dress, which has been in our family a great many 
years, trimmed with the reddish hair. I am going to wear it some 
time when I lecture. It is called a mourning dress, and no one has 
such a dress but my family. 



The gigantic skeleton of a man, measuring 8 feet 6 inches in height, 
was found near the Jordan River just outside Salt Lake City, last week. 
The find was made by a workman who was digging an irrigation ditch. 
The skull was uncovered at a depth of eight feet from the surface of the 
ground and the skeleton was standing bolt upright. The workmen had to 
dig down nine feet in order to exhume it. The bones were much 
decayed and crumbled at the slightest touch. They were put together 
with great care and the skeleton was found to measure 8 feet 6 inches in 
height: the skull measured 11 inches in diameter and the feet 19 inches 
long. A copper chain, to which was attached three medallions covered 
with curious hieroglyphics, was found around the neck of the skeleton 
and near it were found a stone hammer, some pieces of pottery, an 
arrowhead, and some copper medals. Archaeologists believe that the 
original owner of the skeleton belonged to the race of mound builders. 



Let’s now turn our attention to the northeast coast of Florida and the 
case of the Florida bog mummies. The original finds were made in 
1982 at Titusville, Florida, when real estate developers Jack Eckerd and 
Jim Swanson began building a road over the one-quarter-acre 
Windover Pond in Brevard County, about five miles from Cape 
Canaveral. When their backhoe operator uncovered several skulls, the 
developers immediately called in local archaeologists to have a look at 
the ancient stained bones that were being uncovered. 

Fig. 10.11. This photo clearly shows the amazing preservation of the bog 
mummies’ knotted red hair. Brain samples were also obtained, confirming a date 
of 7500 BCE (courtesy of Bullenwacher). 

Despite the fact that the state of Florida has a responsibility to test 
finds of this nature, once the state determined that no current murder 
was involved, they refused to pay for proper radiocarbon dating of the 
bones. If not for the largesse and intellectual curiosity of Eckerd and 
Swanson, the age of what has been called “one of the most significant 
archaeological sites ever excavated” may never have been discovered at 

Thankfully, Swanson and Eckerd paid for the radiocarbon dating out 


of their own pockets, and once the results came in, everyone was 
stunned by the findings. 

Despite the fact that two anthropologists, Jerald T. Milanich of the 
University of Florida, Gainesville, and Glen Doran of Florida State 
University, were both apprised of the spectacular findings, no monies 
were allocated to drain the bog pond to see what else was waiting to be 
discovered under several feet of water. In order to facilitate a proper 
excavation, the two developers changed their construction plans and 
even donated $60,000 worth of pumping equipment to see that the pond 
was properly drained. Once again, no state or federal funds were 
forthcoming, and Doran had to spend the next two years securing 
private donations to facilitate the drainage of the pond. 

In 1984, work finally got under way to drain the pond of its six to ten 
feet of water in order to gain access to the bones that were found under 
six feet of peat. All told, the workers had to dig 160 wells, which 
drained more than ten thousand gallons of water a minute, in order to 
finally drain the pond down to its peat base. Once it was drained, 
workers then used picks and shovels to dig into the peat until the ritual 
burials were discovered at the level of six feet under the surface of the 
pond’s bottom bed. One of the head archaeologists on the excavation 
compared digging out the peat to trying to scoop up chocolate pudding 
while bobbing underwater. Due to finances, only half the pond was 
eventually excavated, but what was found was historic. 

All told, the bones of 168 individuals were recovered, ranging in age 
from infants to adults in excess of sixty years of age. That this was an 
official cemetery there can be no doubt, as the heads of all the 
individuals were held down by ritual stakes and the bodies were all laid 
on their left sides with their heads pointing to the west. The oldest 
skeletons were found to be in excess of 8,280 years old, and there was 
evidence of continual use of the burial site for more than one thousand 

Around 8000 BCE the oceans were about three hundred feet lower 
than they are today, and the weather was cooler and less humid than at 
present. Food was plentiful in this heavily forested region of Florida, 
making life good for the people who buried their dead in a shallow 
pond near what is now Titusville. In the shadow of today’s Disney 
World, they hunted white-tailed deer and bobcat among the pine and 


oak trees and fished for bass and sunfish or scooped up turtles, frogs, 
and snakes. 

“They enjoyed a good lifestyle,” said Doran, the Florida State 
University anthropologist who oversaw the Windover Pond excavation, 
which lasted from 1984 to 1986. “Life was a little easier than it even 
may have been a few thousand years later. You had a lot of different 
resources packed pretty densely into this area within a few kilometers 
walk in any direction. Clearly, this was a good place to be.” 

Even more incredible was the state of preservation of the skeletons 
due to being sealed in the acid-neutral peat. In over ninety of the 
skeletons actual brain matter was preserved. This allowed the scientists 
the unprecedented opportunity to test the intact skulls with X-rays, 
computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging 
(MRI). The average height of the inhabitants was between 5'2" and 
5'8", and the bodies were buried within twenty-four to forty-eight hours 
after death, based on the DNA and tissue that was examined. DNA 
testing on the bodies was conducted by Joe Lorenz, and as was the case 
with the skeletons at Spirit Cave in Nevada, the genomes were found to 
contain Haplogroup X, which is a distinct DNA marker, only found in 
Caucasians of generally northern European origin. That these were 
what are called “water burials” is evidenced by the tight textile 
wrapping of the body and the ritual wooden stakes that were used to 
secure the heads and keep the skeletons from floating to the surface. 
The only other evidence for this type of water burial is found in 
northern Europe and most specifically the British Isles. 


Fig. 10.12. This bog mummy from Wales illustrates the remarkable state of 
preservation possible in a bog burial (courtesy of Carlos Munoz-Yague). 

In addition, the textiles found at this site exhibit a high degree of 
weaving sophistication, and like the textiles found at Spirit Cave, they 
fly in face of the general understanding of the weaving techniques at 
that distant date. “To put this into context,” Doran said, “these people 
had already been dead for three thousand or four thousand years before 
the first stones were laid for the Egyptian pyramids!” 


Fig. 10.13. Col. Bill Royal began diving in the Warm Springs sinkhole in the 1950s 
and almost immediately began finding human skeletal remains. 

Despite the problems associated with gaining the finances to 
excavate this site, they pale in comparison with the problems that have 
been encountered since the passage in 1990 of the NAGPRA federal 
laws, now enforced arbitrarily in defense of Native American tribes’ 
sensibilities regarding extremely ancient skeletons. One of the major 
reasons the discoveries at this site are not better known and the results 
of the Haplogroup X DNA tests are not general knowledge can be laid 
at the door of the NAGPRA restrictions regarding discussion or 


exhibition of any of these ancient finds, as it would be considered 
sacrilege by the local Indian tribes of the area. 

The irony about this slavish obedience to local American Indian 
sensibilities is that at both the Spirit and Lovelock Caves in Nevada and 
the now numerous bog sites in Florida, the Indians’ own native lore 
speaks of the original inhabitants of the area as being white-skinned, 
red-haired giants. 

The vast number of finds at Windover Pond caused archaeologists to 
reappraise other bog and water burial sites found in that area of Florida, 
and what they have found is even more astonishing in terms of dating 
in relation to the original inhabitants. The other Florida bog burial sites 
that are now officially recognized as being from the same general era 
date, incredibly in some cases, to 12,000 BCE and before. The first of 
these burial sites is located on the western coast of Florida, a little over 
midway down the coast, in Little Salt Springs on U.S. Route 41 in 
North Port, Florida, which is located in Sarasota County. In the 1950s, 
scuba divers in the area discovered that this seemingly small freshwater 
pond was actually a sinkhole or cenote that extended more than two 
hundred feet down to its peat moss base. Later underwater mapping 
revealed that the lake was actually forty-five feet deep, and an inverted 
cone shaft dropped vertically from the bottom another 245 feet, and 
that its general shape resembled similar cenotes found in the Yucatan 
peninsula. During unofficial dives in the 1960s and 1970s, bones and 
other human and animal remains were discovered, both in the peat 
moss base and along the sides of the shaft, and in 1979 the pond was 
added to the National Register of Historic Places and in 1982 was 
officially gifted to the University of Miami so that it could be preserved 
and catalogued in proper academic fashion. 

Although bone, wood, stone, and charcoal objects dating from 4000 
to 12,000 BC have been found there, it is the hundreds of human 
burials dating from 3000 to 6000 BCE that are causing controversy at 
the site. Although the site has been in the possession of the University 
of Miami since 1982, it has not been under the supervision of anyone 
from the archaeology department, but instead has been overseen by 
Associate Professor John Gifford of the university’s Rosenstiel School 
of Marine and Atmospheric Science, and it was not until 2009 that the 
William and Marie Selby Loundation donated $100,000 to support 


studying the remains found in the spring in a more comprehensive 
manner, in conjunction with John Francis, vice president of research, 
conservation, and exploration at National Geographic. Although a 
majority of the hundreds of burials have been recovered with brain 
tissue intact, as was the case with the Windover Pond mummies, the 
university alleges that no definitive DNA Haplogroup evidence has 
been obtained so far, which is ridiculous and, if true, argues very badly 
for the scientific reputation of the university. 

Finds similar to those found at Windover Pond and Little Salt 
Springs have also been reported at Bay West in Collier County near 
Naples, on the west coast of Florida, south of Little Salt Springs. The 
bones at this site have been dated to between 4000 and 6000 BCE, and 
despite the fact that the site has been known about for more than thirty 
years, no other information regarding DNA status has so far been 
released. Similar finds in Republic Grove in Hardee County have also 
been found to date between 5,500 and 6,500 years ago. 

In terms of human dating the most spectacular finds in Florida so far 
are those made at Warm Springs, another sinkhole found in the city of 
North Port, on the western coast of Florida. 

Unfortunately for history, the Warm Springs sinkhole was virtually 
stripped bare by amateur divers before the city of North Port in 
Sarasota County finally bought it for $5.5 million at the end of 2010. 
The sinkhole is an hour-glass-shaped structure approximately 250 feet 
deep with a peat moss base like its sister sinkhole in Little Salt Springs, 
which is also in the city of North Port. Scuba divers led by Col. Bill 
Royal began diving in the sinkhole in the 1950s and almost 
immediately began finding human and animal remains, including the 
skeletons of giant ground sloths, saber-toothed tigers, horses, and 
camelids dating up to twelve thousand years old. Unfortunately the site 
was turned into a health spa in the 1960s, and guests were encouraged 
to dive the site and take home any artifacts they found while they were 
exploring underwater. 


Fig. 10.14. This drawing gives you an idea of the different levels of the spring. 

Warm Springs was originally thought to be about thirty to forty feet deep. 

In 1972 Wilburn Cockrell of Florida State University became aware 
of the importance of the site and explored there from 1972 to 1975 and 
again from 1984 to 1986. During that time he reported finding twenty 
skeletons with their skulls held in place with ritual wooden stakes, all 
resting on their left sides with their heads turned to the west in the exact 
same manner as the skeletons found at the adjacent sinkholes in Little 
Salt Springs and Windover Pond. Also consistent with the other finds, 
intact brain matter was also recovered, and radiocarbon dating placed 
the oldest of the skeletons at 9000 BCE. The skeletons on average were 
between 5'6" and 6'2" tall. Cockrell also found a variety of grave goods 
and artifacts and is convinced that this was a major burial ground that at 
one time probably contained thousands of burials and artifacts, which 
were stripped from the site during its history as a recreational diving 
hole. Although intact brain matter has been recovered from the site, 
Florida State University has never released any DNA testing on the 


Haplogroup status of the skeletons in question, but since the burial 
methods are identical to those found at Windover Pond, one can safely 
assume that they are also of Haplogroup X. 



The Mandan Indians are generally found in North Dakota, and since 
their first contact with French explorers in 1738, this blond- and red- 
haired, blue-eyed tribe has been the source of intense speculation as to 
their European origins. In 1796, the Mandans were visited by the Welsh 
explorer John Evans, who was hoping to find proof that their language 
contained Welsh words. Evans had arrived in St. Louis two years prior, 
and after being imprisoned for a year, was hired by Spanish authorities 
to lead an expedition to chart the upper Missouri. Evans spent the 
winter of 1796-1797 with the Mandans but found no evidence of any 
Welsh influence. In July 1797 he wrote to Dr. Samuel Jones, “Thus 
having explored and charted the Missurie for 1,800 miles and by my 
Communications with the Indians this side of the Pacific Ocean from 
35 to 49 degrees of Latitude, I am able to inform you that there is no 
such People as the Welsh Indians.” In 1804, Lewis and Clark spent 
time visiting with the tribe, and it was here that they met Sacagawea, 
who later aided them as a scout and translator. Then, even later, in 
1833, Western artist George Catlin, who was also convinced of their 
European roots, lived with the tribe and painted their village life and 
religious ceremonies. Although traditional archaeologists reject outright 
any European heritage for this mysterious tribe, no definitive 
Haplogroup X testing has ever been done on any of the surviving tribe 
members, and until scientific blood work is performed, all theories as to 
their original origins are purely based on superstition, academic bias, 
and ill-founded opinions. 


The following section regarding the Mandans is from James P. Ronda’s 
book Lewis and Clark among the Indians, a modern telling of Lewis 
and Clark’s explorations that uses their journals to focus on their 
interactions with the various Indian tribes they encountered. 


From Lewis and Clark among the Indians 
By James P. Ronda 

The center of a Mandan village was the sacred cedar post and the 
open plaza around it. The cedar post represented Lone Man, the 
primary Mandan culture hero. On the north edge of the plaza was 
the large medicine or Okipa lodge. Hanging on poles outside the 
Okipa lodge were effigies representing various spirits. The 
Mandan villages seen by Lewis and Clark consisted of about forty 
to fifty domestic lodges arranged around the plaza. The social 
position of each household determined the location of lodges. 
Those families with important ceremonial responsibilities and 
those who owned powerful bundles lived near the plaza while less 
prominent households occupied lodges farther away. Mandan and 
Hidatsa earth lodges were usually occupied for anywhere between 
seven to twelve years. Each lodge housed from five to sixteen 
persons with the average number in a Mandan lodge being ten 
persons. At the time of Lewis and Clark, Mandan and Hidatsa 
villages were defended by log palisades. 

These villages, so familiar from the descriptions of explorers and 
traders like Lewis and Clark and Alexander Henry the Younger 
and nineteenth-century artists like George Catlin and Karl Bodmer, 
were in fact only part of the settled experience of the Upper 
Missouri villagers. They divided their time between large, 
permanent summer lodge towns and smaller winter camps. The 
winter lodges, built in wooded bottoms to escape the harsh winter 
storms, were neither large nor especially well constructed. Lewis 
and Clark did not comment on these winter camps, and it is 
possible that fear of Sioux attack kept many Mandans and Hidatsas 
within the protection of the more substantial summer villages. 
Looking down on the towns from a high riverbank, David 
Thompson was reminded of “so many large hives clustered 
together.” And so must they have seemed to Lewis and Clark 
seven years later. 

Lewis and Clark were not the first white men to see the Mandan 
and Hidatsa villages and their surrounding fields of corn, beans, 
squash, and sunflowers. The first recorded European visit to the 
villages had occurred on the afternoon of December 3, 1738, when 


Pierre Gaultier de Varennes de La Verendrye, accompanied by 
French traders and Assiniboin guides, entered a Mandan “fort” 
near the Heart River. Attracted by tales of fair-skinned, red-haired 
natives who lived in large towns and possessed precious metals, La 
Verendrye had made the long journey from Fort La Reine on the 
Assiniboine River to see those mysterious people. Although La 
Verendrye did not find the fabled white Indians, he did record the 
first European impressions of the Mandan lifeway. That record, 
taken along with evidence preserved from the 1742-43 visit of La 
Verendrye’s sons to the region, offers the picture of prosperous 
earth lodge people living along the Missouri River near the Heart 
and already enjoying French and Spanish goods. 




The Blond-Haired Children of the Nine-Feet-Tall Kings 

The most amazing discoveries in California were eventually found on 
Catalina Island. In the 1920s, the island of Catalina was owned by the 
Wrigley Chewing Gum family, who hired Professor Ralph Glidden, 
curator of the Catalina Museum, to conduct a series of digs on the 
island under the direction of the museum. What they found made 
headlines around the world, only to be written out of the history books 
less than ten years later. In short, Glidden and his team exhumed the 
remains of 3,781 skeletons of a race of blond-haired giants. The tallest 
was believed to be a king who measured nine feet, two inches tall and 
the average height of the skeletons was reported to be around seven 
feet. In addition, the team found the remains of a megalithic 
“Stonehengeera” temple. 

The selected articles below from 1928 to 1930 detail the discoveries 
and demonstrate the excitement about them at the time. 




That a race of magnificent, tall, white Indians once roamed the 
Americas long before the first European sailor crossed the Atlantic has 
been a subject for mild, almost bantering debate among archaeologists. 


None of them took the thing very seriously; it was regarded as 
picturesque legend. But now amazing new discoveries have confirmed 
beyond question that white men had already lived in America for 
centuries when Columbus landed. 



New finds on Catalina Island, off the California coast, overshadow in 
richness and significance most of the archaeological finds of recent 
years. Digging on an outlying part of the island, long the favorite 
location for movie directors, Professor Ralph Glidden, curator of the 
Catalina Museum, has uncovered overwhelming truth that a fair¬ 
skinned, tow-headed, highly intelligent race once lived in the West. 


Glidden’s discovery of a vast cache of skeletons, urns, heads, wampum, 
and domestic utensils, is no ordinary Indian relic find. Not only does it 
reveal the existence of a white race of Indians living in Catalina at least 
3000 years ago, but it poses a tragic mystery. 

Professor Glidden’s first startling find was a huge funeral urn carved 
out of stone and containing the skeleton of a young girl, crouched in an 
upright position within, the finger-bones of her little hand clenched 
over the wampum-inlaid brim. In a circle surrounding the urn were 
interred the bodies of 64 little children in tiers four deep, their little 
heads placed close together. 

Some five feet below the children, was the skeleton of a gigantic 
man: a man measuring seven feet eight inches from the top of the skull 
to the ankle bone. A spear blade was imbedded in the ribs of the left 

There was conclusive evidence—including strands of hair—that all 
these people were blondes. At first these white Indians were thought to 
be albinos. But careful examination proved that they were not, although 
they did possess some albino characteristics. 

One of the curator’s chief problems was to dry the skulls, which he 
found buried in damp sand near the water’s edge. Great care had to be 
taken that they did not crumble when exposed to the air. In the daytime 


he would place them in rows in front of his tent. At night he covered 
them with tarpaulin to keep out the dampness. 

----tP This Girl’s Few Pennies Turned Into $120,000 

RStssflg SSSSn 

• ■ m ■ » — AM MM M 

Fig. 11.1. Just one of many nationally syndicated articles on the incredible finds at 
Catalina Island (Ogden Standard Examiner, November 10, 1929) 



One evening, Philip K. Wrigley of Chicago, whose father, William 
Wrigley Jr., owns Catalina Island, visited the expedition’s leader. 
Wrigley had been on a strenuous wild mountain goat hunt and stopped 
by to ask how Professor Glidden was getting on. 

“Fine,” replied the Professor and pulled away the tarpaulin. The 
revelation was startling: 187 human skulls, staring grimly at Wrigley in 
the moonlight. 

2 inches tali. 

TV* Skfltl** #1 
ft Mta Who Wft* 7 FmI 8 Inch** 
Till Rtpotod B«!«w tbo T#reo 
in Which tkft R*ei«i»u •» 
Children Were Found. 

During expeditiun to tfc8 interior 
of Professor Glicler. collected, 

the skeletons of 3,731 Incians. . The 
largest l.c found was cf a man 9- feet 
Practically all t^e male 
adults were of grlgantic stature, ever* 

Fig. 11.2. During the dig on Catalina Island, Professor Glidden collected the 
skeletons of 3,781 “Indians.” The largest he found was a man nine feet, two 
inches tall. Practically all the male adults were of gigantic stature, averaging 

around seven feet in height. 




Heye Foundation 

Broadway af 155'^ SI New York Gly 

Ralph Glidden, collector 

Fig. 11.3. Professor Ralph Glidden, curator of the Catalina Museum, 1929 





A trail of human sacrifices leading to the temple of the sun god of the 
ancient Channel Island Indians was followed today by Professor Ralph 
Glidden, archaeologist. Three of the four gates of the supposed temple 
of Chinigchinich, that bloody deity of the long ago, have been 
unearthed. A rich reward of relic treasures awaits the third expedition 
in search of the east gate. Glidden is Curator of the Catalina Museum. 
At the north temple gate, Glidden found a large funeral urn 


containing the skeleton of a girl. He believes the girl, a princess from 
the riches of her ornament, was a human sacrifice. The small hands of 
the sacrifice were clutching the rim of the urn. Beneath the urn lay the 
skeletons of 64 children, the heads forming a circle. 

Fig. 11.4. Photograph of artifact from Catalina Island, California, 1932 (courtesy of 
Southwest Museum of the American Indian collection) 



Still deeper in the soil, Glidden found the bones of a man who in life 
measured seven feet, six inches, in height. He had been killed by a 
spear thrust. The first spear head was still imbedded in the chest. Pearl 
pendants, carved eagle claws, little boxes of clam-shell trinkets of 
carved bone and stone, and a jasper knife blade were found with the 


Two Spanish historians who accompanied the expeditions of Don Juan 
Cabrillo and Don Viscaino to Catalina Island in 1542 and 1602, have 
left vivid word-pictures of the Indians they found there. Both Father 
Torquemada and Father Geronimo de Zarate Zalmeron saw the Temple 
of Chinigchinich. 


At that early time the Temple consisted of a large circle of upright 
stones, similar to the Druid temple at Stonehenge, England. The stones 
were believed to point to the sun at midday. The circle of upright 
monoliths enclosed the hideous idol of the Sun God. This idol bore 
some resemblance to the images found by the Spaniards in the Aztec 
temples of Mexico. Thousands of artifacts have been unearthed by 
Glidden. “They show,” he says, “a high state of barbaric progress on 
the island.” 

Glidden’s work is sponsored by William Wrigley, Jr., owner of the 

The following account of the Catalina temple appeared less than two 
years prior to the preceding story. This syndicated story provides 
additional details, like the discovery of an ancient map and the 
machine-like details of the 134-pound urn, which indicate the high 
degree of masonry and machining skills of the extremely ancient 
settlers of California. 




An attempt to follow ancient trails to the long lost ancient island temple 
of Chinigchinich, the Sun God, has resulted instead in the discovery of 
a burial space of a small Indian princess some 3000 years ago, and 
evidence indicating that child sacrifices were made in wholesale 
fashion by tribes of the Channel Islands, off the coast of California. 
Within a stone urn, weighing some 134 pounds and fashioned as 
skillfully as though by modern tools instead of primitive instruments 
was found the skeleton of an Indian girl between five and seven years. 
Her small hands had clutched the rim of the urn whose rich 
ornamentation bespeaks her royal lineage. In a circle with the urn as a 
center were counted by Professor Ralph Glidden, curator of the 
Catalina museum of the Channel Island Indians, the skeletons of 64 
children buried in tiers four deep, with small heads touching each other. 
Beneath them was the skeleton of a seven-foot man. A spear blade was 
still fixed in the ribs. The sand within the funeral urn had the 


appearance of ground crystal—apparently, according to the discoverer, 
a sacred sand used in the burial of Indian royalty—and was far different 
from that which had sifted over the graves of the other children. 

These finds, as well as a wealth of obsidian knives, spear points, and 
arrow heads and hundreds of other articles of wampum-inlaid stone and 
bone have provided material over which Glidden has puzzled since he 
has discovered them. 


One thin piece of slate he believes to be a stone map, holes having been 
drilled to indicate trails to the four main burying grounds on Santa 
Catalina Island. Wampum-inlaid in four broken circles on the rim of 
the urn with “gates” leading to the four points of the compass led 
Glidden to believe that the burial place may be near the site of the 
temple of Chinigchinich. 

Fig. 11.5. Photograph of shell artifacts from Catalina Island, California, early to 
mid-1900s (courtesy of Southwest Museum of the American Indian Collection) 



“The whole significance of the finds now related has not yet been 
worked out by anthropologists. But the establishment as fact of the old 
story of a fair race of giants in America is causing a new leaf to be 
written in the textbooks. It may result finally in a revision of our ideas 
as to where the white race originated—and as to how the primeval 
races reached what is called the New World,” naively concluded a 
reporter for the Examiner in 1929. 



Buried in the pit with the skeletons were 187 artifacts. These, fashioned 
of shell, bone and stone, included treasure boxes made of two large 
clam shells cemented together with asphaltum and containing abalone 
pearl pendants, carved stone beads, small stone rings, and other 
trinkets. There were also small paint pots, bone needles, carved heating 
stones, pipes, stone toys, and miniature canoes. 

Later radiocarbon dating revealed that some of the skeletons 
unearthed were seven thousand years old. For more than fifty years the 
proofs pertaining to these discoveries were vigorously denied by the 
University of California and the Smithsonian, but in 2011 it was finally 
admitted that the evidence for these finds had been locked away from 
the public in the restricted-access evidence rooms of the Smithsonian, 
along with detailed field reports and hundreds of photos, as can be seen 
from the following inventory chart: 



Glidden, R. (Ralph) 


Ralph Glidden negatives, 1919-1923. 



536 acetate negatives: black and white; 5 x 7 inches. 



Ralph Glidden was an archaeologist and curator at the Catalina Museum of the Channel 
Islands in the 1930s. He also worked for the Museum of the American Indian/Heye 


This collection contains 536 black-and-white acetate negatives taken by Ralph Glidden 
between 1919-1923. Most of the images depict scenic views and archaeological 
excavations on Catalina Island, San Miguel Island, San Nicolas Island and San Clemente 
Island, California. Also included are approximately 88 images of objects excavated by 
Glidden; these objects are now in the collections of the National Museum of the American 



Organized in individual sleeves; arranged by image number. 

Cite as 

Ralph Glidden negatives, National 

Museum of the American Indian 

Archives, Smithsonian Institution 
(negative, slide or catalog number). 


Access is by appointment only, Monday- Friday, 9:30 am-4:30 pm. Please contact the 
archives to make an appointment. 


National Museum of the American Indian. Some images are restricted due to cultural 
sensitivity. Please contact the archivist for further information. 



Excavations (Archaeology)-California 

Indians of North America-California 




San Clemente Island (Calif.) 

San Miguel Island (Calif.) 

San Nicolas Island (Calif.) 

Santa Catalina Island (Calif.) 


Black-and-white negatives 



National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Cultural Resources Center, 4220 Silver 
Hill Road, Suitland, Maryland 20746. (tel: 301-238-1400, fax: 301-2383038, email: 





He was a colorful character whose research into many of North 
America’s earliest human settlements was both groundbreaking and 
highly controversial, which made all the more remarkable the 
announcement this past week that a large cache of original papers and 
photographs had been discovered documenting the earliest excavations 
of Catalina Island by the amateur archaeologist Ralph Glidden. Details 
of the discovery were first reported in a front-page article published in 
the Los Angeles Times. The article describes how a curator at the 
Catalina Island Museum discovered numerous journals, personal 
letters, albums, newspaper articles, and, most significantly, hundreds of 
photographs that Glidden had compiled during his years of research on 
the island. 


“The sheer scale of this discovery is immense,” stated John 
Boraggina, the curator who discovered the collection and who has been 
on the job for less than a year. “One scholar from UCLA looked at all 
the documents and claimed that it represented 20 years of research.” 

The archive of material provides the kind of documentation of 
Glidden’s excavations that many scholars believed either did not exist 
or had been lost. Found in two modestly sized boxes in the museum’s 
research center, the entire archive is related to the hundreds of sites 
Glidden excavated on the island between 1919 and 1928. Many of the 
oldest settlements known are located on Catalina Island and date back 
at least 8,000 years. Glidden was the first archaeologist granted 
permission to excavate the island’s interior by William Wrigley, Jr.— 
the chewing gum magnate—who virtually bought the island in 1919. 

Glidden uncovered thousands of artifacts, including mortars and 
pestles used for preparing food, knives of bone and stone, cooking 
stones for boiling soup in baskets, f lutes made of bone, beads used as 
currency, arrowheads, war clubs, and fishhooks made of shell and 
weighted with stone. The artifacts reside today in the permanent 
collection of the Catalina Island Museum, a museum that William 
Wrigley, Jr.’s son, Philip K. Wrigley, helped to establish in 1953. 
Glidden’s digs uncovered human remains often, and perhaps his 
greatest discovery was an enormous ancient cemetery with hundreds of 
burial sites. The archive of documents recently discovered has been 
described as a “missing link” that provides written and visual 
documentation of the thousands of skeletons and artifacts uncovered by 
Glidden during his nearly 10 years of excavating Santa Catalina. 

“The insight that the photographs alone lend into Glidden’s work is 
remarkable,” Boraggina stated recently. “We had previously thought 
that Glidden paid little regard to any type of scientific method when 
working with human remains. But these photographs are evidence of 
his attempt to document human remains during the earliest stages of 
their excavation. We see a large number of undisturbed skeletons, the 
majority of which have been buried in what seems to be the fetal 
position. We’ve never before had this amount of evidence related to 
Glidden’s work.” 

“None of the Glidden archive had ever been exhibited,” Dr. Michael 
De Marsche, Executive Director of the museum recently stated while 


standing before a display case now dedicated to material from the 
discovery. “I assumed my position less than two years ago, and we now 
know that some 20 years ago research took place on the collection, but 
then it was all put in boxes and placed on a shelf. I know scholars from 
other museums have asked if it might exist. But our records were so 
poor that we didn’t know. We have no central catalog listing all the 
material in our archive. The boxes John discovered were simply 
marked ‘Glidden.’ We’re in the midst of updating and organizing 
everything, but this won’t be fully accomplished for years.” 

In 1924 Glidden opened the first “museum” on Catalina Island: the 
Museum of the American Indian on the Channel Islands. It certainly 
lived up to Glidden’s expectation that it be “unlike anything else 
anywhere in this country.” He based its interior on a chapel on the 
island of Malta, whose walls were decorated with motifs formed from 
the bones of monks. Many of the recently discovered photographs 
provide views of the museum and Glidden’s use of skeletal remains as 
a macabre form of decoration. But the photographs also reveal that the 
unsettling interior of his museum was a popular stop for tourists. In one 
photograph, Glidden holds a skull while talking to two women dressed 
in their Sunday best. 

“I think this archive lends a more complex portrait of the man,” 
Boraggina said while scanning the photographs. “You have to 
acknowledge that Glidden exploited Native American remains in the 
most insensitive manner imaginable. He certainly did not honor the 
sanctity of these remains when he organized his museum. He resorted 
to crass sensationalism when trying to sell tickets. On the other hand, 
we now know that while excavating he attempted, at times, to subscribe 
to a standard of archaeology prevalent during his day.” 

Glidden’s museum closed in 1950, and in 1952, Philip Wrigley 
purchased Glidden’s entire collection of remains, documents, and 
artifacts and donated them to the Catalina Island Museum. The Native 
American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990 granted 
Native Americans the right to reclaim the remains of their ancestors 
and other sacred objects. Today, museums in the United States no 
longer exhibit Native American remains. “We’re in the midst of 
building a new museum, which will allow us to store and study this 
collection with the respect it deserves,” De Marsche said. “I hope to 


exhibit as much of our archival material and artifacts as possible. It’s 
exciting to think that the day our new building opens, the Catalina 
Island Museum becomes a respected center of scholarship in this 
incredibly important area of our history.” 

The Catalina Island Museum is Avalon’s sole institution devoted to 
art, culture and the rich history of Santa Catalina Island. 

Notice how they have studiously avoided mention of the giants and 
the true extent of the thousands of burials? 

Fig. 11.6. Avalon, California: Photograph of artifacts from Catalina Island, 
California, circa 1937 by Carl Hegner (courtesy of Southwest Museum of the 

American Indian Collection) 






The curator of the Catalina Island Museum opened the door to a musty 
backroom a few weeks ago hoping to find material for an upcoming 
exhibit on the World War II era. Closing the door behind him, he 
trudged down a narrow aisle lined with storage boxes and bins filled 
with gray photocopies of old letters, civic records, celebrity kitsch, and 

“No luck,” curator John Boraggina muttered. 

But as he made his way to a back corner, he noticed another row of 
boxes. He carried the largest to a table, blew off the dust and lifted the 

Inside were leather-bound journals and yellowing photographs 
showing freshly unearthed skeletons lying on their backs or sides, or 
curled as if in sleep. Many were surrounded by grinding stones, pots 
and beadwork. 

Several photos showed a man in soiled clothes standing tall with 
spade in hand beside chaotic jumbles of bones. Boraggina recognized 
him: Ralph Glidden. 

The images, Boraggina soon realized, came from a time 90 years ago 
that many on Santa Catalina Island had forgotten—or tried to forget. 
The photos were of the work of a pseudo-scientist—some say a 
huckster—who made a living unearthing Native American artifacts and 
human remains for sale and trade. Glidden had ruined much of 
Catalina’s Native American cultural heritage, but in the process he also 
made discoveries thought lost in the passage of time. 

Boraggina closed the big box and called the museum’s executive 
director, Michael De Marsche. “Michael, hurry over. I discovered 
something amazing,” he said. “I found Glidden’s archives.” 

Minutes later, De Marsche was taking stock of enough historical 
photographs and handwritten documents to fill a gallery in the 60-year- 


old museum. 

In the weeks since, the contents of the boxes have grown in 
importance. Researchers and scholars of California history—especially 
at UCLA’s Fowler Museum, where some 200 of Glidden’s skeletons 
are housed—say the discovery will probably change the understanding 
of early life here and could eventually ease the anger of Native 
Americans outraged by the grave-robbing of the last century. 

It is not often that a small-town curator unearths modern-day clues to 
a prehistoric past, but scientists believe that’s what happened here. 





In many of the reports I came across there was conjecture as to the 
roots of the mound-builder race. The two top contenders posited by 
various authors seem to be the ancient Cretans and the ancient 
Scythians. In the following excerpt from Haywood’s history of 
Tennessee, he cites the Scythian’s large stature, burial practices 
involving barrows, and custom of scalping enemies as examples of 
their influence. 

The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee, 1823 
By Dr. John Haywood 

When we reflect that the Scythian nations between the Danube and 
the Tanais, as late as within one century of the Christian era were 
of a size which astonished the southern inhabitants of Europe and 
Asia; that they scalped their enemy; that they buried their dead in 
heaps of earth thrown over them with such articles as were deemed 
by the deceased most valuable in his lifetime; and that their tumuli, 
or barrows, are yet to be seen in the plains towards the upper part 
of the Irish and Jenesee and from the banks of the Volga to the lake 
Baikal; we cannot refrain from the conclusion, that this skeleton 
belonged to a human body of the same race, education, and notions 
with those who lived on the Volga, Tanais, and Obey. 

The same unknown cause, which, in the course of 2000 years, 
has reduced the size of the ancient Scythians and their tribes, the 
Gauls and Germans and Sarmatians has produced the same effects 
here. The descendants of these giants, both in the old and new 
world, agree with each other in bulk, as their ancestors did with 
each other, which proves a uniform cause operating equally both in 
the old and new world. The decrease in bulk seems to have kept 
pace everywhere with the increase of warm temperature and with 


the abbreviation of longevity. 

The giants of Hebron and Gath and those of Laconia and Italy, 
whose large skeletons to this day attest that there they formerly 
dwelt, compared with those now found in West Tennessee, 
demonstrate that a change of climate or of some other cause has 
worked a remarkable change in the human system; and with 
respect to the mammoth, the megalonyx, and other animals, has 
either extinguished or driven them into other and far distant 
latitudes. Nature, as it grows in age, is less vigorous than at the 
beginning, and its productions correspond with its debility, and the 
time must come, when she, like all her productions, will give up 
the ghost and work no more. But the principal use we have to make 
of the skeleton before us is to discover first that he came from a 
cold or northern climate and not from the south, as the primitive 
aborigines did, for men of large stature were never found within 
the tropics. 

Second, that he must have come from the north of Europe or 
Asia, because of the similarity of customs already remarked. Third, 
that he probably belonged to those northern tribes, which some 
centuries ago exterminated the nations that had come from the 
south and were settled upon the Cumberland and its waters. 

With this skeleton was found another of nearly the same size, 
with the top of his head flat, and his eyes placed apparently in the 
upper part of his forehead. The Aztecs or Mexicans represent their 
principal divinities, as their hieroglyphical manuscripts prove, with 
a head much more flattened than any that have been seen amongst 
the Caribs, and they never disfigured the heads of their children. 

Concerning the Unnatural Practice of Child-Boarding Skulls 

But many of the southern tribes have adopted the barbarous custom 
of pressing the heads of their children between two boards, in 
imitation, no doubt, of the Mexican form, which, in their 
estimation was beautiful, or in some way advantageous. And here 
it may not be amiss to mention, that the Chileans, who lived as far 
to the south of the equator, as formerly did the Scythians, Goths, 
Vandals, Gauls, and Germans—on the other side of it—were men 
of large stature. 


One remark may be of some use in the drawing of inferences 
from the preceding facts. The skeletons, we find, are entirely under 
conical mounds or, in part, consumed by fire, and under such 
mounds, or entirely in shallow graves with flat rocks placed on the 
edges, at the sides, and at the head and feet. They may also be 
entirely above the common surface and in the conical mounds 
enclosed in rocks that are placed together in the form of a box. The 
skeletons may stand erect in such boxes, with the head some depth 
below the surface. 

To burn and cover with a mound, is Hinduic or Grecian, and 
belonging to the ancient countries of Asia Minor, and probably 
belonged to the aborigines of America. To cover the entire body is 
Scythic. To bury in graves or in boxes is Ethiopic, Egyptian, and in 
part Hebraic, the Hebrews having learned it during their residence 
in Egypt, though they did not generally adopt it. 

It may be concluded that the mounds over entire bodies are 
Scythic; graves and boxes are Hebraic; boxes in the mounds are 
Hebraic and Scythic; and the unconsumed skeletons we see here 
are either pure Scythians or Hebrew Scythians, whilst all others are 
Hinduic, or in other words aboriginal. The large men of the world 
have always been found in the north, and they have often invaded 
and broken up the people of the south. They have never been found 
in the south; nor have the people of the south ever broken up their 
settlements there and marched upon those of the north to expel 
them from their possessions in order to make room for themselves. 

The men who deposited the skeletons we are now contemplating 
were of northern growth, and they came to the south to drive away 
the inhabitants whom they found there and to seat themselves in 
their possessions. 

The Giants’ Love for Martial Music 

About 18 miles east from Rogersville in the county of Hawkins in 
East Tennessee was ploughed up a stone trumpet. It tapers on the 
outside from either end to the middle and is there surrounded by 
two rings of raised stone. The inside at each end is a hollow, of an 
inch and a quarter in diameter; but at one end the orifice is not as 
large as at the other. Probably the sound is shrill and sharp when 


blown from one end, and more full and sonorous when blown from 
the other. 

The hollow continues throughout, from the one end to the other, 
and in the middle, under the rings, it is not as wide as at the ends. It 
seems to have been made of hard soapstone; and when blown 
through, makes a sound which may be heard perhaps two miles. It 
is very smooth on the outside, but rough within. 

An Ancient Hunting Horn 

Probably it was used for similar purposes to those for which the 
trumpet of the Israelites was used, namely to convene assemblies 
and to regulate the movements of the army. On days of rejoicing it 
was used to make a part of the musical sounds with which the 
people were entertained. From it, perhaps, these deductions may be 
made. There were no large hollow horns in the country, which 
could have been used for the same purpose, and more effectually, 
too, as large steer horns are now used by hunters. But a more 
important question is: Whence could those who made the trumpet 
have known its properties and use? They could not have attained 
that knowledge by blowing through the large horns of animals 
because there were none such here, or they never would have made 
this stone trumpet. 

“Prior to the Departure of the Israelites from Egypt, There Is 
No Scriptural or Other Account of Trumpets” 

Most evidently, it was conceived to be of great value; otherwise so 
much time, as must necessarily have been consumed in fashioning 
and hollowing it, would not have been spent for such purpose. The 
makers must have learnt its use from some nation that employed 
the trumpet in sounding charges, or for giving directions to march, 
or to stop the pursuit of an enemy. Prior to the departure of the 
Israelites from Egypt, there is no scriptural or other account of 

In Egypt, Pharaoh followed the army of the Israelites with 
chariots and horsemen, but the trumpet is not spoken of. It was 
sounded on Mount Sinai, where God delivered the law to Moses; 
and it is intimated that the people had never before heard the sound 
of the trumpet. “The voice of the trumpet was exceedingly loud, so 


that all the people that were in the camp trembled. And all the 
people saw the thundering and the lightning and the noise of the 
trumpet and the mountains smoking; and when the people saw it, 
they removed and stood afar off.” Afterwards it was directed that 
two trumpets should be made for convening the elders and for 
giving signals for the marching of the tribes. 

Some were to march at one signal, and some at another. A signal 
was appointed for convening the whole congregation. Sometime 
afterward, the Israelites made use of trumpets for various other 
purposes; but being separated by their natural institutions and 
religion from all the other people of the world, soon communicated 
to them the use of this instrument (Exodus, ch. 14, v. 6, 7, ch. 19, 
v. 13, 16, ch. 20, v. 18). 

When Bacchus overran India with an army from the west, the 
use of the trumpet was not known. In the time of the Trojan War, 
neither Greeks nor Trojans used the trumpet. The Trojans had in 
their camp the sound of flutes and of pipes. Stentor, a man of 
mighty voice, proclaimed to the army the orders which were given 
by the general. In the year 14 before Christ, when Darius the Mede 
crossed the Danube and invaded the Scythians, on his return, 
finding the bridge broken down, which he had left, he caused an 
Egyptian, remarkable for the loudness of his voice, to pronounce 
with all his strength, the name of the admiral of the fleet, who 
immediately answered and came to him, and made a new bridge of 
boats, for his transportation. A trumpet could have been much 
more effectually used, and could have sent the appointed signal to 
a much greater distance. 

When Xerxes invaded Greece, 478 years before Christ, no 
trumpet was then used; the signal for battle was given by 
torchbearers. In aftertimes it was given by drum or trumpet. 
Signals also announcing any important occurrence were given by 
holding up a torch of fire. Soon after the invasion of Greece by the 
Persians, trumpets were used in Greece for many purposes, as well 
as those relative to the motions of their armies. The Greeks 
probably learned it from the Phoenicians. The dispersed Israelites, 
either those carried into captivity by the Assyrians or those of the 
Chaldean captivity have imparted the knowledge of the trumpet 


and its uses, to the people from whom it came, mediately or 
immediately, to the Americans who made the trumpet in question. 
The communication must have been made in or subsequent to the 
sixth century before the Christian era, possibly several centuries 
afterwards. But still it furnishes an additional and strong evidence 
of the fact inferred, namely: that the trumpet and its uses came 
either mediately or immediately from the countries of the east, 
where the trumpet was first used. 

Thence they may have obtained the knowledge of it through 
various nations; or possibly were the descendants of the very 
Israelites, who were removed by the Assyrians to the east and 
north of the Caspian sea and of the Euxine; and who built on the 
east of the former, the city of Charazen, named after a city of the 
same name on the east of the river Jordan and the city of 
Samarsand, originally, before the name was corrupted, called 
Samaria, after the city of that name from which the ten tribes were 
carried into captivity. 

Near to this mound is a cave, which contained, at the time of the 
first settlements by the whites, a great number of human skulls 
without any other appearance of human bones near them. Baal and 
Ashteroth, spoken of in scripture, were the sun and moon. The 
latter being a female, was also called the Queen of Heaven, Venus, 
Urania, Succoth-bemoth, Diana, Hecate, Lucena, Celestes and was 
represented with breasts, sometimes all over, to signify that she is 
the supplier of the juices that are essential to animal and vegetable 
existence. Mr. Earle has lately made another and more scrutinizing 
examination of this mound, by which have been brought to light 
several particulars of great consequence in this discussion. 

Situated near Sulphur Springs—Mining in the Area 

His report follows: This mound is situated in a plain and is 
surrounded by hills, which enclose from 75 to 80 acres of flat land, 
with three fine sulphur springs, and at the junction of four roads 
leading to different parts of the state, and considerably traveled, 
and about two miles from Cragfont, the residence of General 
Winchester. This is the place where Spencer and his friend Mr. 
Brake spent the winter of 1779 and 1780. 


The trunk of the tree, which they inhabited during this hard 
winter, is just visible above the ground. The diameter is 13 feet. 
The mound measures, beginning at the northwest corner, running 
east, four and a half poles to the northeast corner; then the 
horizontal projection from the principal mound, north one pole; 
then east 11 poles, to the southeast corner; then west 11 poles, to 
the original mound; thence with the original mound west 4 poles; 
thence north 4 poles, to the northwest corner before mentioned. 

The elevation to the top of the chief mound is 2 poles; its 
diameter 2 poles, in the center, and from three to four feet. The 
declivity of the mound is an angle of about 45 degrees. A tree of 
considerable size is yet growing on the mound, and a decayed 
stump of 2 feet in diameter, but too much decayed to count the 
annual rings or circles in it. 

An entrenchment and circumvallation encloses 40 acres and 
encircles this mound and others of lesser size. There is also a 
circumvallatory parapet, five feet high. On the parapet are small 
tumuli like watch-towers, about 95 feet distant from one to the 
other. In the line of circumvallation, and from each fifth tumulus, 
there is an average distance of 45 or from thence to 180 feet to the 
next one. It thus continues around the whole breastwork. 

Mr. Earle dug into the parapet in several places, from two to 
three feet in depth, and found ashes, pottery ware, flint, mussel 
shells, coal, and so forth. On the outside of the entrenchment are a 
number of graves. In several different places, flat stones are set up 
edge-wise, enclosing skeletons buried from 12 to 18 inches under 
the surface. 

Three hundred yards distant from the great mound, on the 
southwest side of the entrenchment, is a mound of 50 yards in 
circumference, and six in height. In the opposite direction, from 
this to the northeast stands another smaller mound, and of the same 
dimensions as the one last mentioned. So that the three stand upon 
a line, from northeast to southwest, in the same order as the 
trimurti arc placed even to this day in the temple of Juggernaut. 

The next (in size) principal mound was within the intrenchment 
in a southeast course from the great mound and about 170 yards 
distant, circumference 90 yards, elevation 100 feet. Thirty-five 


yards distant, in a southwest course, is a small tumulus, two thirds 
as large as the one last mentioned. At the same distance, on the 
northeast corner of the great mound, is another of the same size as 
that last mentioned. Each of these tumuli hath a small one of about 
half its size in the center between them and the great mound. The 
earth in which this mound was constructed, appears to have been 
taken, not from one place, leaving a cavity in the earth, but evenly 
fixing all the surface around the mound. 

Mounds are spaced by intervals of five. In about 200 yards 
distant, extending from the mound, the soil has been taken off to a 
considerable depth. The corn, which is planted within this place, 
yields but a small increase. The tumuli upon the parapet project 
beyond it, both inwards and outwards: the summit of these being 
15 feet above the summit of the parapet, and 5 feet above the 
surface of the common earth. They are 10 or 12 feet in diameter at 
the base. 

Between every fifth tumulus and the next tumulus, which is the 
first of the next five, there is a large interstice. One of the intervals 
to the north, is 180 feet wide. The next toward the west, is 145 feet. 
The summit of each tumulus diverges from the base toward a point 
but at the top is flat and wide enough for two or three men to stand 
on. The common distance between the tumuli is 95 feet, without 
any variation. The entrenchment is on the inside of the parapet all 
around. From it the parapet has been made. 

Alternating Levels of Ash and Earth 

Mr. Earle commenced his excavation on the north side of the 
principal mound, ten feet above the common surface of the earth, 
and penetrated to the center of the mound in a cavity of about 7 
feet in breadth. Two feet from the summit was found a stratum of 
ashes 14 inches through to a stratum of earth. On the east side of 
the cavity the sania stratum of ashes was oily from three to four 
inches in depth. The diggers then came to the common earth, 
which was only two feet through to the same substance, ashes. 
Then again commenced the layers of ashes from one to two inches 
through to the earth; then again to ashes; and so the layers 
continued alternately, as far as they proceeded. The layers of ashes 


were counted as far as the excavation descended, and amounted to 

The earth between the layers of ashes was of a peculiar 
description: yellow and grey. The ashes were of a blackish color. 
The yellow earth was of a saponaceous and flexible nature. The 
grey was of a similar kind to that of the common earth. 

At eight feet from the top of the mound, they came to a grave, 
which had the appearance of having once been an ancient 
sepulcher. The earth caved in as the diggers sunk the cavity. The 
cause of this was soon ascertained to be the skeleton of a child in 
quite a decayed state, but sufficiently preserved to ascertain the 
size. Doctor Green and Doctor Saunders of Cairo examined the 
bones and pronounced them to be the bones of a child. This 
skeleton was lying on three cedar piles, five feet and a half in 
length, and considerably decayed but sound at the heart. 

The head of the child lay towards the east, facing the west, with a 
jug made of sandstone, lying at its feet. This jug or bottle was of 
the ordinary size of modern gallon bottles, such as are commonly 
manufactured at Pittsburgh, with the exception that the neck is 
longer, and there is an indentation upon its side, indicating that a 
strap was used to carry it. 

The grave was on the east side of the cavity, eight feet from the 
center of the mound north. The excavation from the top of the 
mound; perpendicularly into the earth was 13 feet. At the time they 
found the grave as above mentioned, they also found other graves, 
and small pieces of decayed human bones, and bones of animals, 
amongst which was the jaw bone with the tusk attached to it, of 
some unknown animal. The jaw bone is about a foot long, having 
at the extremity a tusk one inch and a half in length. The tusk is in 
the same form as that of Cuvier’s mastodon, but has more 

Having been accidentally broken, it was found to be hollow. The 
jaw bone has in it at this time, two grinders, like those of 
ruminating animals, with an empty socket for one other of the 
same size, and one large single tooth. Towards the extremity of the 
jaw and near to the tusk, is another small socket, calculated for a 
tooth of minor magnitude. This jaw bone was found at the depth of 


18 feet from the surface of the earth. They also found the bones of 
birds, arrow points of flint, pottery ware, some of which was 
glazed, mussel shells and trinkets, coal, isinglass (mica), burnt 

The further they penetrated downwards, the greater were the 
quantities of flat stone, found all standing edgewise, promiscuously 
placed, with the appearance of once having underwent the action 
of fire, and finding at every few inches, a thin stratum of ashes and 
small pieces of human bones. At 19 feet they dug up part of a 
corncob, and small pieces of cedar completely rotted. 


Despite the fact that astronomical and geographic alignments have been 
studied at major mound sites like Cahokia, similar studies on lesser- 
known mound sites have never been performed. That is why this 
account is so interesting. In it Haywood notes, “This mound was built 
precisely to the cardinal points, as were the mounds of Mexico, the 
pyramids of Egypt, and the Chaldean tower of Babel. Like them, its top 
was flattened. The image, which once stood on its top, was similar to 
that of Ashtoreth, or the moon.” This mention of an Ashtoreth-like 
moon image that was found on top of the mound is tantalizing, to say 
the least. Now let’s return to Haywood’s narrative. 

We will now make a few remarks. This mound was built precisely 
to the cardinal points, as were the mounds of Mexico, the pyramids 
of Egypt, and the Chaldean tower of Babel. Like them, its top was 
flattened. The image, which once stood on its top, was similar to 
that of Ashtoreth, or the moon. Those who worshipped stood on 
the east of the image on the platform and held their heads towards 
her. The ditch was probably dug with metallic tools. That and the 
parapet perhaps represented the year. The five tumuli represented 
the five days into which the Mexicans divided time. The 
interstices, the four quarters into which each Mexican month was 
divided. The whole composing the 72 quintals that made up the 
year, or 360 days. The wider passages to the north and south, east 
and west, like the Hindu temple of Seringham, which is heretofore 
described represented the four quarters or seasons of the year. The 
walls around the ancient temples of India are passed by passages 


precisely to the cardinal points. 

The three mounds in a line, the larger being in the middle, 
represent the trimurti, or three great deities of India, upon all three 
of which idols were probably once placed, as they are now placed 
in the temple of Juggernaut and are intended to represent EOA, or 
Ye-Ho-Wah: whence in every country in Asia, including the 
Hebrews, came the sacred reverence for the number three, which is 
so apparent in all their solemnities. Part of this name, the A and O, 
or the alpha and omega, yet signify with us, the beginning and end 
of all things with three attributes, which is, which was, and which 
is to come. This was a part of the description, which belonged to 
the triune great one whom idolatry caused mankind to lose sight of, 
whilst those who only worshipped a spiritual God, preserved it in 
its original purity. But in every country, whether corrupted by 
idolatry or not, proceeds from the great, original, and uncorrupted 
religion, which emanated immediately and directly from EOA or 
the great good spirit. 

It cannot be conceived for a moment, that here was a fortification 
for military purposes. For when did ever any such work have so 
many passages, so regularly and equally placed. The worshippers 
of the heavenly hosts were the greatest cultivators of astronomy, 
whilst the only religion of the world opposed to them, the Vatican 
raged the contemplation of those objects of her heathenish 
adoration. They involved in the circle of their adorables, all the 
constellations and planets. 


Modern readers are familiar with the sensation that was caused when 
Robert Bauval likened the arrangement of the Great Pyramid complex 
to Orion’s belt. In this account, which is almost two hundred years old, 
Haywood notes a similar stellar arrangement in the placement of the 
mounds he is examining in Tennessee, only this time in relation to the 

In some places we see a mound and five or six smaller ones 
around, which seem to represent the Pleiades, and sometimes other 
luminaries seem to be represented. These layers of ashes are unlike 


those in the time of the Trojan War over which were raised 
mounds of earth, after the bodies of Patroclus and Hector were 
consumed in them, and their bones taken away and put into an urn. 


Many of the bodies that have been exhumed from mounds across the 
country show signs that they were ritually burned before being covered 
in layers of dirt and ash. In other bodies from mounds, notes Haywood, 
evidence of decapitation and flaying have also been found. 

But the strata of ashes, at intervals from top to bottom, with human 
bones intermixed, show that there were human victims committed 
to the flames, after decapitation and removal of the skull to the 
neighboring cave, where it was laid up in darkness for the use of 
the deity. The black ashes denote the consumption of tobacco, the 
only incense in America, which they could offer, in which also was 
consumed the consecrated victim. A heated fire of solid wood 
would have consumed bone and all. 

The great number of graves on the outside, show that the people 
neither usually buried in rounds, nor usually consumed dead bodies 
on the funeral pile. The skeleton of the child found within shows 
that it was a privilege peculiar to his family to be buried there, 
whilst the other ranks of men were buried without the 
circumvallation. He was very probably one of the children of the 

The earth taken from the surface, within the circumvallation, was 
holy and consecrated; it was earth impregnated by the beams of the 
sun, and must have been removed by a great number of hands, 
compelled by despotic power to obedience. When placed on the 
expiring embers of sacrificial fire, the enclosures of all such 
mounds are circular, or for the most part are meant to represent 
possibly the course of the revolving year, and to make upon them 
the divisions of time that the sun describes in his progress. It is 
easy to compare what he found in this mound and about it, with the 
collection of scriptural passages, before stated, and to see how far 
there is accordance between them or not. And therefore it is 
needless for the writer any further to pursue the subject. 



This account by Haywood of a skeleton of a blond-haired girl found in 
a cave near Carthage is but one of many similar accounts I discovered 
in reports from across the United States. In this case, the girl’s hair was 
covered by a mantle of feathers. 

The section upon the literal inscriptions of Tennessee gives one 
instance of a skeleton in a cave near Carthage, the hair of which 
was yellow. The hair of the female covered with the curious mantle 
of feathers in the section of manufactures, which was found in a 
cave in White county, was of a yellow cast, and very fine. It is 
evident, that these did not belong to Indians of the same races with 
those of the present day. 


Haywood says that in a cave that was found about eleven miles north of 
Cairo, Tennessee, workmen had to open two secret passages before 
they discovered a twenty-five-feet-square room that contained the 
bodies of a man, a woman, and a child. They were said to be auburn¬ 
haired and blue-eyed and of normal height, and the man was covered 
by fourteen deerskin blankets. The bodies were enclosed in pyramidal 

Near the confines of Smith and Wilson counties, on the south side 
of Cumberland river about 11 miles above Cairo, on the waters of 
Smith’s Fork of Cany Fork, is a cave, the aperture into which is 
very small. 

The workmen in the cave enlarged the entrance and went in; and 
digging in the apartment, next to the entrance, after removing the 
dirt and using it, they came, upon the same level with the entrance, 
to another small aperture, which also they entered and went 
through, when they came into a narrow room, 25 feet square. 
Everything here was neat and smooth. The room seemed to have 
been carefully preserved for the reception and keeping of the dead. 

In this room, near about the center, were found sitting in baskets 
made of cane three human bodies; the flesh entire, but a little 
shriveled, and not much so. The bodies were those of a man, a 


female, and a small child. The complexion of all was very fair and 
white, without any intermixture of the copper color. Their eyes 
were blue; their hair auburn, and fine. The teeth were very white; 
their stature was delicate, about the size of the whites of the 
present day. The man was wrapped in 14 dressed deer skins. The 
14 deer skins were wrapped in what those present called blankets. 
They were made of bark, like those found in the cave in White 
county. The form of the baskets, which enclosed them, was 
pyramidal, being larger at the bottom, and declining to the top. The 
heads of the skeletons from the neck were above the summits of 
the blankets. 


The walled water tanks found in association with the mounds described 
in the next extract showed signs of advanced engineering, which 
Haywood attributes to Hindu, Mesopotamian, or Judean influence. 

The remarks, which offer themselves upon these mounds, are not 
only that the doctrine of triplicity here is very prominent, but also 
that the well, or tank, for holding of water must have been 
constructed with peculiar art probably upon the plan that the Hindu 
tanks were, and those of Mesopotamia and Judea were in ancient 
times. But the most material consideration is the uses to which the 
waters of the tank were applied. Is it probable that the inhabitants 
of the country lived upon this consecrated ground, upon which 
stood their temples and gods? If not, the waters of the tank were 
for sacred uses; for ablutions and purifications; another great 
symptom of the Hindu ritual. It is a remarkable truth that the same 
law of defilement and ablutions has actually existed amongst the 
Hindus from times of the remotest antiquity, which Moses 
delivered to the Hebrews. What the Mosaic law was is stated in 
various scriptural passages and retains only such rites observed by 
the Hindus and Egyptians as were proper for the Hebrews in the 
new countries and climates in which they were about to settle. 


Standing stones mark many mound-builder burial sites. In this report by 
Haywood from Cany Fork, about fourteen miles from Sparta, a 


standing stone marked the burials of several skeletons that were said to 
be about six and a half feet in height, with bones that were thicker than 
normal and with longer teeth and larger skulls than is considered 

On the Cany Fork of Cumberland, 13 or 14 miles from Sparta in a 
southwesterly direction, Mr. Tilford observed a stone standing 
erect, the top being about a foot above the ground, the width a foot, 
and extending to a depth of a foot in the ground. He moved it from 
its position and dug in, and discovered, about twelve inches under 
the surface, some bones of a human skeleton. He took up several. 

They were larger than those of men of common stature, 
indicating that the whole skeleton would be six feet three or four 
inches in length. They were thicker than bones of the same 
denomination ordinarily are. The teeth were in a state of 
preservation as far as the enamel reached, but those parts which 
entered the socket were in a state of decay. The teeth were longer 
than those of an ordinary man. The skull was larger in the same 
proportion, and by the operations of time had become thinner than 
skulls usually are. 

Hence was inferred the great antiquity of the grave; though, 
perhaps, as correct an inference would be, the northern formation 
and growth of the skull, far from the vertical rays of the sun, which 
usually thicken the skull when not defended by hats or bonnets or 
mitres. A vast number of periwinkles lay near the grave and around 
it, spread over two or three acres ground. They are supposed to 
have been brought from the Cany Fork, which is about half a mile 
from the spot, but they are of much larger size than any that are 
found at this time on that river. 

The thigh bone, when there was an attempt to move it, fell into 


A vast majority of the mounds examined in Haywood’s report had trees 
growing out of them that were already hundreds of years old. In 
addition, when workers unearthed bodies, the bones often fell to dust 
the minute they were exposed to the open air. 


These latter circumstances are taken as concurrent evidences of 
great antiquity. The grave was on the summit of a high bluff, rising 
from the river to the spot. The trees near it were of such large size 
as any in the adjacent forest, and at a small distance were some 
mounds on which the timber was of equal size. A part of the skull, 
when exposed to the air, was quickly dissolved into dust. 

In this grave Mr. Tilford found, near where the neck of the 
skeleton was, a great number of beads, some of them adhering 
closely together in a circular shape, which showed that they once 
encircled the neck. Others were separated. He took up 260 of them 
and left a considerable number more, which he did not remove. 


As noted by Haywood, one of the skeletons unearthed at this burial site 
had a necklace around his neck made from finely worked ivory beads 
that were drilled lengthwise through the center in order to 
accommodate a rope or chain to thread the beads into a necklace. Two 
hundred and sixty of these ivory beads were used to make this one 
necklace alone. 

One was larger than all the rest, in the shape of a barrel, bored 
through the center from one end to the other, one half of an inch in 
length and about one half that length in diameter, supposed to have 
been placed on a string which connected the whole, at the lower 
part, so as to divide one half of the beads above, from the other 
half above. This bead, when cut on the surface, is very smooth, of 
a whitish color, inclining by a small shade towards a pale yellow, 
and very much resembles ivory. 

Fine longitudinal veins are visible on the surface, and it is the 
opinion of good judges, that they are made of a species of ivory. 
The other beads are circular, all of the like materials that compose 
the large bead. Some of them are of greater diameter than the 
others and some of greater width from the one side to the other. 
The diameter of the larger ones is about one fourth of an inch; the 
width of the exterior of the circle, about a third of the length of the 
diameter. The side of the one adjoining the side of its neighbor, 
when connected by a string, appears to have been made smoother 


by friction than when first formed. 

It is as smooth and ungranulated as an ivory comb; in some 
instances, however, showing the unevenness of the cut made by the 
tool, which originally separated the bead from the mass it was 
taken from. In some instances the bead, from the hole in the center 
to the exterior of the circle, appears by friction to have removed 
the width of the exterior from one side to the other, so as to make it 
unequal to the opposite exterior of the circle; whence is inferred 
the long time it had been used before the death of the wearer. 


The ivory used to make these beads was thought to come from 
mastodon or alligator teeth. Haywood reported that the beads were 
examined by Dr. Throchmorlin of Sparta and were declared to be of the 
“finest and best quality.” 

The materials of which they are composed are probably not the 
product of Tennessee; though it is possible, they may have been 
taken from the tooth of the mastodon or alligator. 

This writer, with the cordon of beads before him, in order to 
avoid the possibility of mistake caused them to be submitted to the 
inspection of Dr. Throchmorlin of Sparta, whose uncommon 
intelligence makes him particularly well qualified to decide upon 
the question of whether the materials be of stone or some other 

His decision: that unquestionably they are of ivory of the finest 
and best quality. The dingy coating, which obscured the beads, was 
cleared by his experiments, from one of them, and it then appeared 
to be a beautiful white, with the degree of shade, which 
characterizes and softens the ivory color. The whole chain thus 
brightened, must have formerly exhibited a very superb 

From Whence Came This Giant? 

Upon the contemplation of this discovery, the inquisitive mind is 
impelled irresistibly to ask from whence came this gigantic 
skeleton, the chain of which he wore and the ivory beads that 
compose it? His size and the thinness of his skull prove that he was 


from the north and probably of that race of huge stature which, in 
the time of the Roman Empire, so much excited the wonder of 
their writers; and which, in the decline of the empire, spread 
desolation, ruin, and darkness over its whole extent. 

Of the Religion of the Aborigines of Tennessee 

Let us first take a view of the aboriginal religion of Tennessee, so 
far as it is to be collected from the ancient signs, which have been 
left us, and which are fairly referable to this topic. These are suns 
and moons painted upon rocks; marks or tokens of triplicity; the 
cross; mounds; images; human sacrifices; the lingam; the dress of 
the images; conch shells; and vestiges of the sanctity of the number 

Of the Sun and Moon Painted upon Rocks 

About two miles below the road, which crosses Harpeth River, 
from Nashville to Charlotte, is a bend of the river, and in the bend 
is a large mound, 30 or 40 feet high, and a number of smaller ones 
near it, which will be particularly described here-after. 

About six miles from it is a large rock, on the side of the river, 
with a perpendicular face of 70 or 80 feet altitude. On it, below the 
top some distance, and on the side, are painted the sun and moon in 
yellow colors, which have not faded since the white people first 
knew it. 

The figure of the sun is six feet in diameter: that of the moon is 
of the old moon. The sun and moon are also painted on a high rock 
on the side of the Cumberland River in a spot where several 
ladders placed upon each other could not reach; and which is also 
inaccessible except by ropes let down the summit of the rock to the 
place where the painting was performed. This is near the residence 
of Mr. Dozun; and it is affirmed by a person of good credit, that by 
climbing from tree to tree, he once got near enough to take a near 
view of this painting, and that with it, on the rock, were literal 
characters, which did not belong to the Roman alphabet; but at this 
time, 1822, for he looked again lately, the paint has so-far faded as 
to make the form of these characters indistinguishable. 

The sun is also painted on a high rock, on the side of the 
Cumberland River, six or seven miles below Clarksville; and it is 


said to be painted also at the junction of the Holstein and 
Frenchbroad rivers, above Knoxville, in East Tennessee. Also on 
Duck River, below the bend called the Devil’s Elbow, on the west 
side of the river, on a bluff: and on a perpendicular flat rock facing 
the river, 20 feet below the top of the bluff, and 60 feet above the 
water out of which the rock rises, is the painted representation of 
the sun in red and yellow colors, six feet in circumference, yellow 
on the upper side and a yellowish red on the lower. 

The colors are very fresh and unfaded. The rays both yellow and 
red are represented as darting from the center. It has been spoken 
of ever since the river was navigated, and has been there from time 
immemorial. No one has been able since the white people knew it 
to approach the circle either from above or below. The circle is a 
perfect one. 

Neat, Elegant, Inaccessible Paintings 

The painting is done in the most neat and elegant style. It can be 
seen at the distance of half a mile. The painting on Big Harpeth, 
before spoken of is more than 80 feet from the water, and 30 or 40 
below the summit. All these paintings are in unfading colors, and 
on parts of the rock inaccessible to animals of every description 
except the fowls of the air. 

The painting is neatly executed and was performed at an 
immense hazard of the operator. It must have been for a sacred 
purpose and as an object of adoration. What other motive was 
capable of inciting to a work so perilous, laborious, and expensive 
as those paintings must have been? From whence came the 
unfading dyes and the skilled artist capable to execute the work? 
By what means was he let down and placed near enough to 
operate? And for what reward did he undertake so dangerous a 
work? When executed, of what use could it be to any one, unless to 
see and to worship? 

Taken in connection with the mounds, which are in the vicinity, 
the high places upon which, in the old world, the worshippers of 
the sun performed their devotional exercises, there can be but little 
difficulty in perceiving that these paintings had some relation to 
the adoration of that luminary, the god of the Egyptians, Hindus, 


and Phoenicians, and the great god of the Mexicans and Natchez, 
and of the ancient inhabitants west of the Mississippi. 

Of Triplicity 

In White county, in West Tennessee, was dug up a few years ago, 
in an open temple, situated on the Cany Fork of Cumberland river, 
a flagon designed into the shape of three distinct and hollow heads, 
joined to the central neck of the vessel, by short thick tubes, 
leading from each respective occupant. It was made of a light, 
yellow and compact clay, intimately intermixed with small broken 
fragments, and dust of powdered carbon of lime, and in a state of 

The Use of Quart Measurements from Extreme Antiquity 

This vessel held a quart. Its workmanship is well executed. The 
heads are perfectly natural and display a striking resemblance of 
the Asiatic countenance. None of the minor parts have been 
attended to, though a small oval prominence somewhat towards the 
top of each head is probably meant to represent a knot of hair. 

Ancient Heads of Different Races and Classes 

In other respects they appear bold. Each face is painted in a 
different manner, and strongly resembles the modes by which the 
Hindus designate their different castes. One of the faces is slightly 
covered all over with red ochre, having deep blotches of the same 
paint on the central part of each cheek. The second face has a 
broad streak of brown ochre across the forehead, and another 
running parallel with the same, enveloping the eyes, and extending 
as far as the ears. The third face has a streak of yellow ochre, 
which surrounds and extends across the eyes, running from the 
center at right angles, down the nose to the upper lip; whilst 
another broad streak passes from each ear, along the lower jaw and 


Fig.12.1. These are the purported remains of radioactive skeletons of Mohenjo- 
daro, Pakistan, dating to around 2000 to 2500 BCE. 


In White County, Tennessee, face jugs were discovered that “display a 
striking resemblance of the Asiatic countenance.” Haywood noted face 
painting and lines on the cheeks and forehead that bear a striking 
similarity to caste marks used by the Hindu religion to mark social 
standing and religious status. It is interesting that face jugs of extreme 
antiquity were discovered in this area, as it is common to this day in 
this part of the South to throw face jugs that can still be bought in this 
area’s pottery shops. 

Upon this image the following remarks suggest themselves: The 
Hindus have various marks, by which they paint their faces to 
designate the different casts and to distinguish amongst the same 
castes those who are the peculiar votaries of certain gods. Mr. 
Dubois says they use only three colors, red, black, and yellow. 

“Probably the face, which now seems to be covered with brown 
ochre, was originally black,” says Mr. Clifford. “If it was a 
metallic paint, as the other colors certainly are, the black, having 
an admixture of iron, would certainly change from the lapse of 
time, and become what to all appearance it now is: a dark brown 
ochre. The other two colors, being native minerals usually found in 


the earth, are not subject to change. If so, these colors were 
originally the same as those used in Hindustan.” Mr. Dubois 
mentions that the Hindus draw three or four horizontal lines 
between the eyebrows, whilst others describe a perpendicular line 
from the top of the forehead to the root of the nose. Some northern 
Brahmans apply the marks to either jaw, meaning probably the 
same sort of line above described in the face painted with yellow 
ochre, as extending from the ears, along the lower jaw, to the chin. 
He says further, that the Brahmans draw a horizontal line around 
the forehead to denote that they have bathed and are pure. The 
vessel described, Mr. Clifford thought, was intended for sacred 
uses. It being found within one of the circumvallatory temples is 
evidence in favor of this supposition. It would certainly not have 
been a convenient vessel for any domestic purpose. The angular 
position of the heads; with respect to the neck of the flagon, must 
have prevented its being emptied of any liquid, by other means 
than a complete inversion. 

The contents of two of the heads might be discharged by an 
inclined position with some difficulty and much gargling. But to 
empty the other, the neck must become vertical. The ancients were 
unacquainted with goblets, pitchers, and decanters, as intermediate 
vessels. They used large jars or vases to hold their liquors for safe 
keeping or carriage, and poured the contents into bowls or horns, 
from which they drank. 

Our aborigines were hardly more refined. And whilst the small 
size of the flagon precludes the idea of its being a vessel for 
deposits of liquids, its shape plainly indicates that it could not have 
been used for a drinking vessel. As the ancients always completely 
inverted the vessel from which they poured their libations, it is 
reasonable to suppose that this flagon was intended for the same 
purpose; and that the three heads, with the different marks of castes 
might designate the various orders of men for which such libations 
were made. 

If so, the evidence is most directly connected to the identity of 
religion professed by the Hindus and the aborigines of Tennessee. 
No fabulous circumstance or train of thought, could have 
occasioned such striking similarity in the paints and modes of 


applying them, in order to distinguish the different orders of men 
in their respective nations. If, however, the flagon is not a vessel of 
libation, the fact of its having three heads, possessing Asiatic 
features, and painted as before stated, is certainly a strong evidence 
of Asiatic origination. Brahma, one of the three principal gods of 
the Hindus, was represented with a triple head. From the remotest 
antiquity it is proved from his colossal statue in the cave of 
Elephanta. Numerous Hindu idols on the island of Java have three 
heads. This character in the image of their gods was very common 
as is proved by a number of them delineated by Mr. Raffle, in the 
second volume of his history. 

Hebrew Cherubim with Three Faces, 

Also Baal Shalisha Has Three Faces 

Some of the Hebrew cherubim are represented with three faces. 
Baal Shalisha, or the god of triplicity—or the deity whose image is 
divided into three distinctions, yet remaining combined in one 
whole—was a common emblem, and still maintains itself in India. 


Engraved on one of the medallions found in association with a mound- 
builder burial in North Carolina is an image of a triple-headed goddess 
holding a round globe of the world in one of her hands. In the following 
extract, John Haywood posits this as proof of contact with Asia, as well 
as proof that these ancient explorers had knowledge that the earth was 

In the same temple of Elephanta before mentioned is another 
triple-formed divinity, with three faces, and three arms; in one 
hand holding a globe; a proof that the ancients of India, as well as 
the Indians of Carolina, knew that the world was round. 

On a medal of Syracuse, is a figure with three heads, extremely 
like the symbols adopted by the Hindus, and resembling much the 
Indian figures. The famous Siberian medal hath three heads, and 
three pair of arms. The resemblance of the heads, to the deities of 
India, leaves no doubt of the origin of the emblem. It is seated on a 
tower. The heads hold various symbolic articles, among which the 
ring is clearly distinguishable. 


The Hindus celebrate the first day of the year for three days. At 
the winter solstice they keep a festival for three days. Three 
prostrations are made in presence of distinguished persons. When a 
child is named by the Brahmans, and the mantras or prayers are 
made, the father calls him three times by the name he has received. 
The Brahmans wear a cord over the shoulders, of three thick twists 
of cotton, called the triple cord. The threads are not twisted 
together, but are separate from one another. On the third day of the 
ceremonies for investing with the triple cord, the young Brahman, 
his father and mother seat themselves upon three little stools. 

When carrying a body to the funeral pile, they stop with it three 
times on the way. The chief of the funeral goes three times around 
the funeral pile; and when the body is consumed, the four attending 
Brahmans go around it three times. When a minyam is made, he 
takes with him three articles; a cane of a bamboo with seven knots, 
a gourd filled with water, and an antelope’s skin. He drinks of the 
water in the pitcher. The sacredness of this number was recognized 
in Chaldea, for the Hebrew children were to be instructed three 
years. Daniel kneeled upon his knees three times a day. Amongst 
the Hebrews themselves, it was received, and had as firmly grown 
into a custom with them, as it was established in India. 

The Cross and Its Ancient Association with the Cosmic Bird of 

It is not recollected that the cross has been found in Tennessee 
except upon the small vessels buried with the pigmy skeletons in 
White county. The ring or cross in ancient Persian medals was 
represented as sacred symbols, and had a commemorative 
intention. In one place the circle is surrounded by 19 points 
resembling jewels, and it unites in a cross. There are creatures cut 
on rocks at Persepolis, of Baal and Moloch, on horseback. Moloch 
has a club in his left hand, holding a large ring in his right hand. 
The ring, in this instance, is the symbol of unity. Amorsea, Baal, 
and Moloch, reconciled, united. The family of Isaiah was early 
divided into two parties; one called of the sun, the other of the 
moon. They boasted of their divinity each to the other; and to 
prove their superiority, each fought the other’s divinity. This 
shows their reconciliation. These are the most ancient idols. 


A medal of Demetrius the second, dated in the 168th year of the 
Leleucida, has on it the representation of a goddess, a Tyrian and 
Sidonian Venus, standing giving directions. Her right hand and 
arm extended; in her left, she holds a cross with a long stem to it. 
These without any further multiplication of instances prove 
sufficiently that in ancient time in Asia Minor, Persia, and India, 
the ring was symbolic of union, and the cross a sacred symbol. 



Now that you have reviewed the evidence for a former race of giants in 
North America, I invite you to consider both their legends and their 
reality. There are legends of giants in many cultures, such as the Titans 
of Greece or Goliath in the Bible. In fact, the Bible has several 
references to giants, known as the Rephaim, Anakim, Zuzim, 
Sepherim, and Nephilim, as in the following quote from Numbers 
13:32-33: “The land, through which we have gone to search it, is a land 
that eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and all the people that we saw in 
it are men of a great stature. And there we saw the giants, the sons of 
Anak, which come of the giants: and we were in our own sight as 
grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.” 

Could it truly be that all these cultural legends are mere legends— 
with no basis in fact? Are these legends just the result of a human need 
to create something “larger than ourselves”? I think not. In these pages 
and pages of documentation we have now seen the American giants’ 
widespread presence, their sophisticated cultures, their royal status, 
their Caucasian genetic links, and signs of cultural links to other areas 
of the globe long before Columbus. 

The fact that almost no one is aware of these giants today is a telling 
comment on the role played by the Smithsonian Institution and other 
institutions of higher learning, on which we rely to explore, preserve, 
and offer insights into our heritage, perhaps most especially those 
aspects that hint at broader horizons. What do the roles these 
institutions have played in this matter teach us about the role of bias in 
all studies of a supposedly academic or scientific nature? What would 
be the reason for not keeping this information in the public eye? 

And what have we lost by losing our collective memory of these 
early, extraordinary inhabitants of America? What insights into not 
only American but also global prehistory might their existence offer 

It is natural to want to point fingers in a situation like this, but the 
reality is that no one who is presently at the Smithsonian probably has 


the faintest idea about the history of the giants presented here. In fact, if 
their academic indoctrination has been rigorous enough, they will 
probably still remain unmoved by the overwhelming evidence 
presented in this book. 

This should come as no surprise to those who are aware of the 1,200- 
ton stones in Baalbek, the advanced mathematics and engineering of 
the Great Pyramids, or the stories of Atlantis, as related by Plato. We 
live in an age where we are hypnotized by our own ignorance, acting as 
if atomic energy and digital electronics are the heights of human 
achievement, patting ourselves on the back that we are the best and the 
brightest. One might call it hubris; wiser minds would call it cultural 
myopia and adolescent grandstanding. 

The stories of myth and antiquity are real. There were other ages as 
great as, or greater than, our own, and whatever we have accomplished 
was built on the shoulders of giants. 


Fig. C.l. “There were giants upon the earth in those days”—Genesis 6:4. The 
skeletons of Charles Byrne (1761-1783), “The Irish Giant,” and Caroline 
Crachami (ca. 1815-1824), “The Sicillian Dwarf,” from The Strand Magazine, 

published in 1896. 



*1 Powell then goes on to definitively state that there are no foreign 
influences to be seen or studied in relation to the pueblo- and mound¬ 
building cultures of the Americas that are believed to precede the 
American Indians. In relation to his dismissive comments regarding 
any connections to the “lost tribes” from the Old World, it is 
interesting to note that Powell was the son of a preacher in Palmyra, 
New York, who lost his flock to Mormon missionaries. 

*2 See The Discoveries of Aaron Wright . 

*3 The negative of the sketch of the Inscribed Head was somehow 
flipped over in producing Alrutz so that it appears there in mirror 
image. The profile should face left, not right. With this correction the 
Hebrew letters have their proper orientation and may be read right to 



Adovasio, James M. The First Americans: In Pursuit of Archaeology’s 
Greatest Mystery. New York: Random House, 2002. 

Davis, Edwin, and Ephraim Squier. Ancient Monuments of the 
Mississippi Valley: Comprising the Results of Extensive Original 
Surveys and Explorations. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
Institution, 1848. 

Drier, Roy Ward, and Octave Joseph DuTemple. Prehistoric Copper 
Mining in the Lake Superior Region. Published privately by the 
authors, 1961. 

Fell, Barry, America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World. New 
York: Pocket Books, 1989. 

Haywood, John. The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee: Up 
to the First Settlements Therein by the White People, in the Year 
1768. Nashville, Tenn.: George Wilson, 1823. 

Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus. An Account of the History, 
Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations Who Once Inhabited 
Pennsylvania and the Neighboring States 1819. New York: Arno 
Press, 1971, copyright 1876. 

Hopkins, Sarah Winnemucca. Life among the Paiutes: Their Wrongs 
and Claims. Boston: Cupples, Upham, and Co.; New York: G. P. 
Putnam’s Sons, 1883. 

Howe, Henry. Historical Collection of Ohio. Cincinnati, Ohio: E. 
Morgan and Co., 1847. 

Howley, J. P. The Beothucks or Red Indians. Cambridge: Cambridge 
University Press, 1915. 

Kohl, Johann Georg. Reisen im Nordwesten der Vereinigten Staaten 
[Travels in Northwestern Parts of the United States]. New York: D. 
Appleton & Co., 1857. 

Lee, Bourke. Death Valley Men. New York: Macmillan Co., 1932. 


McKusick, Marshall. The Davenport Conspiracy. Iowa City: 
University of Iowa Press, 1970. 

Moore, Clarence B. Some Aboriginal Sites on Red River. Philadelphia, 
Pa.: P. C. Stockhausen, 1912. 

Ronda, James P. Lewis and Clark among the Indians. Lincoln: 
University of Nebraska Press, 2002. 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, Narrative Journal of Travels through the 
Northwestern Regions of the United States. Albany, N.Y.: E. & E. 
Hosford, 1821. 

Scott, Joseph. Geographical Description of Pennsylvania. 
Philadelphia, Pa.: Robert Cochran, 1806. 


About the Author 

Richard J. Dewhurst is the Emmy Award-winning writer of the HBO 
feature documentary Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam. A 
graduate of NYU with degrees in journalism, film, and television, he 
has written and edited for the History Channel, the Arts & 
Entertainment Channel, PBS, Fox Television and Fox Films, ABC 
News, TNT, Paramount Pictures, and the Miami Herald. He lives in 


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Lost Race of the Giants 

The Mystery of Their Culture, Influence, and Decline throughout the 


by Patrick Chouinard 

The Suppressed History of America 

The Murder of Meriwether Lewis and the Mysterious Discoveries of 

the Lewis and Clark Expedition 
by Paul Schrag and Xaviant Haze 

Advanced Civilizations of Prehistoric America 

The Lost Kingdoms of the Adena, Hopewell, Mississippians, and 


by Frank Joseph 

The Lost History of the Little People 

Their Spiritually Advanced Civilizations around the World 
by Susan B. Martinez, Ph.D. 

The Mysterious Origins of Hybrid Man 

Crossbreeding and the Unexpected Family Tree of Humanity 
by Susan B. Martinez, Ph.D. 

Forgotten Civilization 

The Role of Solar Outbursts in Our Past and Future 
by Robert M. Schoch, Ph.D. 

Mysteries of the Ancient Past 

A Graham Hancock Reader 
Edited by Glenn Kreisberg 

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

Dewhurst, Richard J. 

The ancient giants who ruled America : the missing skeletons and the 
great Smithsonian cover-up / Richard J Dewhurst. 
p. cm. 

“A study of the substantial evidence for a former race of giants in 
North America and its 150-year suppression by the Smithsonian 
Institute” —Provided by publisher. 

Includes bibliographical references and index, 
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ebook ISBN: 978-1-59143-752-9 

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All page numbers refer to the print edition of this title. 
Page numbers in italics refer to figures. 

1880 History of Indiana County, 229-30 

Abbott, Lyle, 306-8 
aborigines, 10 

Adovasio, James M., 83, 86-87 
Alabama, 101 
Aldrich, Charles, 66 
Alexander, Nancy, 231 
alligator effigy mound, 85-86, 85 
Alligewi people, 49-51, 50 
altars, 161-62 
Altmann, William, 41-43 
Alton Evening Telegraph, 150-51 
Alton Giant, 14 
Altoona Mirror, 101 
America B.C., 258-59 
Anasazi, 47, 205 

Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, 3, 7, 7, 26, 115 

Ancient Works at Newark map, 252 

Anderson, Duane, 261 

Anderson, James, 141 

Annapolis Capital, 84 

annealing, 204 

Antoninus, 271-72 

Appleton, Wisconsin, 147 

Appleton Post-Crescent, 218, 308 

Arizona Journal-Minor, 40 

Arkansas Times, 188-89 


arrows, 164 
Art Daily, 311-14 

Ashtabula County, Ohio, 23-28, 27, 57 

Associated Press, 83, 101, 112-13, 182, 209, 231 

Atwater, Caleb, 25 

Australians, 10 

axes, 163-64, 165, 171, 212 

Aynesworth, K. D., 68 

Bache, Rene, 144 
Bakersfield Californian, 72 
Baldwin, Donald, 100 
Baltimore American, 17-18 
battle evidence, 57 
Bauval, Robert, 327-28 
Beaufort’s Landing, 190, 240 
Beetown, Rollo Jamison, 213 
Bellinger, James, 260-61 
Bemidji Daily Pioneer, 205 
Big Harpeth River, 183-84 
birds, 8 

Blackett, Bar am, 263 

Bliss, Wesley, 228 

bog mummies, 291-99, 291, 294-95 

bones. See also specific accounts 

bones, historical accounts of, 15-43 

Booda, Joseph, 67 

Boraggina, John, 312, 315 

Bork, Ken, 247 

Borland, Hal, 102, 103-4 

Brackenridge, Henri Marie, 137-38 

brain surgery, 245 

Breznikan, Anthony, 83 

bricks, 164-65 

Brittonn, Kenneth H., 105 

Brown, Charles E., 209 

Brown, M. J., 196, 198-200 

Bryan, Andrew, 32 


Buffalo Museum of Science, 15-16 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 5, 182 
Bureau of Land Management, 277 
Burks, Ned, 90-93 
Butler County farm, 183 

Cadoo, 187-89 

Cahokia site, 136-38, 137, 140-49, 151 

California, 41-44, 42, 44, 72 

Campbell, Kenneth, 90 

Cantley, Patricia, 124-25 

carbon dating. See dating 

cardinal points, 326-27 

Carlic, Steve, 78-79 

Carpenter, Edmund, 228 

Cartwright, Joseph, 261 

Casper, James O., 105 

Catalina Island, 3, 302-15, 304-7, 309 

catastrophism, 8-9 

Catlin, George, 300, 301 

caves, 31-33, 34-36, 329-30 

Cayuga Township, 71, 227 

cement, 199 

Cemetary of the Giants, 71 
Centralia Ohio Enterprise, 109 
Centurburg, Ohio, 21 
Charleroi Mail, 19, 53-54 
Charleston, West Virginia, 112-22 
Charleston Daily Mail, 19, 114-24, 

128, 130, 131-32, 222-23 
Cheat River site, 179-82 
Cherokees, 232 

Chicago Tribune, 59-60, 94-98, 
141-42, 256 

Chickasawba, 189-90, 239-40 
child-boarding skulls, 318 
Chippewa Indians, 162 
Cincinnati Commercial Gazette, 


22-23, 58 

Cincinnati Enquirer, 242-46 
Cincinnati Society of Natural History, 

Cincinnati Tablet, 244-45, 244 
cities, 168 

Cadoo mounds, 187-89 
circular villages, 174-77 
cliff dwellers, 196-200 
estimates in Ohio, 171-73 
Grand River Dam area, 192-96, 

lost city in Ontario, 170-71 
Poverty Point earthworks, 168-70 ,169 
Wheatfield Mound, 173-74 ,174 
Civil War, 4 
Claudius II, 273 
Clay County, Missouri, 37 
cliff dwellers, 196-200 
climate change, 104 
Clovis spear points, 80, 81, 86, 92 
Cockrell, Wilburn, 298-99 
coins, 264-74, 272 
Colton, Ray, 76-77, 192-96, 237-38 
commerce by sea, 266-67 
Conneaut, Giants of, 23-28, 27 
Connor, Charles, 122-24 
Cooper, John, 209 
Cooper stone, 251 
copper, 2-3, 170 

culture in the Great Lakes, 205-9 
headdress find, 212-15 
Isle Royale, 201-3, 202 
Leonard’s Point, 209-12, 211 
site on Menominee River, 216-18 
copper armor, 36, 57-58, 145 
copper jewelry, 116, 123, 126 


Crawford County, 178 
Crecelius, Craig, 263 
Cretan Empire, 9 
crosses, 342 
Cygnus, 342 

Daily Globe, 205-9 

Daily News-Record, 192-96, 237-38 

Daily Northwestern, 54 

Daily Telegraph, 170-71 

dams, 167, 190, 213 

dating, 1-2 

Gypsum Cave, 103-4 
Meadowcroft Rockshelter, 86-89 
Mugu Point site, 104-5 
New Mexico site, 102 
Pee Dees, 80-82 
thunderbird images, 89-94 
Wisconsin sites, 98-100 
Davenport, Jonas, 175 
Davenport Stele, 255-61 
Davis, Edwin H., 3, 26 
Davis, H. E., 197 
Deal, David, 249 
Death Valley, 69-72 
Death Valley Men, 70-71 
Decalogue stone, 254 
Delaware County, 221 
Delawares, 175-76 
Delaware Valley, 79-80 
Deloria, Vine, 71, 72 
De Marsche, Michael, 313-14 
Deneyer, L. P., 64 
Denmore War of 1774, 180-81 
Des Moines Register, 257-61 
Detroit Free Press, 71, 262 
Devil’s Lake, 155 
Dickson, Don, 61-63, 62 


Dickson Mounds Museum, 61-63, 62 

dinosaurs, 8, 29 

Dog Creek, 185-86 

Doran, Glen, 292 

Doty Island, 155 

double dentitions, 37, 66 

Dragoo, Don W., 83 

Drier, Roy Ward, 202, 206 

duck decoys, 282, 286, 288 

Dukes, Charley, 35 

Durrett, Bob, 80-82 

DuTemple, Octave Joseph, 202 

Eagleonkie, 58 

Eagle River, 203-4 

Eau Claire Daily Free Press, 154-55 

Eckerd, Jack, 291-92 

Edwardsville Intelligencer, 148 

effigy mounds, 149-67 

elephant pipe, 94-98, 97 

Elisburg Journal, 146 

elk antler axes, 212 

elongated skulls, 129-31 ,129 

El Paso Herald, 197 

embalming, 167 

embossing, 204 

engineering, 330-31 

engraved tablets, 2-3 

Eshel, Hanan, 255 

Evans, John, 299 

Evening Telegraph, 189-92 

evolution, 8 

Fafner, 52 

Fasolt, 52 

Fell, Barry, 256-58 

Fenton, William N., 228-29 

First Americans, The, 87 


Fisher, George S., 54 
flint, 115 

Florence Morning News, 80-82 
Florida bog mummies, 3, 291-99, 

forest clearing, 177-82 
Fort Hill, 26, 27 
four sentinels, 117 
Foust, Penny, 210 
foxes, 163 
Francis, John, 297 
Frederick News Post, 144 

Galveston Daily News, 102, 103-4, 

Gardner, William, 91-93 
Georgia, 28-31, 106-7 
Gerson, Charles, 150 

context of, 14-15 ,15 

historical accounts of bones, 15-43 

as royalty, 2 

See also specific topics 

Gibson, John, 49 

Glidden, Ralph, 302, 303, 306, 308, 
310-11, 312-13 
globe, round, 341 gold, 171 
Gramly, Michael, 78-79 
Grand River Dam, 190, 195 
Grave Creek Mound, 114, 124-28, 
grave goods, 221 
Great Lakes, 203-9 
Great Mortuary, 192 
Griffin, James B., 206 
Gunnerson, James H., 69 
Gypsum Cave, 103-4 


Halton, William L., 223 
Hammond Times, 56-57 
Haplogroup X, 293, 296 
Harrington, Mark, 103-4 
Harrington, M. R., 286 
Hawk Eye, 59 
Hawkins, David, 247 
Haywood, John, 31-33, 184-85, 

232-37, 264-72, 316-42 
Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 
48-49, 51, 53, 229-30 
Henry, Alexander, 207 
hieroglyphics, 70, 126, 242-47, 244, 

Hinduism, 338-40, 341 

Hinkson, Robert, 176 

Historical Collections of Ohio, 25-26 

Historical Record, 151 

History of Miami County, Ohio, 1880, 75 

Holder, Preston, 28, 29, 30 

Holland, William Jacob, 88 

Holslander, Adam, 16 

holy stones, 246-47 

Honeywell Mounds, 148 

Hopewell Period, 77 

Hopkins, Sarah Winnemucca, 290 

horned skulls, 131-33, 132, 133 

Houck, John M., 231 

House, Charles, 218 

Howe, Henry, 25-26 

Hrdlicka, Ales, 9, 30, 39-40 

Hruska, Robert J., 216, 218 

Hubbard, Samuel, 103 

human sacrifice, 328-29 

hunting horns, 319-20 

Hurlbut, Irving, 261 

Huston, Wyman, 256 


Illiniwek Indians, 138 
Illinois, 59-63, 256 
Indiana, 57-58 
Indiana County, 131 
Indiana Evening Gazette, 83 
instruments, 319 
Iowa, 76-79, 259 
Iowa City Press Citizen, 182 
Iroquois, 48-49, 51-54 
Isle Royale, 2, 201-3, 202 
ivory beads, 126, 333-35 

Jack and the Beanstalk, 12 
Janesville Gazette, 145 
Jantz, Richard L., 278 
jasper, 92-93 

Jennings County, Indiana, 36 
Johnson, David M., 251 
Johnson-Bradner stone, 251 
Jones, Carl T., 223, 224 
Jones, Samuel, 299 
Jones, Walter B., 223 
Jones, W. D., 231 
Journal Tribune, 66 

Kentucky, 71, 262 
Kern County, California, 72 
Kewanna Herald, 35-36 
Keystone, 249-50, 249, 254 
Kilgour, Dave, 55 
Kincaid Site, 8 
King, Nehemiah, 26 
Kizzia, Glen L., 188 
Knapp, Stephen A., 273 
Knauth, Otto, 257-61 
Koehler farm site, 182 
Kohl, Johann Georg, 206-7 
Krebs, C. E., 116 


La Crosse Tribune, 64-65 

Lahonton, Lake, 279-80 

Lake County, Illinois, 60 

land bridge theory, 9 

Lappawinsa, 47 

Lee, Bourke, 70-71 

Lehman, Mark, 273 

Lemmor, Victor F., 204-6 

Lenni Lenape Indians, 46-51, 47-48, 

50, 278-79 
Leon, Joseph, 65 
Leon, Matt, 65 

Leonard’s Point, 209-12, 211 
Lepper, Bradley, 254 
LeTort, James, 175 

Lewis and Clark among the Indians, 300-301 
Library of Congress, 4 
Life Among the Paiutes, 290 
limestone slabs, 163-64 
“Limitations to the Use of Some 
Anthropologic Data, On,” 5-6 
Lively, E. L., 130-31 
Logan Grays, 58 

Los Angeles Herald Examiner, 73-74 

Los Angeles Times, 315 

Loud, L. L., 286 

Lovelock Cave, 280-90 

Lovitt, Daniel, 256 

Lundsted, James E., 209-11 

mammoths, 81, 161 
Mandans, 3, 275, 299-301 
manifest destiny, 5, 10-11 
marbles, 111-12 
Martin, Paul, 102 
Marx, Peter, 40 
Maryland, 84 

mastodon pipes, 97-98, 97 


mastodons, 2, 81, 212-13 

mathematics. 111 

Maxwell, Hugh, 179-82 

McCormick, Troy, 273 

McCullough, John, 229-30 

McDowell, George S., 242-46 

McGlaughlin, James, 55-56 

McKern, W. C., 209 

McKusick, Marshall, 257, 259-60 

McNett, Charles W., Jr., 79-80 

Meadowcroft Rockshelter, 86-89, 87, 89 

measurements, 337 

Measuring Stone, 245 

Memphis Daily Appeal, 239-40 

Mengwe. See Iroquois 

Meritaten, 129 

mica mines, 2, 219-21 

Michigan, 207, 219, 262 

Middle Woodland, 85 

Milanich, Jerald T., 292 

Miller, Carl F., 101 

Miller, Samuel, 60 

Mills, William C., Ill 

Milton, Charles, 37 

Minnesota, 161, 167, 205, 207 

Minnesota Evening Tribune, 68 

Mississippi Valley, 130-31 

Missouri, 37 

Mong, Stuart H., 210 

Monks Mound, 138-39, 139, 142, 148 

Monroe County Mail, 38 

Montgomery, Thomas, 25 

Morehead, Warren K., 146, 147 

Morning Herald, 18 

Morning Sun News Herald, 77-78 

Morris, Mount, 16 

Morse, N. C., 66-67 


Mound 23, 119 
Mound 32, 120 
Mound 72, 139 

Mound Builders, 53-54, 60, 71-72, 

76-77, 94-98, 108, 131-32 

Cahokia site, 136-38, 137, 140-49, 151 

eastern routes of, 227 

effigy mounds, 149-67 

Monks Mound, 138-39, 139, 142, 148 

Mound 72, 139 

Woodhenge, 142 

See also Haywood, John; specific sites 
Moundsville giants, 124-29, 126,127 
Moundville mounds, 223-26 
Mugu Point, 104-5 
mummies, 3, 289 

bog mummies, 291-99, 291, 294-95 
in Lovelock, Nevada, 279-85, 281- 
85, 287, 289 
of Spirit Cave, 275-79 
Munson, Cecil L., 158, 161 
Murphy, James L., 247 

Nash, Philleo, 158-59 
Natchez Indians, 140 
National Basketball Association, 14 
National Sunday News, 187 
Native American Graves Protection 
and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 

61, 63, 277-78, 296, 313 
Natural and Aboriginal History of 
Tennessee, The, 31, 232-37 
Nesbit, Paul, 102 
Nettleton, Harvey, 24 
Nevada, 103-4, 279-80 
Nevada News, 69-72 
Newark mounds, 251-54, 252-53 
New Hampshire, 17 


Newhouse, John, 98-100 
New North Wisconsin, 153-54 
newspaper accounts. See specific 

New York Times, 21, 200 

New York Tribune, 84-85, 171-73 

Nodena Site, 9 

Norris, P. W., 113-14, 123 

North Carolina, 219-21, 230-31, 341 

North Dakota, 68 

Oakland Tribune, 41, 43, 58, 67, 108, 
109, 111, 148-49, 153, 197-98, 

Oconto, 98-100, 99, 210 
Oerson, Charles, 150 
Ohio, 21, 124-29, 246-47 
engraved marbles, 112-13 
estimate of mounds, 171-73 
pearls of royal giants, 107-9 
Roman coin find, 272-74, 272 
Ohio Daily Gazette, 56 
Ohio Democrat, 20-21 
Ohio Morning Sun News Herald, 21 
Ohio River, 54-56 
Ohio Science Annual, 19-20 
Oklahoma, 237-38 
Okowala, 175 

Old Copper Culture, 100, 210, 213, 
216, 218. See also copper 
Old People, 47, 205 
Ontario, 170-71 
Osceola site, 213 
Oshkosh Daily, 219 
Oshkosh Wisconsin Daily, 209-17 
otters, 176 

Owsley, Douglas W., 277-78 


Paine, Myron, 254 
panthers, 22-23, 161-62 
Parsons, James, 179-80, 181 
Paul, Helen Longyear, 207 
Payne, John, 54-56 
pearls, 107-9 
Pee Dee Basin, 80-82, 82 
Pennsylvania, 177-78 
Perry, John P., 231 
Petersburg, Kentucky, 54 
Philadelphia Inquirer, 88 
Phoenix Hilltop, 15-16 
pictographs, 10-11, 103 
Pigeon Creek Valley, Pennsylvania, 53-54 
plantation cellar, 33-34 
Pleiades, 327-28 
Pocono Record Reporter, 79-80 
Polynesians, 10 
pools, sacred, 31 
Porter, J. H., 178 
Portsmouth Herald, 17 
pottery, 81-82, 159-60 
Poverty Point earthworks, 168-70 ,169 
Powell, Barbara, 288 
Powell, John Wesley, 5-6, 8, 10-11 
“Powell Doctrine,” 12 
Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake 
Superior Region, 202 
Press Courier, 104-5 
Price, Jim, 183 
Pulaski, Kentucky, 34-36 
Quimby, George I., 205-6 

racism, 10-11 
Raettig, Terry, 210 
Raleigh Herald, 179 
Raleigh Register, 124-25, 152 
Rattman, Joe, 79-80 


red bricks, 164-65 

red haired mummies. See mummies 

refuse, 225 

Review-Miner, 68 

Richard III, King, 264-65 

Ritzenthaler, Robert, 213 

Rockingham, Virginia, 17 

Roman coins, 2, 232, 265-74 

Ronda, James P., 300-301 

Ronde, Sieur de la, 207 

Ross Lake site, 157-60 

Royal, Bill, 295, 298 

royal burials, 106-7, 108-11 ,110 

Ruppe, R. J., 77 

Russell, F. Bruce, 69-72 

Russell Cave, 101 

sacred pools, 31 

Sahagun, Louis, 315 

Salt Lake Tribune, 29-31 

San Antonio Express, 38-39, 39, 128 

Sanford, A. H., 64 

San Nicolas Island, 104-5 

Santa Rosa Island, 42 

Sayre, Pennsylvania, 19, 131-32 

Schumacher copper collection, 208-9 

Schweitzer, Jerome, 223-26 

Scoville, W. H., 146 

Scythians, 316-26 

sea commerce, 266-67 

secret caves, 31 

Serpent Mound, 7, 7, 151-52 

Setzler, F. M., 30 

Shanks, Hershel, 254 

Sheboygan Press, 155 

sheet copper, 208 

shell apron, 30 

Sheppard, William, 33, 34 


Shetrone, H. S., 111-12 
silver, 171 
Sines, A. R., 122 
Sioux Indians, 156 

Si-Te-Cah, 280-90, 281-85, 287, 289 

skulls, 129-33, 129,132,133 

Smith, J. G., 104-5 

Smith, Ray, 150 

Smith, Robert R., 20 

Smith’s Fork Cave, 329-30 

Smithson, Jean, 4 

Smithsonian Institution, 10-12 

cliff dweller report, 198-200 

copper mining in the Great Lakes, 203-4 

cover-ups of, 3-5 

Death Valley and, 69-72 

disappearance of giant skeletons and, 63-66 

Georgia giant search and, 106-7 

Hopewell burial mounds and, 83 

Illinois tablet find and, 256 

Kern County and, 72-73 

rancher refuses to sell to, 39-40 

Russell Cave and, 101 

South Charleston Mound and, 


Sugar Run and, 228-29 
Yadkin Valley and, 230-31 
Solutrean projectile points, 86 
Soto, Hernando de, 187-89 
South Charleston Mound, 114-15 
Sparta, Kentucky, 32 
spear points, 80 
Spirit Cave, 3, 275-79, 288 
Spiro Mound, 187 ,193 
Squier, Ephraim G., 3, 26 
Squirrel Hill, 176 
squirrels, 163 


Standard Examiner, 69 

standing stones, 331-32 

Star Staff, 90-93 

Stephenson, Clarence, 19 

Stevens Point Daily Journal, 28 

Stoddard Collection, 63-66 

stone bowl, 254-55, 254 

stone tablets, 256-61 

stone walls, 128 

sugar-loaf mounds, 163 

Sugar Run, 228 

Sulphur Springs, 322-24 

sun calendars, 140 

Sutton, Ernest, 125 

Swanson, Jim, 291-92 

Syracuse Daily Standard, 167 

Syracuse Herald American, 15, 78-79 

tablets, hieroglyphic, 242-47, 244, 

Taylor, Erv, 277 
Teedyuscung, 50 
teeth, 160, 170-71 
temples, 128 

Ten Commandments, 247-48 
Tennessee, 184-85, 232-37, 316-26. 

See also Haywood, John 
Tennessee giants, 31-32 
Texas, 38-39, 39, 67-68 
Thomas, Cyrus, 113-14 
Thompson, David, 301 
Thompson, William, 20 
thunderbird images, 89-94, 90, 93, 

Tippecanoe City, Ohio, 21 
Titus, W. A., 155 
Tomlinson, A. B., 125 
Tomlinson, Joseph, 124 


Toomer, J. B., 107 

Totten, Norman, 273-74 

trade, 215-16 

treasures, 222-39 

trees, 174-77 

Trimm, James, 249 

trumpets, 320-21 

Tull, J. T., 286 

Tyrone Daily Herald, 306-8 

UNESCO, 169 
uniform gradual history, 8 

Verrey, Bob, 91-92 
villages, 174-77 

Wadlow, Robert Pershing, 14 ,15 
Wagner, Richard, 52 
Walcott, Charles Doolittle, 11-12 
walls, 164 

Warm Springs sinkhole, 297-98 
watchtowers, 172-73 

water tanks, 330-31 
Wells, John H., 17 
Welsh script, 263 
West, Benjamin, 48 
West, E. P., 37 
West Virginia, 112-22 
Wheatfield Mound, 173-74 ,174 
Wheeler, Georgia, 276-77 
Wheeler, Sydney, 276-77 
White, A., 64 
Whitfield, Jon, 263 
Whittlesey, Charles, 203-4 
Williams, Kitty, 189-90 
Williams, Oliver, 268 
Williamson, J. L., 130-31 


Wilson, Alan, 263 
Wilson Mound stones, 250-51 
Windover Pond excavation, 292-97 
Winona County, Minnesota, 65-66 
Wisconsin, 63-66, 98-100, 143, 
153-54, 155, 156-60, 161-62, 
166, 207-8 

Wisconsin State Journal, 98-100 
Wisconsin Tribune, 158, 161 
Wittry, Warren, 98, 100 
Woodhenge, 140, 142 
Wright, Aaron, 23-25 
Wrigley, Philip K., 305, 313 
Wrigley, William, Jr., 307 
Wyrick, David, 247, 249, 254 

Yadkin Valley, 230-31 
Yinger, Nicholas, 18 


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